Next Article in Journal
Reduced Educational Outcomes Persist into Adolescence Following Mild Iodine Deficiency in Utero, Despite Adequacy in Childhood: 15-Year Follow-Up of the Gestational Iodine Cohort Investigating Auditory Processing Speed and Working Memory
Next Article in Special Issue
A Longitudinal Study of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Status throughout Pregnancy and Exclusive Lactation in New Zealand Mothers and Their Infants at 45° S
Previous Article in Journal
Short-Communication: A Comparison of the In Vitro Angiotensin-1-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Capacity of Dairy and Plant Protein Supplements
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maternal Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Neonatal Anthropometric and Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Results from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1353;

Effect of Monthly, High-Dose, Long-Term Vitamin D on Lung Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial

School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 1072, New Zealand
Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Department of General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OEQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1197 KB, uploaded 27 December 2017]   |  


Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median; range = 0.9–1.5 years), either (1) vitamin D3 200,000 IU, followed by monthly 100,000 IU doses (n = 226); or (2) placebo monthly (n = 216). At baseline and follow-up, spirometry yielded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; primary outcome). Mean (standard deviation) 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased from 61 (24) nmol/L at baseline to 119 (45) nmol/L at follow-up in the vitamin D group, but was unchanged in the placebo group. There were no significant lung function improvements (vitamin D versus placebo) in the total sample, vitamin D-deficient participants or asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants. However, among ever-smokers (n = 217), the mean (95% confidence interval) FEV1 increase in the vitamin D versus placebo was 57 (4, 109) mL (p = 0.03). FEV1 increases were larger among vitamin D-deficient ever-smokers (n = 54): 122 (8, 236) mL (p = 0.04). FEV1 improvements were largest among ever-smokers with asthma/COPD (n = 60): 160 (53, 268) mL (p = 0.004). Thus, vitamin D supplementation did not improve lung function among everyone, but benefited ever-smokers, especially those with vitamin D deficiency or asthma/COPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; lung function; forced expiratory volume in 1 s; spirometry; randomized controlled trial vitamin D; lung function; forced expiratory volume in 1 s; spirometry; randomized controlled trial

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sluyter, J.D.; Camargo, C.A., Jr.; Waayer, D.; Lawes, C.M.M.; Toop, L.; Khaw, K.-T.; Scragg, R. Effect of Monthly, High-Dose, Long-Term Vitamin D on Lung Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1353.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top