Special Issue "Binge Eating Disorder"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Katrin Giel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Tübingen, Germany
Interests: anorexia nervosa; binge eating disorder; body image; impulsivity; obesity; psychotherapy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Fernando Fernández-Aranda
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Bellvitge-IDIBELL and CIBEROBN, Barcelona, Spain
Tel. +34-93-2607227
Interests: eating disorders; obesity; psychotherapy; translational research; new technologies; comorbidities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Binge Eating Disorder (BED) has recently been integrated as a novel diagnosis into the DSM-5. Affected patients suffer from recurrent binge eating episodes, which are characterized by an abnormally large amount of food in a short period of time and subjective loss of control over eating during the episode. As patients do not use regular compensatory behavior, BED is often associated with overweight and obesity. There is an increasing interest in understanding mechanisms underlying BED, also to inform development of novel effective treatment approaches. The purpose of this Special Issue is to give an update on the evidence on clinical, risk and maintenance factors of BED, including findings from psychological, neuroendocrinological and animal research, and to discuss implications for interventions.

Prof. Dr. Katrin Giel
Prof. Dr. Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Binge eating
  • Body image
  • Eating disorders
  • Emotion regulation
  • Food
  • Impulsivity
  • Neuroendocrinology
  • Obesity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Binge Eating Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010066 - 10 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study [...] Read more.
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R2 = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents’ negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessArticle
Peripheral Endocannabinoid Responses to Hedonic Eating in Binge-Eating Disorder
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121377 - 20 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with [...] Read more.
Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with BED. Peripheral levels of AEA and 2-AG were measured in 7 obese BED patients before and after eating favorite (hedonic eating) and non-favorite (non-hedonic eating) foods. We found that plasma levels of AEA progressively decreased after eating the non-favorite food and significantly increased after eating the favorite food, whereas plasma levels of 2-AG did not differ significantly between the two test conditions, although they showed a trend toward significantly different time patterns. The changes in peripheral AEA levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensations of the urge to eat and the pleasantness while eating the presented food, while changes in peripheral 2-AG levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensation of the pleasantness while eating the presented food and to the amount of food they would eat. These results suggest the occurrence of distinctive responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in BED. The relevance of such findings to the pathophysiology of BED remains to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessArticle
Explicit and Implicit Approach vs. Avoidance Tendencies towards High vs. Low Calorie Food Cues in Patients with Obesity and Active Binge Eating Disorder
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101068 - 27 Sep 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) suffer from regular food binges with loss of control. This may be due to dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards food in BED. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 24 patients with obesity [...] Read more.
Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) suffer from regular food binges with loss of control. This may be due to dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards food in BED. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 24 patients with obesity and active BED (OB-BED), n = 32 patients with obesity without current BED (OB), and n = 25 healthy controls (CO) either approached (“pulled”) or avoided (“pushed”) high (HC) vs. low calorie (LC) food pictures. We tested the hypothesis that OB-BED patients would show an approach bias (measured as different response times RT) towards HC food compared to the other groups. While there was no main effect for group or direction of movement, a significant main effect for calorie (p < 0.001; RT for HC significantly slower than for LC) was found. Repeated measures ANOVA (rm-ANOVA) for comparison of OB-BED vs. OB vs. CO revealed a significant three-fold interaction group × direction × calorie (p = 0.02). Against our hypothesis, the OB-BED group showed an avoidance bias for LC. In explicit ratings, OB-BED reported a significantly reduced urge to consume LC food compared to the OB group. Similar to OB-BED, CO also showed an avoidance bias for LC. The implications of our results are discussed and future directions in this field of research are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080903 - 19 Aug 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n [...] Read more.
Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in their initial fixation position. While both groups fixated non-food stimuli significantly longer than food stimuli, the BED group allocated significantly more attention towards food than controls. In the visual search task, groups did not differ in detection times. However, a significant detection bias for food was found in full-syndrome BED, but not in controls. An increased initial attention towards food was related to greater BED symptomatology and lower body mass index (BMI) only in full-syndrome BED, while a greater maintained attention to food was associated with lower BMI in controls. The results suggest food-biased visual attentional processing in adults with BED. Further studies should clarify the implications of attentional processes for the etiology and maintenance of BED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessArticle
A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080818 - 29 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such [...] Read more.
Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such behavior remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single day of high-fat overfeeding on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Fifteen young, healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before and after consuming a high-fat (68% of total energy), high-energy (78% greater than daily requirements) diet for one day. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglyceride were measured and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index was calculated. One day of high-fat overfeeding increased postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) by 17.1% (p < 0.0001) and insulin AUC by 16.4% (p = 0.007). Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 28% (p = 0.001). In conclusion, a single day of high-fat, overfeeding impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity in young, healthy adults. This highlights the rapidity with which excessive consumption of calories through high-fat food can impair glucose metabolism, and suggests that acute binge eating may have immediate metabolic health consequences for the individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Food Addiction and Binge Eating: Lessons Learned from Animal Models
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010071 - 11 Jan 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, [...] Read more.
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of “eating addiction” are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways. However, while the drug addiction process has been highly characterised, eating addiction is a nascent field. In fact, there is still a great controversy over the concept of “food addiction”. This review aims to summarize the most relevant animal models of “eating addictive behaviour”, emphasising binge eating disorder, that could help us to understand the neurobiological mechanisms hidden under this behaviour, and to improve the psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment in patients suffering from these pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessReview
Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121294 - 28 Nov 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body [...] Read more.
The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview
Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111274 - 22 Nov 2017
Cited by 26
Abstract
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview
Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111267 - 21 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with [...] Read more.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview
Food-Related Impulsivity in Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder—A Systematic Update of the Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111170 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 34
Abstract
The specific eating pattern of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) patients has provoked the assumption that BED might represent a phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Following the guidelines of the PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews [...] Read more.
The specific eating pattern of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) patients has provoked the assumption that BED might represent a phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Following the guidelines of the PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses), we here provide a systematic update on the evidence on food-related impulsivity in obese individuals, with and without BED, as well as normal-weight individuals. We separately analyzed potential group differences in the impulsivity components of reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behavior. Our search resulted in twenty experimental studies with high methodological quality. The synthesis of the latest evidence consolidates conclusions drawn in our initial systematic review that BED represents a distinct phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Rash-spontaneous behavior in general, and specifically towards food, is increased in BED, while food-specific reward sensitivity is also increased in obese individuals without BED, but potentially to a lesser degree. A major next step for research entails the investigation of sub-domains and temporal components of inhibitory control in BED and obesity. Based on the evidence of impaired inhibitory control in BED, affected patients might profit from interventions that address impulsive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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