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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Western diet promotes a pro-inflammatory environment and causes an increase in systemic and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111274
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED.
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The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111273
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the
[...] Read more.
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2003) utilise different cut-off values for IFG (WHO: 6.1–6.9 mmol/L; ADA: 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) but the same cut-off values for IGT (7.8–11.0 mmol/L). This review investigates whether there are differences in prevalence of IFG, IGT, and combined IFG&IGT between ethnicities, in particular Asian Chinese and European Caucasians. In total, we identified 19 studies using the WHO1999 classification, for which the average proportional prevalence for isolated (i)-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT were 43.9%, 41.0%, and 13.5%, respectively, for Caucasian and 29.2%, 49.4%, and 18.2%, respectively, for Asian. For the 14 studies using ADA2003 classification, the average proportional i-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT prevalences were 58.0%, 20.3%, and 19.8%, respectively, for Caucasian; 48.1%, 27.7%, and 20.5%, respectively, for Asian. Whilst not statistically different, there may be clinically relevant differences in the two populations, with our observations for both classifications indicating that prevalence of i-IFG is higher in Caucasian cohorts whilst i-IGT and combined IFG&IGT are both higher in Asian cohorts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between 24-h Urine Osmolality and Weight Status in Older Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111272
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP
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Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP 65 study. A quota sampling was implemented to achieve a nationally representative sample of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education and region. From a sample size of 1500 participants, 1315 were eligible for the present analysis, 57.3% were women and 23.5% were aged ≥80 years. Participants were grouped using tertiles of 24-h urine osmolality by sex. World Health Organization cutoffs were used to classify participants according to weight status. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association of tertiles of osmolality with weight status, adjusting for confounders. Odds Ratios (OR) and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Being in the 3rd urine osmolality tertile (highest) was associated with a higher risk of being obese in men, OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.66. No such association was found in women. These results highlight the need for implementing studies in order to clarify the association between hydration and weight status in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessReview Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111271
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts
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Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111270
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits
[...] Read more.
Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate) versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0.04 mmol nitrate) on blood pressure, blood coagulation, vascular inflammation markers, plasma nitrate and nitrite before, and 3 h and 6 h after ingestion in healthy older adults (five males, seven females, mean age: 64 years, age range: 57–71 years) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma nitrate and nitrite increased 3 and 6 h after HI-NI ingestion (p < 0.05). Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased 3 h relative to baseline after HI-NI ingestion only (p < 0.05). The number of blood monocyte-platelet aggregates decreased 3 h after HI-NI intake (p < 0.05), indicating reduced platelet activation. The number of blood CD11b-expressing granulocytes decreased 3 h following HI-NI beetroot juice intake (p < 0.05), suggesting a shift toward an anti-adhesive granulocyte phenotype. Numbers of blood CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocyte subtypes slightly increased 6 h after HI-NI beetroot juice ingestion (p < 0.05), but the clinical implications of this response are currently unclear. These findings provide new evidence for the acute effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on circulating immune cells and platelets. Further long-term research is warranted to determine if these effects reduce the risk of developing hypertension and vascular inflammation with aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of High-Dose Multi-Strain Probiotic Supplementation on Neurocognitive Performance and Central Nervous System Immune Activation of HIV-1 Infected Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111269
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the
[...] Read more.
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects. Methods: Thirty-five HIV-1 infected individuals were included in this study. At baseline (T0) a battery of tests was administered, to evaluate neurocognitive function and a lumbar puncture was performed to determine neopterin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a marker of Central Nervous System (CNS) immune activation. Subsequently, a subgroup of participants underwent a 6-month course of multi-strain probiotics supplementation; this intervention group was evaluated, after probiotic treatment, with a second lumbar puncture and with repeated neurocognitive tests. Results: At T0, all participants showed impaired results in at least one neurocognitive test and elevated neopterin concentrations in CSF. After supplementation with probiotics (T6), the interventional group presented a significant decrease in neopterin concentration and a significant improvement in several neurocognitive tests. In contrast, no significant modifications were observed in the neurocognitive performance of controls between T0 and T6. The CNS Penetration Effectiveness Score of antiretroviral therapy did not show an influence from any of the investigated variables. Conclusions: Multi-strain probiotic supplementation seems to exert a positive effect on neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected subjects, but large trials are needed to support the concept that modulation of the gut microbiota can provide specific neurological benefits in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview The Overlapping Area of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) and Wheat-Sensitive Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): An Update
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111268
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome
[...] Read more.
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion. Full article
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Open AccessReview Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111267
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with
[...] Read more.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111266
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary
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Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 22) athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Nutritional Interventions during Pregnancy on Infant and Child Cognitive Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111265
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. Objective: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the
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Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. Objective: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes. Design: Ten electronic databases were searched for articles published up to August 2017. The search was limited to articles published in English. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing the impact of any nutritional intervention (dietary counselling, education, nutrient supplementation, fortified foods and/or foods) during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes of children (<10 years old). Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility and quality using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria checklist for primary research. Standardised mean differences were used for nine cognitive domains to measure effects for meta-analyses. Results: A total of 34 RCTs were included (21 studies included children aged less than 35 months, 10 studies included children aged 36–60 months and 3 studies included children aged 61–119 months). The types of nutritional interventions included nutrient supplements, whole foods, fortified foods and nutrition education. The following nine cognition outcomes: attention, behaviour, crystallised intelligence, fluid intelligence, global cognition, memory, motor skills, visual processing, and problem solving were not significantly impacted by nutritional interventions, although 65% of studies conducted post-hoc data analyses and were likely to be underpowered. Although, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation was associated with a marginal increase in crystallised intelligence (Effect size (ES): 0.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): −0.04, 0.53), the effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.09), with significant study heterogeneity (p = 0.00). Conclusions: LCPUFA supplementation may be associated with an improvement in child crystallised intelligence, however further research is warranted. The remaining eight cognition domains were not significantly impacted by maternal nutritional interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Standard vs. Calorie-Dense Immune Nutrition in Haemodynamically Compromised Cardiac Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111264
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Background. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. Methods. Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients
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Background. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. Methods. Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass receiving inotropic support postoperatively. Patients were to receive either standard isocaloric (1000 Kcal/L and 38 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20) or calorie-dense and protein-rich (1300 Kcal/L and 66.7 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20). Results. The mean time to EN initiation was 27 ± 11 h. Early EN with the calorie-dense formula provided significantly more energy and protein enteral delivery on the 2nd, (p < 0.0001), 5th (p = 0.036), and 7th days (p = 0.024), and was associated with higher levels of prealbumin concentration on the 14th day (0.13 ± 0.01 g/L and 0.21 ± 0.1 g/L; p = 0.04) and significantly increased levels of transferrin on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th day (p < 0.05) after surgery. Conclusion. Present findings support hypothesis that early EN using a calorie-dense and protein rich formula leads to better enteral energy and protein delivery and higher levels of short-lived serum proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids, Antioxidants and Physical Activity in Brain Aging
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111263
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have
[...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Through a literature review, we aimed to highlight recent data on the role of adiposity, fatty acids, antioxidants, and physical inactivity in the pathophysiology of the brain and in the molecular mechanisms of senescence. Data indicate the complexity and necessity of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for the maintenance of redox status and the control of neuroglial signaling under stress. Recent studies also indicate that omega-3 and -6 fatty acids act in a competitive manner to generate mediators for energy metabolism, influencing feeding behavior, neural plasticity, and memory during aging. Finding pharmacological or dietary resources that mitigate or prevent neurodegenerative affections continues to be a great challenge and requires additional effort from researchers, clinicians, and nutritionists in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111262
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of
[...] Read more.
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111261
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (15411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a
[...] Read more.
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111260
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of
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Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to ‘hunger training’, chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001) more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of −0.70 (−1.13, −0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Food Addiction and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Investigation
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111259
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e.,
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In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e., food addiction and binge eating) and EMSs, and (ii) the association between food addiction and EMSs after controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology). Participants were 70 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy. The patients were administered self-report measures investigating food addiction, binge eating, EMSs, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Food addiction severity was strongly associated with all main schema domains. Binge eating severity was positively related to disconnection/rejection (r = 0.41; p < 0.01), impaired limits (r = 0.26; p < 0.05), and other-directedness domains (r = 0.27; p < 0.05). The disconnection/rejection schema was independently associated with food addiction severity, after controlling for the presence of other potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology) suggesting that this domain may be a crucial factor for the development of food addiction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Deficiencies among Breastfeeding Infants in Tanzania
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111258
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed
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Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111257
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in
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Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing FFQ1 against the 3-day diary method (3 DD). A total of 162 respondents (mean age 57.5 years) provided data for the FFQ, of whom 156 also participated in the validity assessment. Mean differences in the intake of foods and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were, overall, small and statistically insignificant. However, a higher estimation was observed by FFQ1 as compared to the 3-DD method for the majority of food groups and nutrient intake in the validity assessment. A systematic mean difference (g/day) was observed for eight food groups in the Bland–Altman agreement test; the largest was for fruit intake. Regarding the nutrients, a systematic mean difference was observed in calcium, fat, and vitamin D intake. Overall, the reproducibility of the FFQ was good, and its validity could be satisfactory for estimating absolute food and nutrient intakes and ranking individuals according to high and low intake categories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Correlation Study of DHA Intake Estimated by a FFQ and Concentrations in Plasma and Erythrocytes in Mid- and Late Pregnancy
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111256
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Adequate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the optimal growth and development of the fetus. Maternal DHA content fluctuates during pregnancy. The correlation of DHA content with dietary intake might be varied over the course of pregnancy. We aimed to compare the dietary
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Adequate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the optimal growth and development of the fetus. Maternal DHA content fluctuates during pregnancy. The correlation of DHA content with dietary intake might be varied over the course of pregnancy. We aimed to compare the dietary DHA intake, estimated by a DHA-specific semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against its blood content, among mid- and late-term pregnant women. A total of 804 Chinese pregnant women completed the tailored FFQ and provided fasting venous blood samples. Dietary DHA intake (mg/day) in the previous month was calculated from the FFQ using Chinese Food Composition Table. DHA concentrations (weight percent of total fatty acids) in plasma and erythrocytes were measured by capillary gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) between DHA intake and its relative concentrations were calculated. After adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, stage of pregnancy, parity, education level, ethnicity, and annual family income per capita, the correlation coefficients of DHA intake with its concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes were 0.35 and 0.33, respectively (p < 0.001). The correlations were relatively stronger among women in late pregnancy (rs = 0.44 in plasma and 0.39 in erythrocytes) than those in mid-pregnancy (rs = 0.25 and 0.26). The significant correlations were consistently observed in subgroups stratified by regions, except for erythrocytes in women living in a coastland area. Multiple regression analyses also indicated significant positive linear correlations between DHA intake and its plasma or erythrocytes concentrations (p < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary DHA intake, estimated by the FFQ, was positively correlated with its concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes in Chinese pregnant women, especially for women in late pregnancy, with the exception of the erythrocytes of those living in a coastland area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Perception of Dietary Fiber Mediate the Impact of Nutrition Knowledge on Eating Fiber-Rich Bread?
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111255
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber
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The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber as a substitute of white bread is one of the ways to increase fiber intake. The aim of this study was to find out whether nutrition knowledge and perception of dietary fiber affected the frequency of eating wholemeal bread and white bread fortified with fiber. The data were collected in 2014 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey that was performed under the Bioproduct project among a group of 1013 Polish adults. The associations between variables were investigated using multiple regression analysis. The respondents’ general knowledge on nutrition influenced their knowledge on fiber intake (correlation coefficient r = 0.30). Respondents with a greater knowledge perceived higher benefits of consuming cereal products that were fortified with fiber (r = 0.78), and attached greater importance to the information on the label (r = 0.39) as well. The nutrition knowledge determined the familiarity with fiber-enriched bread and the consumption of this product (r = 0.40) to a greater degree than the frequency of wholemeal bread consumption (r = −0.10). The respondents’ perception of dietary fiber was observed to play a partial mediation role between the knowledge on nutrition and the consumption of both kinds of breads, suggesting that it can be an important predictor of bread consumption. To increase the consumption of bread that is rich in fiber, emphasis should be laid on specific information on fiber, referring to food products as well as on individual’s perception of those products. The said information should be reinforced along with overall communication regarding nutrition to influence the bread-related decisions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Growth, Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Stool Characteristics of Healthy Term Infants Fed an Infant Formula Containing Hydrolyzed Whey Protein (63%) and Intact Casein (37%): A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111254
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
To investigate whether healthy term infants, fed an infant formula containing hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP-F, hydrolyzed whey/intact casein =63/37), differ in growth, gastrointestinal tolerance and stool characteristics from those fed an infant formula containing intact whey protein (IWP-F, intact whey/intact casein =61/39) or
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To investigate whether healthy term infants, fed an infant formula containing hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP-F, hydrolyzed whey/intact casein =63/37), differ in growth, gastrointestinal tolerance and stool characteristics from those fed an infant formula containing intact whey protein (IWP-F, intact whey/intact casein =61/39) or breast milk. Healthy term infants, born within 14 days of the study’s commencement, were randomly assigned to be fed IWP-F or HWP-F until 13 weeks of age, and breast-fed (BF) infants were enrolled as a reference group. Anthropometric measurements, gastrointestinal tolerance indexes and stool characteristics were assessed at baseline, and 7 and 13 weeks of age. There were no significant differences in any growth measurements and the occurrence of crying, spit-up and difficult defecation among the three feeding groups during the study period. However, daily feeding frequency was consistently lower in the formula-fed infants than in the BF group throughout the study (p < 0.05), and infants in the HWP-F group consumed more formula than those in the IWP-F group at 7 and 13 weeks of age (p ≤ 0.002). The HWP-F-fed infants had more similar stool characteristics to the breast-fed infants than infants in the IWP-F group at 13 weeks of age, regardless of frequency, volume, color or consistency of stool. This study demonstrates that the HWP-F could support the normal growth of healthy term infants, to a comparable extent to that of breast-fed infants during the first three months of life. Moreover, stool characteristics of HWP-F-fed infants are much closer to breast-fed infants than IWP-F-fed infants, but no significant gastrointestinal tolerance improvement was observed in HWP-F group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Magnesium and Incident Frailty in Older People at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111253
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Inadequate magnesium (Mg) intake is associated with lower physical performance, but the relationship with frailty in older people is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher dietary Mg intake is associated with a lower risk of frailty in a large cohort of
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Inadequate magnesium (Mg) intake is associated with lower physical performance, but the relationship with frailty in older people is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher dietary Mg intake is associated with a lower risk of frailty in a large cohort of North American individuals. Details regarding Mg intake were recorded through a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized as greater than/equal to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs. lower. Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Multivariable Cox’s regression analyses, calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were undertaken by sex. In total, 4421 individuals with knee osteoarthritis or who were at high risk without frailty at baseline (mean age: 61.3, females = 58.0%) were followed for 8 years. After adjusting for 11 potential baseline confounders, reaching the RDA for Mg lowered risk of frailty among men (total n = 1857, HR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26–0.93), whilst no significant associations were found in women (total n = 2564). Each 100 mg of dietary Mg intake at baseline corresponded to a 22% reduction in men (HR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62–0.97; p = 0.03), but not in women (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.89–1.23). In conclusion, higher dietary Mg intake appears to reduce the risk of frailty in men, but not in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Effect of Barley Sprout Extract via Enhancement of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 Related Factor 2 Activity and Glutathione Synthesis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111252
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant
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We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects. Similarly, exposure to BSE (0.1–1 mg/mL) significantly reduced oxidative cell death induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP, 300 μM) and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψ). BSE dose-dependently increased the activity of Nrf2, a potential transcriptional regulator of antioxidant genes, in HepG2 cells. Therefore, increased expression of its target genes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) was observed. Since GCLC is involved in the rate-limiting step of GSH synthesis, BSE increased the GSH level and decreased both cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) expression and taurine level. Because cysteine is a substrate for both taurine and GSH synthesis, a decrease in CDO expression would further contribute to increased cysteine availability for GSH synthesis. In conclusion, BSE protected the liver cells from oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and increasing GSH synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Differences in Aluminum Exposure through Parenteral Nutrition in Neonatal Morbidities
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111249
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Aluminum is a common contaminant in many components of parenteral nutrition, especially calcium and phosphate additives. Although long-term effects have been described in the literature, short-term effects are not well-known. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration recommends maintaining aluminum at <5 mcg/kg/day. This
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Aluminum is a common contaminant in many components of parenteral nutrition, especially calcium and phosphate additives. Although long-term effects have been described in the literature, short-term effects are not well-known. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration recommends maintaining aluminum at <5 mcg/kg/day. This was a single center, retrospective case-control study of 102 neonatal intensive care unit patients. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis, rickets/osteopenia, or seizures and received at least 14 days of parenteral nutrition. Patients were matched 1:1 with control patients by gestational age and birth weight. Mean total aluminum exposure for the 14 days of parenteral nutrition was calculated using manufacturer label information. Differences in mean aluminum exposure between cases and controls, as well as subgroup analysis in those with renal impairment or cholestasis, was conducted. Aluminum exposure in patients meeting inclusion criteria closely mirrored the aluminum exposure of control patients. The difference in aluminum exposure was not found to be statistically significant, except in patients with cholestasis. Although the study found no difference in aluminum exposure in short-term complications with neonates, long-term complications are well established and may warrant the need to monitor and limit neonatal aluminum exposure. Full article
Open AccessArticle Plasma Amino Acid Abnormalities in Chronic Heart Failure. Mechanisms, Potential Risks and Targets in Human Myocardium Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111251
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure,
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The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure, arterial AAs, which are the major determinant of AA uptake by the myocardium, are rarely measured. Forty-one subjects with clinically stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV) were analyzed. After overnight fasting, blood samples from the radial artery were taken to measure AA concentrations. Calorie (KcalI), protein-, fat-, carbohydrate-intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), total daily energy expenditure (REE × 1.3), and cardiac right catheterization variables were all measured. Eight matched controls were compared for all measurements, with the exception of cardiac catheterization. Compared with controls, CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels, of which both their number and reduced rates are related to Heart Failure (HF) severity. Arterial aspartic acid correlated with stroke volume index (r = 0.6263; p < 0.0001) and cardiac index (r = 0.4243; p = 0.0028). The value of arterial aspartic acid (µmol/L) multiplied by the cardiac index was associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.3765; p = 0.0076). All NYHA groups had adequate protein intake (≥1.1 g/kg/day) and inadequate calorie intake (KcalI < REE × 1.3) was found only in class IV patients. This study showed that CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels directly related to clinical disease severity and left ventricular dysfunction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use among College Students: A Nationwide Survey in Japan
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111250
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
To clarify the prevalence of dietary supplement use among college students, we conducted Internet-based nationwide questionnaire surveys with 157,595 Japanese college students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were registrants of Macromill Inc. (Tokyo, Japan). Among the 9066 respondents (response rate
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To clarify the prevalence of dietary supplement use among college students, we conducted Internet-based nationwide questionnaire surveys with 157,595 Japanese college students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were registrants of Macromill Inc. (Tokyo, Japan). Among the 9066 respondents (response rate 5.8%), 16.8% were currently using dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplement use did not differ significantly between males (17.1%) and females (16.7%). However, it increased according to their grade (13.1% to 20.5%), and it was higher in medical and pharmaceutical college students (22.0%) compared to others (16.7%). The main purpose of dietary supplement use was for the health benefits in both males and females. Other reasons were to build muscle in males, and as a beauty supplement and for weight loss in females. According to the purpose of dietary supplement use, the most commonly-used dietary supplements were vitamin/mineral supplements in both males and females, then protein and weight loss supplements in males and females, respectively. Although most students obtained information about dietary supplements via the Internet, they typically purchased the supplements from drug stores. Of the students surveyed, 7.5% who were currently using or used to use dietary supplements experienced adverse effects, with no significant difference between genders (8.8% in male, 7.0% in female). In conclusion, the prevalence of dietary supplement use increased with grade among college students in Japan. Some of them experienced adverse effects. Education may be important to prevent adverse effects resulting from supplement use in college. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement Use among Australian Adults: Findings from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111248
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Supplement use is prevalent worldwide; however, there are limited studies examining the characteristics of people who take supplements in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the demographics, lifestyle habits and health status of supplement users; (2) Methods: Adults aged >19 years
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(1) Background: Supplement use is prevalent worldwide; however, there are limited studies examining the characteristics of people who take supplements in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the demographics, lifestyle habits and health status of supplement users; (2) Methods: Adults aged >19 years (n = 4895) were included from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS). A supplement user was defined as anyone who took one or more supplements on either of two 24-h dietary recalls. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of supplement use, according to demographics, lifestyle characteristics and health status of participants; (3) Results: Supplement use was reported by 47% of women and 34% of men, and supplement use was higher among older age groups, among those with higher education levels and from areas reflecting the least socioeconomic disadvantaged. An association was found between blood pressure and supplement use; (4) Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Australians take supplements. Further investigation into the social, psychological and economic determinants that motivate the use of supplements is required, to ensure appropriate use of supplements among Australian adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Brain Development
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111247
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria
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Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour. Data derived from both in vitro experiments and in vivo clinical trials have supported some of these new health implications. While recent molecular advancement has provided strong indications to support and justify the role of the gut microbiota on the gut–brain axis, it is still not clear whether manipulations through probiotics and prebiotics administration could be beneficial in the treatment of neurological problems. The understanding of the gut microbiota and its activities is essential for the generation of future personalized healthcare strategies. Here, we explore and summarize the potential beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics in the neurodevelopmental process and in the prevention and treatment of certain neurological human diseases, highlighting current and future perspectives in this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111246
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have
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Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18–30), healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement (n = 37) and placebo groups (n = 14). MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo (p < 0.001). Daily supplementation with L + Z and increases in MPOD resulted in significant improvements in spatial memory (p < 0.04), reasoning ability (p < 0.05) and complex attention (p < 0.04), above and beyond improvements due to practice effects. Conclusions: Supplementation with L + Z improves CNS xanthophyll levels and cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Profile and Dietary Patterns of Lebanese Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111245
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women); and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women) were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by two 24-h recalls and a semi-quantitative 90-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Results from the study demonstrated that 40% of cases belonged to the high fruit group as compared to 30% following a high meat; fast food dietary pattern. Both groups increased the odds of NAFLD by four-fold (p < 0.05). The traditional diet decreases the odds by 33% after adjustment with the covariables. The high fruit diet group was, as with the high meat, fast food dietary pattern, the main potential risk factor for NAFLD in Lebanese patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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