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Special Issue "Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Grosso

1. Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania,Via S. Sofia, Catania 95100, Italy
2. NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St John's Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: public health nutrition; evidence synthesis; nutritional epidemiology; dietary antioxidants; chronic disease prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few years, polyphenol has received a great deal of attention due to their potential beneficial effects on human health. Widely contained in foods commonly consumed in all populations worldwide, polyphenols represent an attractive explanation of the beneficial effects, not only of fruits and vegetables, characteristic components of healthy dietary patterns, but also of other plant-derived foods, such as tea, coffee, and cocoa, which (in part) only recently have been exploited as being beneficial for humans. In addition to the numerous biological properties, polyphenols have been indicated as being responsible for a decreased risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. Research is ongoing and further evidence is needed to better characterize dietary factors that may exert prevention of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerning polyphenol-rich foods and the following topics:

  • observational studies on established nutritional cohorts (preferred), case-control studies, or population sample on the association with chronic diseases;
  • level of evidence on the association with human health, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses;
  • description and characterization of main polyphenol components;
  • description of mechanism of action, pathways, and targets at molecular level, including the interaction with gut microbiota.

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polyphenols,
  • polyphenol-rich foods,
  • antioxidants,
  • inflammation,
  • flavonoids,
  • phenolic acids,
  • lignans,
  • stilbenes,
  • phytoestrogens

Published Papers (65 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081089
Received: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent evidence has suggested that polyphenol-rich foods intake may be associated with decreased risk of chronic diseases. The Special Issue “Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health” comprised 64 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the dietary intake of polyphenols and [...] Read more.
Recent evidence has suggested that polyphenol-rich foods intake may be associated with decreased risk of chronic diseases. The Special Issue “Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health” comprised 64 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the dietary intake of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods, as well as their effect toward the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. Original contributions and literature reviews demonstrated the potential protective effects of polyphenol-rich foods and their extracts toward cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases, mostly through anti-oxidant and chemo-preventive properties. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Resveratrol in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030329
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy (MHE) is characterized by an impairment of social interaction, emotional behavior, sleep disorders, physical and mental symptoms, and diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The aim of our study is evaluating the potential liver health promoting a perspective of Resveratrol [...] Read more.
Background: Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy (MHE) is characterized by an impairment of social interaction, emotional behavior, sleep disorders, physical and mental symptoms, and diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The aim of our study is evaluating the potential liver health promoting a perspective of Resveratrol (RV) activities and evaluate whether RV treatment may improve health related quality of life (HRQL) and reduce depression and anxiety in patients with MHE. Methods: We evaluated depression using the Beck Depression Inventory test, anxiety with State-trait anxiety inventory test, quality of life through SF-36 test, and ammonia serum levels in 70 MHE patients that were randomized into two groups. Results: In the comparison between RV group and placebo group we observed a decrease in Back Depression Inventory (BDI) (p < 0.001), in State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) (p < 0.001), and improve in physical function (p < 0.001), in role physical (p < 0.05), in body pain (p < 0.05), in general health (p < 0.001), in vitality (p < 0.05), and in social function (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Resveratrol showed efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and ammonia serum levels, and improved the quality of life Of MHE patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aged Oolong Tea Reduces High-Fat Diet-Induced Fat Accumulation and Dyslipidemia by Regulating the AMPK/ACC Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020187
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While oolong tea (OT) has been shown to induce weight loss and reduce fat accumulation, the mechanisms remain poorly defined, especially for aged OT. In this study, five groups of mice (n = 9/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle [...] Read more.
While oolong tea (OT) has been shown to induce weight loss and reduce fat accumulation, the mechanisms remain poorly defined, especially for aged OT. In this study, five groups of mice (n = 9/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-fat diet (HFD) with vehicle or the water extracts from aged OTs (EAOTs, three different storage years) by oral gavage at 1000 mg/kg·BW for 6 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The morphology of hepatocytes and adipocytes was analyzed by being stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The levels of p-AMPK, p-ACC (and non-phosphorylated versions), CPT-1 and FAS were determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. EAOTs decreased HFD-induced body weight, fat accumulation, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while enhancing the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. At the same time, EAOTs clearly alleviated fatty liver and reduced the size of adipocytes in the epididymal fat, especially in the 2006 group. Most importantly, EAOTs increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, and up-regulated the expression of CPT-1 but down-regulated the expression of fatty acid synthase, TNF-α and iNOS. Thus, EAOTs may inhibit obesity by up-regulating energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation while inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020112
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aim: A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted in order to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies; [...] Read more.
Aim: A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted in order to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies; risk estimates were retrieved from the studies and linear and non-linear dose-response analysis modelled by restricted cubic splines was conducted. A stratified and subgroup analysis by menopausal and estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, smoking status and body mass index (BMI) were performed in order to detect potential confounders. Results: A total of 21 prospective studies were selected either for dose-response, the highest versus lowest category of consumption or subgroup analysis. The dose-response analysis of 13 prospective studies showed no significant association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk in the non-linear model. However, an inverse relationship has been found when the analysis was restricted to post-menopausal women. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day was associated with a 10% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (relative risk, RR 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.82 to 0.99). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results for all potential confounding factors examined. Conclusions: Findings from this meta-analysis may support the hypothesis that coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake of Flavonoids and Ventilatory Function in European Adults: A GA2LEN Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010095
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 [...] Read more.
Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes’ procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of an Extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. Berries on the Body Status of Zinc and Copper under Chronic Exposure to Cadmium: An In Vivo Experimental Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121374
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements’ [...] Read more.
In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements’ apparent absorption, body retention, serum and tissue concentrations, total pool in internal organs, excretion, and the degree of binding to metallothionein were evaluated in female rats administered 0.1% aqueous AE or/and Cd in their diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3–24 months. The consumption of AE alone had no influence on the body status of Zn and Cu. The extract administration at both levels of Cd treatment significantly (completely or partially) protected against most of the changes in the metabolism of Zn and Cu caused by this xenobiotic; however, it increased or decreased some of the Cd-unchanged indices of their body status. Based on the findings, it seems that rational amounts of chokeberry products may be included in the daily diet without the risk of destroying Zn and Cu metabolisms; however, their potential prophylactic use under exposure to Cd needs further study to exclude any unfavourable impact of these essential elements on the metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Bee Pollen
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121369
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass (BM). The studies have been conducted in a period of 16 weeks. The following factors were estimated: total cholesterol (TC), oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the 5th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th week of the experiment. In the last, i.e., 16th week of the studies the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) was also estimated histopathologically. Supplementing diet with EEP resulted in decreasing TC level. EEP reduced oxidative stress by lowering the levels of ox-LDL, ADMA, ANG II and ACE. EEP protected coronary arteries by significantly limiting the development of atherosclerosis (the dose of 0.1 g/kg BM) or completely preventing its occurrence (the dose of 1 g/kg BM). The obtained results demonstrate that EEP may be useful as a potential anti-atherogenic agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Flavonolignans in Different Cellular Models
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121356
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides [...] Read more.
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line—A549—using different molecular techniques. We established that three major flavonolignans: silybin, silychristin and silydianin, in concentrations of up to 100 µM, have neither a cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect on blood platelets, PMBCs and A549. We also saw that silybin and silychristin have a protective effect on cellular mitochondria, observed as a reduction of spontaneous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in A549, measured as mtDNA copies, and mtDNA lesions in ND1 and ND5 genes. Additionally, we observed that flavonolignans increase the blood platelets’ mitochondrial membrane potential and reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species in blood platelets. Our current findings show for the first time that the three major flavonolignans, silybin, silychristin and silydianin, do not have any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various cellular models, and that they actually protect cellular mitochondria. This proves that the antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds is part of our molecular health mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Flavanones and Biological Activity of Their Circulating Metabolites in Human Pro-Angiogenic Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121328
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) play a key role in endothelial repairing processes and functionality but their activity may be impaired by the lipotoxic effects of some molecules like stearic acid (SA). Among the dietary components potentially able to modulate endothelial function in vivo, [...] Read more.
Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) play a key role in endothelial repairing processes and functionality but their activity may be impaired by the lipotoxic effects of some molecules like stearic acid (SA). Among the dietary components potentially able to modulate endothelial function in vivo, (poly)phenolic compounds represent serious candidates. Here, we apply a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to shed light on the prospects of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia), a citrus fruit rich in flavanones and other phenolic compounds, in the framework of lipotoxicity-induced MACs impairment. The flavanone profile of bergamot juice was characterized and 16 compounds were identified, with a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) flavanone, isosakuranetin-7-O-neohesperidoside-6″-O-HMG, described for the first time. Then, a pilot bioavailability study was conducted in healthy volunteers to assess the circulating flavanone metabolites in plasma and urine after consumption of bergamot juice. Up to 12 flavanone phase II conjugates (sulfates and glucuronides of hesperetin, naringenin and eriodyctiol) were detected and quantified. Finally, the effect of some of the metabolites identified in vivo, namely hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, hesperetin-3′-O-glucuronide, naringenin-7-O-glucuronide and naringenin-4′-O-glucuronide, was tested, at physiological concentrations, on gene expression of inflammatory markers and apoptosis in MACs exposed to SA. Under these conditions, naringenin-4′-O-glucuronide and hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide were able to modulate inflammation, while no flavanone glucuronide was effective in curbing stearate-induced lipoapoptosis. These results demonstrate that some flavanone metabolites, derived from the in vivo transformation of bergamot juice phenolics in humans, may mitigate stearate-induced inflammation in MACs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Hesperidin (Citrus Flavonone) on High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in a Cellular Model for Diabetic Retinopathy
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121312
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of hesperidin, a plant based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, under the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). RGC-5 cells [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of hesperidin, a plant based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, under the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). RGC-5 cells were pretreated with hesperidin (12.5, 25, or 50 μmol/L) for 6 h followed by exposure to high (33.3 mmol/L) d-glucose for 48 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was adopted to evaluate cell viability. Mitochondrial function was estimated by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). A fluorescent probe was employed to evaluate the intercellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Colorimetric assay kits were used to evaluate lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and protein carbonyls formation. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were measured with Western blotting. Hesperidin inhibited high glucose-mediated cell loss and restored mitochondrial function including a reversion of ΔΨm loss and cytochrome c release. Treated with hesperidin, high glucose-induced increase in ROS, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels were blocked in RGC-5 cells. Hesperidin was found to elevate the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and to recover glutathione levels. Hesperidin inhibited high glucose-induced cell apoptosis by attenuating the downregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 MAPK triggered by high glucose were attenuated in RGC-5 cells after their incubation with hesperdin. We concluded that hesperidin may protect RGC-5 cells from high glucose-induced injury since it owns the properties of antioxidant action and blocks mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Structure and Permeability Relationship of Flavonoids in Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121301
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids exhibit a broad range of biological activities. However, poor absorption of some flavonoids is a major limitation for use of flavonoids as nutraceuticals. To investigate the structure requirements for flavonoids intestinal absorption, transepithelial transport and cellular accumulation (CA) of 30 flavonoids were [...] Read more.
Flavonoids exhibit a broad range of biological activities. However, poor absorption of some flavonoids is a major limitation for use of flavonoids as nutraceuticals. To investigate the structure requirements for flavonoids intestinal absorption, transepithelial transport and cellular accumulation (CA) of 30 flavonoids were determined using the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The bilateral permeation of five types of flavonoids followed the order: flavanones ≥ isoflavones > flavones ≥ chalcones > flavonols. The concentration of flavonoids accumulated in cells did not correlate with cell penetration since the correlation coefficient between the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) and their corresponding CA was poor (R2 < 0.3). Most flavonoids exhibited a ratio of 0.8–1.5 for Papp A to B/Papp B to A, suggesting passive diffusion pathways. However, luteolin, morin and taxifolin may involve the efflux mechanisms. The quantitative structure-permeability relationship (QSPR) study demonstrated that the intestinal absorption of flavonoids can be related to atomic charges on carbon 3′ (QC3′), molecule surface area (SlogP_V3), balance between the center of mass and position of hydrophobic region (vsurf_ID1) and solvation energy of flavonoids (E_sol). These results provide useful information for initially screening of flavonoids with high intestinal absorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111262
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of [...] Read more.
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flavonoid Naringenin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Improves Neurotrophic Effects in the Diabetic Rat Retina
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101161
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, might protect the retinal damage in diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of naringenin in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated and untreated with naringenin (50 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and retinas were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurotrophic factors. Systemic effects of naringenin treatments were also analyzed and compared with untreated groups. The results showed that elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and decreased level of glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats were ameliorated with naringenin treatments. Moreover, decreased levels of neuroprotective factors (Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)), tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) and synaptophysin in diabetic retina were augmented with naringenin treatments. In addition, naringenin treatment ameliorated the levels of apoptosis regulatory proteins; B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 in the diabetic retina. Thus, the study demonstrates the beneficial effects of naringenin that possesses anti-diabetic, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, which may limit neurodegeneration by providing neurotrophic support to prevent retinal damage in diabetic retinopathy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chinese Olive (Canarium album L.) Fruit Extract Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101123
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. CO-EtOAc, rich in gallic acid and ellagic acid, could markedly decreased the body weight and epididymal adipose mass. In addition, CO-EtOAc increased serum HDL-C levels, hepatic GSH levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities; lowered blood glucose, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), bile acid, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα); and reduced TC and TG in liver. We further demonstrated that CO-EtOAc mildly suppressed hepatic levels of phosphorylated IRS-1, TNF-α, and IL-6, but enhanced Akt phosphorylation. The possible mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism were assessed by determining the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transportation, biosynthesis, and degradation. It was found that CO-EtOAc not only inhibited mRNA levels of SREBP-2, HMG-CoAR, SR-B1, and CYP7A1 but also increased the expression of genes, such as ABCA1 and LDLR that governed cholesterol efflux and cholesterol uptake. Moreover, the protein expressions of ABCA1 and LDLR were also significantly increased in the liver of rats supplemented with CO-EtOAc. We suggest that Chinese olive fruit may ameliorate metabolic dysfunction in diabetic rats under HFD challenge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silibinin Restores NAD+ Levels and Induces the SIRT1/AMPK Pathway in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101086
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) homeostasis is emerging as a key player in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is tightly linked to the SIRT1/5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Silibinin, the main component of silymarin, has been proposed as [...] Read more.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) homeostasis is emerging as a key player in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is tightly linked to the SIRT1/5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Silibinin, the main component of silymarin, has been proposed as a nutraceutical for the treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to identify whether silibinin may influence the NAD+/SIRT1 axis. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks, and were treated with silibinin or vehicle during the last 8 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.25 mM palmitate for 24 h with silibinin 25 µM or vehicle. HFD and palmitate administration led to oxidative stress, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) activation, NAD+ consumption, and lower SIRT1 activity. In mice fed the HFD, and in HepG2 treated with palmitate, we consistently observed lower levels of phospho-AMPKThr172 and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylaseSer79 and higher levels of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 activity, indicating de novo lipogenesis. Treatment of mice and HepG2 with silibinin abolished oxidative stress, and inhibited PARP activation thus restoring the NAD+ pool. In agreement with preserved NAD+ levels, SIRT1 activity and AMPK phosphorylation returned to control levels in mice and HepG2. Our results further indicate silibinin as a promising molecule for the treatment of NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Processing ‘Ataulfo’ Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101082
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of [...] Read more.
The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD). Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol) were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) occurred 2–4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8–24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%), mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%). Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Human Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake in Mexican Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101078
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been substantial interest in phytoestrogens, because of their potential effect in reducing cancer and heart disease risk. Measuring concentrations of phytoestrogens in urine is an alternative method for conducting epidemiological studies. Our objective was to evaluate the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens [...] Read more.
There has been substantial interest in phytoestrogens, because of their potential effect in reducing cancer and heart disease risk. Measuring concentrations of phytoestrogens in urine is an alternative method for conducting epidemiological studies. Our objective was to evaluate the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens as biomarkers for dietary phytoestrogen intake in Mexican women. Participants were 100 healthy women from 25 to 80 years of age. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24 h recall were used to estimate habitual and recent intakes of isoflavones, lignans, flavonols, coumestrol, resveratrol, naringenin, and luteolin. Urinary concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI) and diode array detector (DAD) (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations between dietary intake and urine concentrations. The habitual consumption (FFQ) of total phytoestrogens was 37.56 mg/day. In urine, the higher compounds were naringenin (60.1 µg/L) and enterolactone (41.7 µg/L). Recent intakes (24 h recall) of isoflavones (r = 0.460, p < 0.001), lignans (r = 0.550, p < 0.0001), flavonoids (r = 0.240, p < 0.05), and total phytoestrogens (r = 0.410, p < 0.001) were correlated to their urinary levels. Total phytoestrogen intakes estimated by the FFQ showed higher correlations to urinary levels (r = 0.730, p < 0.0001). Urinary phytoestrogens may be useful as biomarkers of phytoestrogen intake, and as a tool for evaluating the relationship of intake and disease risk in Mexican women. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Dietary Phenolic Acids and Hypertension in a Mediterranean Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101069
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Certain foods rich in phenolic acids have been shown to reduce the risk of hypertension, but evidence from epidemiological studies focused on dietary phenolic acid intake is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary phenolic acid [...] Read more.
Background: Certain foods rich in phenolic acids have been shown to reduce the risk of hypertension, but evidence from epidemiological studies focused on dietary phenolic acid intake is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary phenolic acid intake, as well as their major food sources, and hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: Demographic and dietary data of 2044 adults living in Southern Italy were collected. Food frequency questionnaires and Phenol-Explorer were used to calculate dietary intake of polyphenols. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test associations. Results: The mean intake of total phenolic acids in the cohort was 362.6 mg/day. Individuals in the highest quartile of phenolic acid intake (median intake = 522.2 mg/day) were less likely to have hypertension (OR (odds ratio) = 0.68, 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.46, 1.00). When taking into account individual subclasses of phenolic acids, only hydroxyphenylacetic acid was inversely associated with hypertension (highest vs. lowest quartile, OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.96). Among dietary sources of phenolic acids considered in the analysis, only beer was significantly inversely associated with hypertension (highest vs. lowest quartile, OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.68). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that dietary phenolic acids may be inversely associated with hypertension, irrespectively of their dietary source. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Flavonolignans Inhibit IL1-β-Induced Cross-Talk between Blood Platelets and Leukocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091022
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)—the most potent pro-inflammatory is responsible for a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses, it induces T-cell and B-cell activation and consequently the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IFN-γ and TNF). IL-1β induces the formation of blood platelet-leukocyte [...] Read more.
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)—the most potent pro-inflammatory is responsible for a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses, it induces T-cell and B-cell activation and consequently the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IFN-γ and TNF). IL-1β induces the formation of blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs), which suggests that IL-1β significantly affects the cross-talk between blood platelets and the immune response system, leading to coronary thrombosis. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) on the IL-1β-induced interaction between platelets and leukocytes, as well as on the expression and the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Whole blood samples were pre-incubated with commercially available flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) in a concentration range of 10–100 µM (30 min, 37 °C). Next, samples were activated by IL-1β for 1 h. Blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates were detected by using the double-labeled flow cytometry (CD61/CD45). The level of produced cytokines was estimated via the ELISA immunoenzymatic method. IFN-γ and TNF gene expression was evaluated using Real Time PCR with TaqMan arrays. We observed that in a dose-dependent manner, silybin and silychristin inhibit the IL-1β-induced formation of blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates in whole blood samples, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines—IL-2, TNF, INF-α, and INF-γ. Additionally, these two flavonolignans abolished the IL-1β-induced expression of mRNA for IFN-γ and TNF. Our current results demonstrate that flavonolignans can be novel compounds used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases with dual-use action as antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Polymethoxyflavones: Novel β-Secretase (BACE1) Inhibitors from Citrus Peels
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090973
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) generation, and is considered as a prime target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In search of a candidate for AD prevention, our efforts exploring the natural BACE1 inhibitor [...] Read more.
Beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) generation, and is considered as a prime target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In search of a candidate for AD prevention, our efforts exploring the natural BACE1 inhibitor have led to the finding of nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin—representative compounds of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs). Tangeretin exhibited the strongest BACE1 inhibition (IC50, 4.9 × 10−5 M), followed by nobiletin and sinensetin with IC50 values of 5.9 × 10−5 M and 6.3 × 10−5 M, respectively. In addition, all compounds reacted in a non-competitive manner with the substrate. Docking analysis results for complexes with BACE1 indicated that SER10 and THR232 residues of BACE1 hydrogen bonded with two oxygen atoms of tangeretin, while three additional BACE1 residues (ALA157, VAL336 and THR232) interacted with three oxygen atoms of nobiletin. Furthermore, sinensetin formed four hydrogen bonds through nitrogen atoms of TYR71, LYS75, and TRP76, and an oxygen atom of TYR198. Furthermore, the lowest-energy conformations of the most proposed complexes of sinensetin, nobiletin, and tangeretin with BACE1 were −7.2, −7.0, and −6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that these polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) might be considered as promising BACE1 inhibitory agents that could lower Aβ production in AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Paulownia fortunei Flowers Attenuates Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Obesity Mice by AMPK Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090959
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF) has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the [...] Read more.
The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF) has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of EPF in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male h ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing the EPF (50 or 100 mg/kg) for eight weeks. EPF reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in livers and levels of lipid, glucose and insulin in plasma as well as reduced insulin resistance as compared with the HFD group. EPF significantly decreased serum aminotransferase activity of the HFD group. We observed that EPF administration significantly increased the level of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and prevented fat deposits in livers and HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). The protective effects of EPF were probably associated with the decrease in HMGCR, SREBP-1c and FAS expressions and the increase in CPT1 and phosphor-IRS-1 expressions. Our results suggest that EPF might be a potential natural candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations induced by HFD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion of Two Purple-Fleshed Potato Cultivars on Anthocyanin Composition and Cytotoxicity in Colonic Cancer and Non-Tumorigenic Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090953
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for [...] Read more.
A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for cytotoxicity and cell viability after 24 h exposure to colonic fecal water (FW) digests (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100% FW in culture media). After 24 h digestion, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 36 and 15 anthocyanin species throughout the GI vessels for Amachi and Leona, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentration was over thirty-fold higher in Amachi compared to Leona digests but seven-fold higher anthocyanin concentrations were noted for Leona versus Amachi in descending colon digests. Leona FW showed greater potency to induce cytotoxicity and decrease viability of Caco-2 cells than observed with FW from Amachi. Amachi FW at 100% caused cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic cells while FW from Leona showed no effect. The present findings indicate major variations in the pattern of anthocyanin breakdown and release during digestion of purple-fleshed cultivars. The differing microbial anthocyanin metabolite profiles in colonic vessels between cultivars could play a significant role in the impact of FW toxicity on tumor and non-tumorigenic cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coffee Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Liver Cancer: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090950
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between coffee intake and biliary tract cancer (BTC) and liver cancer risk. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases from [...] Read more.
Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between coffee intake and biliary tract cancer (BTC) and liver cancer risk. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose–response relationship was assessed by a restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. A stratified and subgroup analysis by smoking status and hepatitis was performed to identify potential confounding factors. Results: We identified five studies on BTC risk and 13 on liver cancer risk eligible for meta-analysis. A linear dose–response meta-analysis did not show a significant association between coffee consumption and BTC risk. However, there was evidence of inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk. The association was consistent throughout the various potential confounding factors explored including smoking status, hepatitis, etc. Increasing coffee consumption by one cup per day was associated with a 15% reduction in liver cancer risk (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88). Conclusions: The findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of liver cancer, but not BTC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strawberries Improve Pain and Inflammation in Obese Adults with Radiographic Evidence of Knee Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090949
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a significant public health burden in U.S. adults. Among its many risk factors, obesity is a key player, causing inflammation, pain, impaired joint function, and reduced quality of life. Dietary polyphenols and other bioactive [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a significant public health burden in U.S. adults. Among its many risk factors, obesity is a key player, causing inflammation, pain, impaired joint function, and reduced quality of life. Dietary polyphenols and other bioactive compounds in berries, curcumin, and tea have shown effects in ameliorating pain and inflammation in OA, but few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary strawberries on pain, markers of inflammation, and quality of life indicators in obese adults with OA of the knee. In a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial, adults with radiographic evidence of knee OA (n = 17; body mass index (BMI): (mean ± SD) 39.1 ± 1.5; age (years): 57 ± 7) were randomized to a reconstituted freeze-dried strawberry beverage (50 g/day) or control beverage daily, each for 12 weeks, separated by a 2-week washout phase (total duration, 26 weeks). Blood draws and assessments of pain and quality of life indicators were conducted using the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Measures of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP), and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires, which were completed at baseline and at weeks 12, 14, and 26 of the study. Among the serum biomarkers of inflammation and cartilage degradation, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 were significantly decreased after strawberry vs. control treatment (all p < 0.05). Strawberry supplementation also significantly reduced constant, intermittent, and total pain as evaluated by the ICOAP questionnaire as well as the HAQ-DI scores (all p < 0.05). No effects of treatment were noted on serum C-reactive protein (CRP), nitrite, glucose, and lipid profiles. Dietary strawberries may have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in obese adults with established knee OA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080916
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods [...] Read more.
While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080890
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential [...] Read more.
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080801
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Urinary Polyphenol Metabolite Patterns Associated with Polyphenol-Rich Food Intake in Adults from Four European Countries
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080796
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We identified urinary polyphenol metabolite patterns by a novel algorithm that combines dimension reduction and variable selection methods to explain polyphenol-rich food intake, and compared their respective performance with that of single biomarkers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) [...] Read more.
We identified urinary polyphenol metabolite patterns by a novel algorithm that combines dimension reduction and variable selection methods to explain polyphenol-rich food intake, and compared their respective performance with that of single biomarkers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The study included 475 adults from four European countries (Germany, France, Italy, and Greece). Dietary intakes were assessed with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and dietary questionnaires (DQ). Thirty-four polyphenols were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS-MS) in 24-h urine. Reduced rank regression-based variable importance in projection (RRR-VIP) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods were used to select polyphenol metabolites. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was then used to identify patterns in these metabolites, maximizing the explained variability in intake of pre-selected polyphenol-rich foods. The performance of RRR models was evaluated using internal cross-validation to control for over-optimistic findings from over-fitting. High performance was observed for explaining recent intake (24-HDR) of red wine (r = 0.65; AUC = 89.1%), coffee (r = 0.51; AUC = 89.1%), and olives (r = 0.35; AUC = 82.2%). These metabolite patterns performed better or equally well compared to single polyphenol biomarkers. Neither metabolite patterns nor single biomarkers performed well in explaining habitual intake (as reported in the DQ) of polyphenol-rich foods. This proposed strategy of biomarker pattern identification has the potential of expanding the currently still limited list of available dietary intake biomarkers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070777
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea [...] Read more.
Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Phytochemicals Promote Health by Enhancing Antioxidant Defence in a Pig Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070758
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Phytochemical-rich diets are protective against chronic diseases and mediate their protective effect by regulation of oxidative stress (OS). However, it is proposed that under some circumstances, phytochemicals can promote production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, which might drive OS-mediated signalling. Here, [...] Read more.
Phytochemical-rich diets are protective against chronic diseases and mediate their protective effect by regulation of oxidative stress (OS). However, it is proposed that under some circumstances, phytochemicals can promote production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, which might drive OS-mediated signalling. Here, we investigated the effects of administering single doses of extracts of red cabbage and grape skin to pigs. Blood samples taken at baseline and 30 min intervals for 4 hours following intake were analyzed by measures of antioxidant status in plasma, including Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. In addition, dose-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the same extracts was measured in untreated commercial pig plasma in vitro. Plasma from treated pigs showed extract dose-dependent increases in non-enzymatic (plasma TEAC) and enzymatic (GPx) antioxidant capacities. Similarly, extract dose-dependent increases in H2O2 were observed in commercial pig plasma in vitro. The antioxidant responses to extracts by treated pigs were highly correlated with their respective yields of H2O2 production in vitro. These results support that dietary phytochemicals regulate OS via direct and indirect antioxidant mechanisms. The latter may be attributed to the ability to produce H2O2 and to thereby stimulate cellular antioxidant defence systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Autophagic Lipolysis in Adipocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070680
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (7577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Previous studies demonstrated effects of green tea on weight loss; however, green tea-induced modulation of adipocyte function is not fully understood. Here, we investigated effects of the major green tea phytochemical, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triglyceride contents, lipolysis, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, in adipocytes [...] Read more.
Previous studies demonstrated effects of green tea on weight loss; however, green tea-induced modulation of adipocyte function is not fully understood. Here, we investigated effects of the major green tea phytochemical, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triglyceride contents, lipolysis, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, in adipocytes differentiated from C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized pre-adipocytes in vitro. EGCG reduced the triglycerol content significantly in adipocytes by 25%, comparable to the nutrient starvation state. EGCG did not affect protein kinase A signaling or brown adipocyte marker expression in adipocytes; however, EGCG increased autophagy, as measured by autophagy flux analysis and immunoblot analysis of LC3B, ATG7, and Beclin1. EGCG treatment reduced mitochondrial membrane potential by 56.8% and intracellular ATP levels by 49.1% compared to controls. Although mammalian target of rapamycin signaling was not upregulated by EGCG treatment, EGCG treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, indicating an energy-depleted state. In addition, EGCG increased the association between RAB7 and lipid droplets, suggesting that lipophagy was activated. Finally, knockdown of Rab7 attenuated the EGCG-dependent reduction in lipid contents. Collectively, these results indicated that EGCG upregulated autophagic lipolysis in adipocytes, supporting the therapeutic potential of EGCG as a caloric restriction mimetic to prevent obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kaempherol and Luteolin Decrease Claudin-2 Expression Mediated by Inhibition of STAT3 in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060597
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and may be a novel target for cancer chemotherapy because knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation. We found that flavonoids including kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin concentration-dependently decrease claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. [...] Read more.
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and may be a novel target for cancer chemotherapy because knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation. We found that flavonoids including kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin concentration-dependently decrease claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Claudin-2 expression is up-regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, but these activities were not inhibited by kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin. Promoter deletion assay using luciferase reporter vector showed that kaempferol and luteolin inhibit the function of transcriptional factor that binds to the region between −395 and −144 of claudin-2 promoter. The decrease in promoter activity was suppressed by mutation in signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-binding site, which is located between −395 and −144. The phosphorylation level of STAT3 was not decreased, but the binding of STAT3 on the promoter region is suppressed by kaempferol and luteolin in chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The inhibition of cell proliferation caused by kaempferol and luteolin was partially recovered by ectopic claudin-2 expression. Taken together, kaempferol and luteolin decreased claudin-2 expression and proliferation in A549 cells mediated by the inhibition of binding of STAT3 on the promoter region of claudin-2. The intake of foods and nutrients rich in these flavonoids may prevent lung adenocarcinoma development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Hesperidin on the Systemic and Intestinal Rat Immune Response
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060580
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols, widely found in edible plants, influence the immune system. Nevertheless, the immunomodulatory properties of hesperidin, the predominant flavanone in oranges, have not been deeply studied. To establish the effect of hesperidin on in vivo immune response, two different conditions of immune system [...] Read more.
Polyphenols, widely found in edible plants, influence the immune system. Nevertheless, the immunomodulatory properties of hesperidin, the predominant flavanone in oranges, have not been deeply studied. To establish the effect of hesperidin on in vivo immune response, two different conditions of immune system stimulations in Lewis rats were applied. In the first experimental design, rats were intraperitoneally immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus Bordetella pertussis toxin and alum as the adjuvants, and orally given 100 or 200 mg/kg hesperidin. In the second experimental design, rats were orally sensitized with OVA together with cholera toxin and fed a diet containing 0.5% hesperidin. In the first approach, hesperidin administration changed mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte (MLNL) composition, increasing the TCRαβ+ cell percentage and decreasing that of B lymphocytes. Furthermore, hesperidin enhanced the interferon (IFN)-γ production in stimulated MLNL. In the second approach, hesperidin intake modified the lymphocyte composition in the intestinal epithelium (TCRγδ+ cells) and the lamina propria (TCRγδ+, CD45RA+, natural killer, natural killer T, TCRαβ+CD4+, and TCRαβ+CD8+ cells). Nevertheless, hesperidin did not modify the level of serum anti-OVA antibodies in either study. In conclusion, hesperidin does possess immunoregulatory properties in the intestinal immune response, but this effect is not able to influence the synthesis of specific antibodies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Effects of a Chemically Defined Fraction of Syrah Red Wine on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060574
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
A particularly phenolic-rich fraction extracted from red wine from the São Francisco valley (Northeastern Brazil) was chemically characterized and its hypotensive and antioxidant effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The liquid-liquid pH dependent fractionation scheme afforded [...] Read more.
A particularly phenolic-rich fraction extracted from red wine from the São Francisco valley (Northeastern Brazil) was chemically characterized and its hypotensive and antioxidant effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The liquid-liquid pH dependent fractionation scheme afforded a fraction with high content of bioactive phenolics such as flavonols, flavonol glycosides, phenolic acids and anthocyanins, whose identities were confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis. Pretreatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with this wine fraction at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg by gavage. for 15 days was able to decrease mean arterial pressure and heart rate as well as decrease serum lipid peroxidation. The fraction at concentrations of 0.01–1000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and this effect was not attenuated by endothelium removal. Our results demonstrate it is possible for phenolic constituents of red wine that are orally bioavailable to exert in vivo hypotensive and antioxidant effects on intact endothelial function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seabuckthorn Leaves Extract and Flavonoid Glycosides Extract from Seabuckthorn Leaves Ameliorates Adiposity, Hepatic Steatosis, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060569
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the current study was to elucidate the effect of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) extract and flavonoid glycosides extract from seabuckthorn leaves (SLG) on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disturbances, and additionally, to identify whether flavonoid glycosides and other components in SL [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to elucidate the effect of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) extract and flavonoid glycosides extract from seabuckthorn leaves (SLG) on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disturbances, and additionally, to identify whether flavonoid glycosides and other components in SL can exert a possible interaction for the prevention of metabolic diseases by comparing the effect of SL and SLG. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND, AIN-93G purified diet), high-fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat), HFD + 1.8% (w/w) SL (SL), and HFD + 0.04% (w/w) SLG (SLG) for 12 weeks. In high fat-fed mice, SL and SLG decreased the adiposity by suppressing lipogenesis in adipose tissue, while increasing the energy expenditure. SL and SLG also improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis and lipid absorption, whilst also enhancing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, which may be linked to the improvement in dyslipidemia. Moreover, SL and SLG improved insulin sensitivity by suppressing the levels of plasma GIP that were modulated by secreted resistin and pro-inflammatory cytokine, and hepatic glucogenic enzyme activities. SL, especially its flavonoid glycosides (SLG), can protect against the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and its metabolic complications such as adiposity, dyslipidemia, inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
NAFLD and Atherosclerosis Are Prevented by a Natural Dietary Supplement Containing Curcumin, Silymarin, Guggul, Chlorogenic Acid and Inulin in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050492
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin on NAFLD and atherosclerosis was evaluated, and the mechanism of action was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 16 weeks; half of the mice were simultaneously treated with a daily oral administration (os) of the NDS. NAFLD and atherogenic lesions in aorta and carotid artery (histological analysis), hepatic expression of genes involved in the NAFLD (PCR array), hepatic angiotensinogen (AGT) and AT1R mRNA expression (real-time PCR) and plasma angiotensin (ANG)-II levels (ELISA) were evaluated. In the NDS group, steatosis, aortic lesions or carotid artery thickening was not observed. PCR array showed upregulation of some genes involved in lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory activity (Cpt2, Ifng) and downregulation of some genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and in free fatty acid up-take (Fabp5, Socs3). Hepatic AGT, AT1R mRNA and ANG II plasma levels were significantly lower with respect to the untreated-group. Furthermore, NDS inhibited the dyslipidemia observed in the untreated animals. Altogether, these results suggest that NDS prevents NAFLD and atherogenesis by modulating the expression of different genes involved in NAFLD and avoiding RAS imbalance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Neuroprotective Effects of Phenolic Acids: Molecular Mechanism of Action
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050477
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neuroprotective role of phenolic acids from food has previously been reported by many authors. In this review, the role of phenolic acids in ameliorating depression, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, glutamate-induced toxicity, epilepsy, imbalance after traumatic brain injury, hyperinsulinemia-induced memory impairment, hearing and [...] Read more.
The neuroprotective role of phenolic acids from food has previously been reported by many authors. In this review, the role of phenolic acids in ameliorating depression, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, glutamate-induced toxicity, epilepsy, imbalance after traumatic brain injury, hyperinsulinemia-induced memory impairment, hearing and vision disturbances, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Chagas disease and other less distributed diseases is discussed. This review covers the in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies concerning the prevention and treatment of neurological disorders (on the biochemical and gene expression levels) by phenolic acids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050464
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as [...] Read more.
Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC0–2 h) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Critical Review on Polyphenols and Health Benefits of Black Soybeans
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050455
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (1140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites containing antioxidant properties, which help to protect chronic diseases from free radical damage. Dietary polyphenols are the subject of enhancing scientific interest due to their possible beneficial effects on human health. In the last two decades, there has [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites containing antioxidant properties, which help to protect chronic diseases from free radical damage. Dietary polyphenols are the subject of enhancing scientific interest due to their possible beneficial effects on human health. In the last two decades, there has been more interest in the potential health benefits of dietary polyphenols as antioxidant. Black soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr) are merely a black variety of soybean containing a variety of phytochemicals. These phytochemicals in black soybean (BSB) are potentially effective in human health, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Taking into account exploratory study, the present review aims to provide up-to-date data on health benefit of BSB, which helps to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical settings. All data of in vitro and in vivo studies of BSB and its impact on human health were collected from a library database and electronic search (Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar). The different pharmacological information was gathered and orchestrated in a suitable spot on the paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenol Levels Are Inversely Correlated with Body Weight and Obesity in an Elderly Population after 5 Years of Follow Up (The Randomised PREDIMED Study)
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050452
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Overweight and obesity have been steadily increasing in recent years and currently represent a serious threat to public health. Few human studies have investigated the relationship between polyphenol intake and body weight. Our aim was to assess the relationship between urinary polyphenol levels [...] Read more.
Overweight and obesity have been steadily increasing in recent years and currently represent a serious threat to public health. Few human studies have investigated the relationship between polyphenol intake and body weight. Our aim was to assess the relationship between urinary polyphenol levels and body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with 573 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial (ISRCTN35739639). Total polyphenol levels were measured by a reliable biomarker, total urinary polyphenol excretion (TPE), determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method in urine samples. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their TPE at the fifth year. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between TPE and obesity parameters; body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). After a five years follow up, significant inverse correlations were observed between TPE at the 5th year and BW (β = −1.004; 95% CI: −1.634 to −0.375, p = 0.002), BMI (β = −0.320; 95% CI: −0.541 to −0.098, p = 0.005), WC (β = −0.742; 95% CI: −1.326 to −0.158, p = 0.013), and WHtR (β = −0.408; 95% CI: −0.788 to −0.028, p = 0.036) after adjustments for potential confounders. To conclude, a greater polyphenol intake may thus contribute to reducing body weight in elderly people at high cardiovascular risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genistein Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury in a SIRT1-Dependent Manner
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040403
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury continues to be a complicated situation in clinical practice. Genistein, the main isoflavone found in soy products, is known to possess a wide spectrum of biochemical and pharmacological activities. However, the protective effect of genistein on renal I/R injury [...] Read more.
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury continues to be a complicated situation in clinical practice. Genistein, the main isoflavone found in soy products, is known to possess a wide spectrum of biochemical and pharmacological activities. However, the protective effect of genistein on renal I/R injury has not been well investigated. In the current study, we explore whether genistein exhibits its renal-protective effects through SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) in I/R-induced mice model. We found the treatment of genistein significantly reduced renal I/R-induced cell death, simultaneously stimulating renal cell proliferation. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression was up-regulated following the administration of genistein in renal region. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated depletion of SIRT1 significantly reversed the protective effect of genistein on renal dysfunction, cellular damage, apoptosis, and proliferation following I/R injury, suggesting an indispensible role of the increased SIRT1 expression and activity in this process. Meanwhile, the reduced p53 and p21 expression and increased PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) expression were blocked after the depletion of SIRT1 compared with the genistein treatment group in the renal I/R process. Hence, our results provided further experimental basis for the potential use of genistein for the treatment of kidney disease with deficiency of SIRT1 activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gelidium elegans Regulates the AMPK-PRDM16-UCP-1 Pathway and Has a Synergistic Effect with Orlistat on Obesity-Associated Features in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040342
Received: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii, has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity [...] Read more.
The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii, has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity effects. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which GENS is able to do this remains unclear. In the present study, our results showed that GENS prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain through modulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PR domain-containing16 (PRDM16)-uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) pathway in a mice model. We also found that GENS decreased hyperglycemia in mice that had been fed a HFD compared to corresponding controls. We also assessed the beneficial effect of the combined treatment with GENS and orlistat (a Food and Drug Administration-approved obesity drug) on obesity characteristics in HFD-fed mice. We found that in HFD-fed mice, the combination of GENS and orlistat is associated with more significant weight loss than orlistat treatment alone. Moreover, our results demonstrated a positive synergistic effect of GENS and orlistat on hyperglycemia and plasma triglyceride level in these animals. Thus, we suggest that a combination therapy of GENS and orlistat may positively influence obesity-related health outcomes in a diet-induced obese population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030276
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the “Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)” among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1–3, and ≥3 cups/day. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine) and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1–3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1–3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030194
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally [...] Read more.
The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Cardiovascular Risk and Mortality—A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020200
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diet and chronic inflammation have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related mortality. The possible link between the inflammatory potential of diet measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and CVD has been [...] Read more.
Diet and chronic inflammation have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related mortality. The possible link between the inflammatory potential of diet measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and CVD has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from 14 studies were eligible, of which two were case-control, eleven were cohort, and one was cross-sectional. Results from the random-effects meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CVD. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference) DII category showed a 36% increased risk of CVD incidence and mortality, with moderate evidence of heterogeneity (relative risk (RR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.57; heterogeneity index I2 = 69%, p < 0.001). When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CVD risk and mortality of 8% for each one-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet for preventing CVD incidence and related mortality. In conclusion, a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased risk of CVD and CVD mortality. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CVD incidence and mortality. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa as a Medicinal Plant
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020116
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past decades, there has been increasing attention on polyphenol-rich foods including fruits and vegetables on human health. Polyphenols have been shown to possess some potential beneficial effects on human health and they are widely found in foods consumed by populations worldwide. [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, there has been increasing attention on polyphenol-rich foods including fruits and vegetables on human health. Polyphenols have been shown to possess some potential beneficial effects on human health and they are widely found in foods consumed by populations worldwide. Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) is an important source of different secondary metabolites of interest to humankind. The traditional therapeutic applications of C. spinosa have been reported in Ancient Romans. Numerous bioactive phytochemical constituents have been isolated and identified from different parts (aerial parts, roots and seeds) of C. spinosa which are responsible alone or in combination for its various pharmacological activities. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of C. spinosa. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that C. spinosa or its extracts are able to improve the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, these studies used different parts of C. spinosa plant, methods of preparation and types of solvents, which cause the evaluation of activity of C. spinosa difficult and involve quite heterogeneous data. There is also evidence, although limited, to suggest benefits of C. spinosa in improving human health. Therefore, the relationship between C. spinosa and improved human health outcomes requires further study. Full article
Open AccessReview
Coffee Decreases the Risk of Endometrial Cancer: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111223
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. The dose–response relationship as well as the risk [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. The dose–response relationship as well as the risk of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of coffee consumption were assessed. Subgroup analyses considering the menopausal and receptor statuses, the smoking status, and the BMI (Body Mass Index) were performed in order to identify potential confounders. Results: We identified a total of 12 studies eligible for meta-analysis. A dose–response meta-analysis showed a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Moreover, a subgroup analysis indicated that coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal cancer. Increasing coffee consumption by four cups per day was associated with a 20% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (relative risk (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.89) and with a 24% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, and this association is observed also for postmenopausal cancer. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Anthocyanins against Obesity and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101089
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health [...] Read more.
Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health problems. Recently, food-derived bioactive compounds have been spotlighted as a regulator against various chronic diseases due to their low toxicity, as opposed to drugs that induce severe side effects. Here we describe the beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on obesity-induced metabolic disorders and inflammation. Red cabbage microgreen, blueberry, blackcurrant, mulberry, cherry, black elderberry, black soybean, chokeberry and jaboticaba peel contain a variety of anthocyanins including cyanidins, delphinidins, malvidins, pelargonidins, peonidins and petunidins, and have been reported to alter both metabolic markers and inflammatory markers in cells, animals, and humans. This review discusses the interplay between inflammation and obesity, and their subsequent regulation via the use of dietary anthocyanins, suggesting an alternative dietary strategy to ameliorate obesity and obesity associated chronic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds on Inflammation in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101087
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than 7 million deaths worldwide. In the early stages of the development of atherosclerotic plaques, cardiovascular risk factors stimulate vascular endothelial cells, initiating an inflammatory process, fundamental in the pathogenesis of CAD. The inclusion of [...] Read more.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than 7 million deaths worldwide. In the early stages of the development of atherosclerotic plaques, cardiovascular risk factors stimulate vascular endothelial cells, initiating an inflammatory process, fundamental in the pathogenesis of CAD. The inclusion of potentially cardioprotective foods, such as olive oil, to the diet, may aid in the control of these risk factors, and in the reduction of cytokines and inflammatory markers. The present review aims to address the interaction between phenolic compounds present in olive oil, and inflammation, in the prevention and treatment of CAD. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and their secoiridoid derivatives, may reduce the expression of adhesion molecules and consequent migration of immune cells, modify the signaling cascade and the transcription network (blocking the signal and expression of the nuclear factor kappa B), inhibit the action of enzymes responsible for the production of eicosanoids, and consequently, decrease circulating levels of inflammatory markers. Daily consumption of olive oil seems to modulate cytokines and inflammatory markers related to CAD in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, clinical studies that have evaluated the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on individuals with CAD are still scarce. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Effects of Olive and Its Derivatives on Osteoarthritis: From Bench to Bedside
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101060
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play important roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Olive and its derivatives, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and autophagy-enhancing activities, are suitable candidates for therapeutic interventions for osteoarthritis. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of olive and its derivatives, on osteoarthritis and chondrocytes. The literature on animal and human studies has demonstrated a beneficial effect of olive and its derivatives on the progression of osteoarthritis. In vitro studies have suggested that the augmentation of autophagy (though sirtuin-1) and suppression of inflammation by olive polyphenols could contribute to the chondroprotective effects of olive polyphenols. More research and well-planned clinical trials are required to justify the use of olive-based treatment in osteoarthritis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biological Mechanisms by Which Antiproliferative Actions of Resveratrol Are Minimized
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101046
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preclinical and clinical studies have offered evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Resveratrol is among the most widely studied polyphenols. However, the preventive and treatment effectiveness of resveratrol in cancer remain controversial because of [...] Read more.
Preclinical and clinical studies have offered evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Resveratrol is among the most widely studied polyphenols. However, the preventive and treatment effectiveness of resveratrol in cancer remain controversial because of certain limitations in existing studies. For example, studies of the activity of resveratrol against cancer cell lines in vitro have often been conducted at concentrations in the low μM to mM range, whereas dietary resveratrol or resveratrol-containing wine rarely achieve nM concentrations in the clinic. While the mechanisms underlying the failure of resveratrol to inhibit cancer growth in the intact organism are not fully understood, the interference by thyroid hormones with the anticancer activity of resveratrol have been well documented in both in vitro and xenograft studies. Thus, endogenous thyroid hormones may explain the failure of anticancer actions of resveratrol in intact animals, or in the clinic. In this review, mechanisms involved in resveratrol-induced antiproliferation and effects of thyroid hormones on these mechanisms are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091044
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that [...] Read more.
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Inflammatory Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091043
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and CRC has been investigated [...] Read more.
Diet and chronic inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet, measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and CRC has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from nine studies were eligible, of which five were case-control and four were cohort studies. Results from meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII scores, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CRC. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference) DII category showed an overall 40% increased risk of CRC with moderate evidence of heterogeneity [relative risk (RR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.55; I2 = 69%, p < 0.001]. When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CRC of 7% for a 1-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the four prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet in preventing CRC. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CRC. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090958
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory [...] Read more.
Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080911
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer [...] Read more.
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080857
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Unfolding Novel Mechanisms of Polyphenol Flavonoids for Better Glycaemic Control: Targeting Pancreatic Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP)
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070788
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle modification programs. Accordingly, an increased consumption of fruits and plant-derived foods has been advocated, as their intake is inversely correlated with T2D prevalence; this has been attributed, in part, to their contained polyphenolic compounds. Over the last decade, a body of work has focussed on establishing the mechanisms by which polyphenolic compounds exert beneficial effects to limit carbohydrate digestion, enhance insulin-mediated glucose uptake, down-regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and decrease oxidative stress; the latter anti-oxidative property being the most documented. Novel effects on the inhibition of glucocorticoid action and the suppression of amylin misfolding and aggregation have been identified more recently. Amyloid fibrils form from spontaneously misfolded amylin, depositing in islet cells to elicit apoptosis, beta cell degeneration and decrease insulin secretion, with amyloidosis affecting up to 80% of pancreatic islet cells in T2D. Therefore, intervening with polyphenolic compounds offers a novel approach to suppressing risk or progression to T2D. This review gives an update on the emerging mechanisms related to dietary polyphenol intake for the maintenance of glycaemic control and the prevention of T2D. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070769
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG) cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to [...] Read more.
Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG) cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Methods: A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD) and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0–120 min) by −29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: −43.57, −15.85 mmol min/L), the insulin iAUC (0–120 min) by −2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: −2.88, −1.14 nmol min/L), and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant. Conclusions: The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Flavanol-Containing Tea, Cocoa and Apple Products on Body Composition and Blood Lipids: Exploring the Factors Responsible for Variability in Their Efficacy
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070746
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses support the benefits of flavanols on cardiometabolic health, but the factors affecting variability in the responses to these compounds have not been properly assessed. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to systematically collect the RCTs-based-evidence of [...] Read more.
Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses support the benefits of flavanols on cardiometabolic health, but the factors affecting variability in the responses to these compounds have not been properly assessed. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to systematically collect the RCTs-based-evidence of the effects of flavanol-containing tea, cocoa and apple products on selected biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk and to explore the influence of various factors on the variability in the responses to the consumption of these products. A total of 120 RCTs were selected. Despite a high heterogeneity, the intake of the flavanol-containing products was associated using a random model with changes (reported as standardized difference in means (SDM)) in body mass index (−0.15, p < 0.001), waist circumference (−0.29, p < 0.001), total-cholesterol (−0.21, p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (−0.23, p < 0.001), and triacylglycerides (−0.11, p = 0.027), and with an increase of HDL-cholesterol (0.15, p = 0.005). Through subgroup analyses, we showed the influence of baseline-BMI, sex, source/form of administration, medication and country of investigation on some of the outcome measures and suggest that flavanols may be more effective in specific subgroups such as those with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2, non-medicated individuals or by specifically using tea products. This meta-analysis provides the first robust evidence of the effects induced by the consumption of flavanol-containing tea, cocoa and apple products on weight and lipid biomarkers and shows the influence of various factors that can affect their bioefficacy in humans. Of note, some of these effects are quantitatively comparable to those produced by drugs, life-style changes or other natural products. Further, RCTs in well-characterized populations are required to fully comprehend the factors affecting inter-individual responses to flavanol and thereby improve flavanols efficacy in the prevention of cardiometabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070728
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fruits for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060598
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading global health problems. Accumulating epidemiological studies have indicated that consuming fruits was inversely related to the risk of CVDs. Moreover, substantial experimental studies have supported the protective role of fruits against CVDs, and several fruits (grape, blueberry, pomegranate, [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading global health problems. Accumulating epidemiological studies have indicated that consuming fruits was inversely related to the risk of CVDs. Moreover, substantial experimental studies have supported the protective role of fruits against CVDs, and several fruits (grape, blueberry, pomegranate, apple, hawthorn, and avocado) have been widely studied and have shown potent cardiovascular protective action. Fruits can prevent CVDs or facilitate the restoration of morphology and functions of heart and vessels after injury. The involved mechanisms included protecting vascular endothelial function, regulating lipids metabolism, modulating blood pressure, inhibiting platelets function, alleviating ischemia/reperfusion injury, suppressing thrombosis, reducing oxidative stress, and attenuating inflammation. The present review summarizes recent discoveries about the effects of fruits on CVDs and discusses potential mechanisms of actions based on evidence from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress-Mediated Injury in Cardiomyocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050523
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes. Polyphenols are a large group of natural compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, and epidemiological studies have shown associations between a diet rich in polyphenols and the prevention of various ROS-mediated human diseases. Polyphenols reduce cardiomyocytes damage, necrosis, apoptosis, infarct size and improve cardiac function by decreasing oxidative stress-induced production of ROS or RNS. These effects are achieved by the ability of polyphenols to modulate the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and several signaling pathways involved in cells survival. This report reviews current knowledge on the potential anti-oxidative effects of polyphenols to control the cardiotoxicity induced by ROS and RNS stress. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutraceutical Value of Citrus Flavanones and Their Implications in Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050502
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background- Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, dyslipidaemia and coronary artery pathology, are a major cause of illness and death in Western countries. Therefore, identifying effective therapeutic approaches and their cellular signalling pathways is a challenging goal for medicine. In this regard, several epidemiological [...] Read more.
Background- Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, dyslipidaemia and coronary artery pathology, are a major cause of illness and death in Western countries. Therefore, identifying effective therapeutic approaches and their cellular signalling pathways is a challenging goal for medicine. In this regard, several epidemiological studies demonstrate a relationship between the intake of flavonoid-rich foods and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. In particular, flavonoids present in citrus fruits, such as oranges, bergamots, lemons and grapefruit (95% from flavanones), are emerging for their considerable nutraceutical value. Methods- In this review an examination of literature was performed while considering both epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical evidence supporting the beneficial role of the flavanone class. We evaluated studies in which citrus fruit juices or single flavanone administration and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed; to identify these studies, an electronic search was conducted in PUBMED for papers fulfilling these criteria and written in English. Results- In addition to epidemiological evidence and clinical studies demonstrating that fruits in the Citrus genus significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease risk, pre-clinical investigations highlight cellular and subcellular targets that are responsible for these beneficial effects. There has been special attention on evaluating intracellular pathways involved in direct cardiovascular and cardiometabolic effects mediated by naringenin, hesperetin and eriodictyol or their glycosylated derivatives. Conclusions- Although some mechanisms of action remain unclear and bioavailability problems remain to be solved, the current evidence supports the use of a nutraceutical approach with citrus fruits to prevent and cure several aspects of cardiovascular disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Association of Polyphenol Biomarkers with Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040415
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the [...] Read more.
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the literature for evidence of associations between polyphenol biomarkers and CVD and mortality risk in observational studies. Eligible studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, and reference lists. Multivariable adjusted associations were extracted. Data were log-transformed and pooled using the random effects model. In total, eight studies were included, investigating 16 different polyphenol biomarkers in association with CVD and mortality. Blood and urine were used as biospecimens, and enterolactone, a lignan metabolite, was most often investigated. Three meta-analyses were conducted investigating the association between enterolactone, and all-cause and CVD mortality, and non-fatal myocardial infarction. A 30% and 45% reduced all-cause and CVD mortality risk were revealed at higher enterolactone concentrations. Furthermore, inverse associations were observed between polyphenol biomarkers and all-cause mortality, kaempferol, and acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence to suggest that enterolactone is associated with a lower CVD mortality risk. This emphasises the importance of the role of the microbiota in disease prevention. To strengthen the evidence, more studies are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Synergistic Interplay between Curcumin and Polyphenol-Rich Foods in the Mediterranean Diet: Therapeutic Prospects for Neurofibromatosis 1 Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070783
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurofibromas are the hallmark lesions in Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1); these tumors are classified as cutaneous, subcutaneous and plexiform. In contrast to cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas can grow quickly and progress to malignancy. Curcumin, a turmeric-derived polyphenol, has been shown to interact [...] Read more.
Neurofibromas are the hallmark lesions in Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1); these tumors are classified as cutaneous, subcutaneous and plexiform. In contrast to cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas can grow quickly and progress to malignancy. Curcumin, a turmeric-derived polyphenol, has been shown to interact with several molecular targets implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the impact of different dietary patterns, namely Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) compared to the Western diet (WesDiet), both with or without curcumin, on NF1 patients’ health. After six months, patients adopting a traditional MedDiet enriched with 1200 mg curcumin per day (MedDietCurcumin) presented a significant reduction in the number and volume of cutaneous neurofibromas; these results were confirmed in subsequent evaluations. Notably, in one patient, a large cranial plexiform neurofibroma exhibited a reduction in volume (28%) confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Conversely, neither unenriched MedDiet nor WesDiet enriched with curcumin exhibited any significant positive effect. We hypothesize that the combination of a polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and curcumin was responsible for the beneficial effect observed on NF1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first experience with curcumin supplementation in NF1 patients. Our report suggests that an integrated nutritional approach may effectively aid in the management of NF1. Full article
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Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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