Special Issue "High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Martine Laville
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Service d’Endocrinologie-Diabetologie-Nutrition, Hospices Civils de Lyon & Universite Lyon 1, Lyon, France
Dr. Michael Skilton
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, D17-Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Interests: nutrition; cardiovascular disease; developmental origins of health and disease; indigenous health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Julie-Anne Nazare
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Rhône-Alpes (CRNH Rhône-Alpes), Centre Européen pour la Nutrition et la Santé (CENS), Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France
Interests: carbohydrates quality and fibers; diet quality; cardiometabolic risk; postprandial metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The role of a high carbohydrate diet in the maintenance of health, and the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases remains controversial. Specifically, there is an inherent interaction between carbohydrate quantity and quality, which challenges a simple high carbohydrate message. The quality of carbohydrates can be influenced by the types of foods from which they are obtained, altered by food processing, and assessed by the glycemic response to the consumed carbohydrate, amongst others. Other dietary components may also influence the response to a high carbohydrate diet or be inextricably intertwined, as may an individual’s genotype or phenotype. For example, the inherent substation of fat, and to a lesser extent protein, for carbohydrate is also a likely contributor to related health outcomes associated with a high-carbohydrate diet. The purpose of this Special Issue, entitled “High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health”, is to highlight recent research examining the role of a high-carbohydrate diet in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, and the characteristics of carbohydrates in such diets.

Dr. Michael Skilton
Dr. Martine Laville
Dr. Julie-Anne Nazare
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • High carbohydrate diet
  • Carbohydrate quality
  • Glycemic index
  • Chronic disease prevention
  • Chronic disease treatment

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Quantity and Quality of Carbohydrate Intake during Pregnancy, Newborn Body Fatness and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Conferred Cardiovascular Risk?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121375 - 19 Dec 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers [...] Read more.
The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers of cardio-metabolic risk include newborn body fatness and cardiac autonomic control. We sought to determine whether maternal dietary carbohydrate quantity and/or quality during pregnancy are associated with newborn body composition and cardiac autonomic function. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed in 142 mother-infant pairs using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Infant adiposity and body composition were assessed at birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability. The quantity of carbohydrates consumed during pregnancy, as a percentage of total energy intake, was not associated with meaningful differences in offspring birth weight, adiposity or heart rate variability (p > 0.05). There was some evidence that maternal carbohydrate quality, specifically higher fibre and lower glycemic index, is associated with higher heart rate variability in the newborn offspring (p = 0.06). This suggests that poor maternal carbohydrate quality may be an important population-level inter-generational risk factor for later cardiac and hemodynamic risk of their offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110682 - 29 Oct 2016
Cited by 21
Abstract
Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male [...] Read more.
Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Impact of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040322 - 24 Mar 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review [...] Read more.
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM. HC diets are at least as effective as LC diets, leading to significant weight loss and a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The major concern is that HC diets may raise serum triglyceride levels and reduce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, these untoward effects were not a persistent consequence and may be ameliorated with the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI)/low glycemic load (GL) and high fiber. Carbohydrate intake should be individualized, and low caloric intake remains a crucial factor to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce body weight; however, an HC diet, rich in fiber and with a low GI/GL, may be recommendable in patients with T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
The Effect of a Breakfast Rich in Slowly Digestible Starch on Glucose Metabolism: A Statistical Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040318 - 23 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, [...] Read more.
Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, after healthy subjects consumed cereal products that differed in SDS content. Three randomized controlled clinical trials that included a total of 79 subjects were identified. Using binary classification for the variables (high versus low levels, more than 12 g of SDS per portion, and less than 1 g of SDS per portion, respectively), we found that there was a 15-fold higher chance of having a low rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) after consumption of a high-SDS product. A high SDS content was also associated with a 12-fold and 4-fold higher chance of having a low rate of disappearance of exogenous glucose (RdE) and rate of disappearance of total plasma glucose (RdT), respectively. The RaE kinetics were further analyzed by modeling the contribution of SDS content to the different phases of the RaE response. We show that the higher the SDS content per portion of cereal product, the higher its contribution to the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the RaE response after 165 min. Using the association rule technique, we found that glycemic iAUC and insulinemic iAUC values vary in the same direction. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms the effect of the SDS level in cereal products on the metabolic response, and shows for the first time that the degree to which SDS affects the RaE response differs depending on the SDS content of the food product, as well as the phase of the postprandial period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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