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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 18 (September-2 2023) – 232 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Chronotype studies investigating dietary intake, eating occasions (EO) and eating windows (EW) are sparse in people with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis reports data from the CODEC study. The Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) assessed chronotype preference. Diet diaries assessed dietary intake and temporal distribution. Regression analysis assessed whether dietary intake, EW, or EO differed by chronotype. 411 participants were included in this analysis. There were no differences in energy, macronutrient intake or EW between chronotypes. View this paper
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12 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Risk Profile of Patients with Brushite Stone Disease and the Impact of Diet
by Roswitha Siener, Maria Sofie Pitzer, Jan Speller and Albrecht Hesse
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4092; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184092 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3067
Abstract
This study examined the profile of patients and the impact of diet on the risk of brushite stone formation under controlled, standardized conditions. Sixty-five patients with brushite nephrolithiasis were enrolled in the study. Metabolic, dietary, and 24 h urinary parameters were collected under [...] Read more.
This study examined the profile of patients and the impact of diet on the risk of brushite stone formation under controlled, standardized conditions. Sixty-five patients with brushite nephrolithiasis were enrolled in the study. Metabolic, dietary, and 24 h urinary parameters were collected under the habitual, self-selected diet of the patients and the balanced mixed, standardized diet. The [13C2]oxalate absorption, ammonium chloride, and calcium loading tests were conducted. All patients had at least one abnormality on the usual diet, with hypercalciuria (84.6%), increased urine pH (61.5%), and hyperphosphaturia (43.1%) being the most common. Absorptive hypercalciuria was present in 32.1% and hyperabsorption of oxalate in 41.2%, while distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was noted in 50% of brushite stone formers. The relative supersaturation of brushite did not differ between patients with and without dRTA. Among all recent brushite-containing calculi, 61.5% were mixed with calcium oxalate and/or carbonate apatite. The relative supersaturation of brushite, apatite, and calcium oxalate decreased significantly under the balanced diet, mainly due to the significant decline in urinary calcium, phosphate, and oxalate excretion. Dietary intervention was shown to be effective and should be an integral part of the treatment of brushite stone disease. Further research on the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
14 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Changes in Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Weight among Lithuanian Students during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Vilma Kriaučionienė, Monika Grincaitė, Asta Raskilienė and Janina Petkevičienė
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184091 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
The long-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle changes remains understudied. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess changes in nutrition, physical activity, and body weight among Lithuanian students during the pandemic and their post-pandemic persistence. Data were collected from 1430 first-year students [...] Read more.
The long-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle changes remains understudied. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess changes in nutrition, physical activity, and body weight among Lithuanian students during the pandemic and their post-pandemic persistence. Data were collected from 1430 first-year students (325 males, 1105 females) through an online self-administered questionnaire. The students indicated an increase in the consumption of snacks, fast food, home-made confectionery, and sweets. A decrease in physical activity during the pandemic was reported by 34.9% of males and 33.2% of females. Lifestyle changes during the pandemic were associated with post-pandemic habits. A higher proportion of females (38.7%) than males (31.1%) indicated an increase in BMI, which was more pronounced among students with overweight. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that reduced physical activity; the increased consumption of red meat, snacks, fast food, and home-made confectionery during the pandemic; and post-pandemic BMI were linked with weight gain. After the pandemic, weight gain persisted in 40.9% of students who continued to follow unhealthy nutrition habits and had reduced physical activity. The study emphasizes that the promotion of a healthy diet and regular physical activity among university students is essential for developing lifelong habits that contribute to a healthy body weight and overall well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle and Health Changes during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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13 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
The Relationships between Various Factors and Sleep Status: A Cross-Sectional Study among Healthy Saudi Adults
by Sara AL-Musharaf, Basmah Albedair, Waad Alfawaz, Madhawi Aldhwayan and Ghadeer S. Aljuraiban
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4090; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184090 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Impaired sleep can adversely affect daily life. This study assesses the association between different factors and sleep status among apparently healthy Saudi adults. In total, 478 adults were included in this study. Data on anthropometrics, body composition, stress scales, physical activity, and dietary [...] Read more.
Impaired sleep can adversely affect daily life. This study assesses the association between different factors and sleep status among apparently healthy Saudi adults. In total, 478 adults were included in this study. Data on anthropometrics, body composition, stress scales, physical activity, and dietary habits were collected. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Sleep quality and duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Larger neck circumference (NC) was associated with short sleep duration (odds ratio (OR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.08, 1.41]; p = 0.002). Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poor sleep quality (OR 1.01; 95% CI [1.002, 1.02]; p = 0.019) and short sleep duration (OR 1.01; 95% CI [1.004, 1.02]; p = 0.005). Stress was a risk factor for poor sleep quality (OR 1.15; 95% CI [1.09, 1.22]; p < 0.001). Being married was significantly associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.97; 95% CI [1.32, 6.71]; p = 0.009), while being single was correlated with longer sleep duration (OR 0.46; 95% CI [0.22, 0.96]; p = 0.039). Other factors such as having a larger waist circumference and more muscle mass were protective factors against poor sleep quality and/or short sleep duration. In conclusion, a larger NC is suggested as a risk factor for short sleep duration and a higher triglyceride level for both short and poor sleep among healthy Saudis. Investigating the factors associated with sleep status may help alleviate sleep disturbances and improve overall health. Further studies are needed to confirm causality using objective sleep measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet- and Sleep-Based Approach for Cardiovascular Risk/Diseases)
12 pages, 1605 KiB  
Article
Serum Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids and Risk of Maternal Gestational Diabetes and Adverse Growth Patterns in Offspring
by Ninghua Li, Jing Li, Hui Wang, Yijuan Qiao, Weiqin Li, Ming Gao, Enqing Liu, Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu, Zhongze Fang, Junhong Leng and Xilin Yang
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184089 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Background: To estimate associations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) in the early trimester of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and estimate associations of maternal SAAs with adverse growth patterns in offspring. Methods: We established a 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 486) [...] Read more.
Background: To estimate associations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) in the early trimester of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and estimate associations of maternal SAAs with adverse growth patterns in offspring. Methods: We established a 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 486) from our cohort of pregnant women, and 401 children were followed up at ages 1 to 8 years. We conducted binary conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk associations of serum SAAs with GDM. Multinomial logistic regression was implemented to explore associations of maternal SAAs with adverse growth patterns in the offspring. Results: High serum methionine and cystine were independently associated with increased GDM risk (OR: 1.92, 95%CI: 1.18–3.13 and 2.69, 1.59–4.53). Conversely, a low level of serum taurine was independently associated with increased GDM risk (2.61, 1.64–4.16). Maternal high cystine and low taurine were also associated with an increased risk of persistent obesity growth pattern (POGP) in offspring (OR: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.09–7.17 and 3.92, 1.11–13.89) and the effect was largely independent of GDM. Conclusions: High serum methionine, cystine and low serum taurine in the early trimester of pregnancy were associated with a greatly increased risk of GDM. Maternal high cystine and low taurine were associated with elevated risk of offspring POGP, largely independent of GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients as Risk Factors and Treatments for Gestational Diabetes)
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16 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Can Kindergarten Meals Improve the Daily Intake of Vegetables, Whole Grains, and Nuts among Preschool Children? A Randomized Controlled Evaluation
by Maja Berlic, Tadej Battelino and Mojca Korošec
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184088 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Surveys have indicated that preschool children do not consume adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts. This cross-sectional intervention study aimed to investigate whether a meticulously crafted meal plan for children of kindergarten age (5–6 years) could effectively enhance their daily [...] Read more.
Surveys have indicated that preschool children do not consume adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts. This cross-sectional intervention study aimed to investigate whether a meticulously crafted meal plan for children of kindergarten age (5–6 years) could effectively enhance their daily intake of nutritious foods. Ninety-four healthy children from six kindergartens were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to a prototype group (PG) and a control group (CG). The PG kindergartens (n = 4) received a prototype 5-day meal plan that included regulated portions of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts adhering to dietary guidelines. Conversely, the CG kindergartens (n = 2) adhered to their standard meal plan. Participants maintained their usual eating habits outside of kindergarten and during weekends. Using the dietary assessment tool Open Platform for Clinical Nutrition (OPEN), combined with a 7-day dietary record of food consumed inside and outside the kindergarten, the average daily intake of specific food groups was assessed and compared with the Dietary Guidelines for Children. A total of 57 participants completed the study, 40 from the PG and 17 from the CG. Among the PG participants, the average daily intake of vegetables, whole grains, and nuts compared with the guideline recommendations was significantly higher than in the CG. Notably, only meals consumed within the kindergarten setting significantly improved the overall intake, with the outside intake having no significant effect. This study underscores the vital role of a well-designed and precisely executed meal plan in kindergartens in improving children’s intake of healthy foods. The findings could help drive positive changes in child nutrition within educational environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Dietary Guidelines in Health and Disease)
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12 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Long-Term Dietary Supplement Use among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Seonghye Kim, Yohwan Yeo, Jinyoung Shin, Dong Wook Shin, Belong Cho and Yun-Mi Song
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4087; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184087 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Purpose: The factors associated with the dietary supplement (DS) use of Asian breast cancer survivors in consideration of the duration of use and types of DS have not been well established. Methods: We recruited 693 Korean female breast cancer survivors at two university-affiliated [...] Read more.
Purpose: The factors associated with the dietary supplement (DS) use of Asian breast cancer survivors in consideration of the duration of use and types of DS have not been well established. Methods: We recruited 693 Korean female breast cancer survivors at two university-affiliated hospitals and collected study data through a self-administered questionnaire and a review of medical records. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the multivariable-adjusted association between DS use and study variables. Results: The prevalence of any (≥2 weeks) and long-term (≥6 months) DS use among study participants was 48.2% and 12.0%, respectively. Education level, alcohol use, adequate physical activity (≥150 min/week), and time lapse after cancer diagnosis were positively associated with any DS use. Among DS users, as compared with short-term (≥2 weeks and <6 months) users, long-term users were more likely to have a higher cancer stage, more diverse cancer treatment modalities, a shorter time since cancer diagnosis, and lower fear of cancer recurrence. When we repeated the analysis for each DS type, time lapse after cancer diagnosis showed a consistently inverse association with long-term use of the most frequently consumed DS (multivitamins, followed by vitamin D/calcium, vitamin C, and omega-3). The number of cancer treatment modalities was positively associated with the long-term use of multivitamins and vitamin D/calcium. Alcohol consumption and low bone mineral density were positively associated with long-term vitamin D/calcium use. Conclusions: The factors associated with DS use differed by the duration of DS use and specific DS type. Long-term DS use was more frequently associated with cancer-related factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements and Cancer Prevention)
17 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
A Large Genetic Causal Analysis of the Gut Microbiota and Urological Cancers: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study
by Zhaofa Yin, Bohan Liu, Shijian Feng, Yushi He, Cai Tang, Pengan Chen, Xinyi Wang and Kunjie Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184086 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2918
Abstract
Background: Several observational studies and clinical trials have shown that the gut microbiota is associated with urological cancers. However, the causal relationship between gut microbiota and urological cancers remains to be elucidated due to many confounding factors. Methods: In this study, we used [...] Read more.
Background: Several observational studies and clinical trials have shown that the gut microbiota is associated with urological cancers. However, the causal relationship between gut microbiota and urological cancers remains to be elucidated due to many confounding factors. Methods: In this study, we used two thresholds to identify gut microbiota GWAS from the MiBioGen consortium and obtained data for five urological cancers from the UK biobank and Finngen consortium, respectively. We then performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis with Wald ratio or inverse variance weighted as the main method. We also performed comprehensive sensitivity analyses to verify the robustness of the results. In addition, we performed a reverse MR analysis to examine the direction of causality. Results: Our study found that family Rikenellaceae, genus Allisonella, genus Lachnospiraceae UCG001, genus Oscillibacter, genus Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, genus Eubacterium ruminantium group, genus Ruminococcaceae UCG013, and genus Senegalimassilia were related to bladder cancer; genus Ruminococcus torques group, genus Oscillibacter, genus Barnesiella, genus Butyricicoccus, and genus Ruminococcaceae UCG005 were related to prostate cancer; class Alphaproteobacteria, class Bacilli, family Family XI, genus Coprococcus2, genus Intestinimonas, genus Lachnoclostridium, genus Lactococcus, genus Ruminococcus torques group, and genus Eubacterium brachy group were related to renal cell cancer; family Clostridiaceae 1, family Christensenellaceae, genus Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1, and genus Eubacterium eligens group were related to renal pelvis cancer; family Peptostreptococcaceae, genus Romboutsia, and genus Subdoligranulum were related to testicular cancer. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses proved that our results were reliable. Conclusions: Our study confirms the role of specific gut microbial taxa on urological cancers, explores the mechanism of gut microbiota on urological cancers from a macroscopic level, provides potential targets for the screening and treatment of urological cancers, and is dedicated to providing new ideas for clinical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota in Human Health)
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23 pages, 1166 KiB  
Review
Isolation, Identification, Activity Evaluation, and Mechanism of Action of Neuroprotective Peptides from Walnuts: A Review
by Li Zhang, Yu-Ying Bai, Zi-Shan Hong, Jing Xie and Yang Tian
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184085 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
As human life expectancy increases, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases in older adults has increased in parallel. Walnuts contain bioactive peptides with demonstrated neuroprotective effects, making them a valuable addition to the diet. We here present a comprehensive review of the various methods [...] Read more.
As human life expectancy increases, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases in older adults has increased in parallel. Walnuts contain bioactive peptides with demonstrated neuroprotective effects, making them a valuable addition to the diet. We here present a comprehensive review of the various methods used to prepare, isolate, purify, and identify the neuroprotective peptides found in walnuts. We further summarise the different approaches currently used to evaluate the activity of these peptides in experimental settings, highlighting their potential to reduce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and promote autophagy, as well as to regulate the gut microflora and balance the cholinergic system. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research concerning bioavailability and improving or masking the bitter taste and sensory properties of final products containing the identified walnut neuroprotective peptides to ensure successful adoption of these peptides as functional food ingredients for neurohealth promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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10 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Refeeding Syndrome in Older Hospitalized Patients: Incidence, Management, and Outcomes
by Kevin Terlisten, Rainer Wirth, Diana Daubert and Maryam Pourhassan
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184084 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a serious metabolic disturbance that manifests after reintroducing nutrition to severely malnourished individuals. Especially susceptible are older patients, due to higher malnutrition rates, although the incidence remains uncertain. Our study aimed to assess the occurrence and management of RFS [...] Read more.
Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a serious metabolic disturbance that manifests after reintroducing nutrition to severely malnourished individuals. Especially susceptible are older patients, due to higher malnutrition rates, although the incidence remains uncertain. Our study aimed to assess the occurrence and management of RFS in malnourished older hospitalized patients. This prospective study included 156 malnourished older patients, with malnutrition identified using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form. We evaluated critical biochemical parameters at admission and for ten days after starting nutritional therapy. Using the consensus evidence-based approach, we managed and evaluated RFS. We also tracked mortality and unexpected hospital readmissions for six months after discharge. The average patient age was 82.3 ± 7.5 years, with 69% female. Patients showed hypophosphatemia (23%), hypomagnesemia (31%), and hypokalemia (6%) on admission. Prior to nutritional replenishment, patients were classified as being at low (64%), high (30%), or very high risk (6%) for RFS. After nutritional therapy, 14% and 5% developed imminent and manifest RFS, respectively. There were no significant differences in six-month post-discharge mortality rates or unexpected hospital readmissions between patients with or without RFS. Despite adherence to guideline-recommended management, RFS can persist. No elevated mortality was noted in RFS patients, potentially due to early diagnosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
10 pages, 1415 KiB  
Brief Report
Investigating the Combined Effects of Mechanical Stress and Nutrition on Muscle Hypertrophic Signals Using Contractile 3D-Engineered Muscle (3D-EM)
by Dong Yi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Teppei Matsumura, Sho Yokoyama, Toshia Fujisato, Tomohiro Nakamura and Takeshi Hashimoto
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184083 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Since 3D-EM closely resembles in vivo muscles, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise (electrical pulse stimulation (EPS)) and nutrition (maca), which contains triterpenes, on muscle hypertrophy by using 3D-EM for the first time. The 3D-EM was composed [...] Read more.
Since 3D-EM closely resembles in vivo muscles, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise (electrical pulse stimulation (EPS)) and nutrition (maca), which contains triterpenes, on muscle hypertrophy by using 3D-EM for the first time. The 3D-EM was composed of C2C12 cells and type 1 collagen gel, was differentiated for 14 days, and was divided into four groups: control, maca, EPS, and maca + EPS. The medium was replaced every two days before each EPS intervention, and the concentration of maca in the culture solution was 1 mg/mL. The intervention conditions of the EPS were 30 V, 1 Hz, and 2 ms (24 h on, 24 h off, for one week). The expression levels of proteins were examined by Western blotting. The intervention of maca and EPS upregulated the expression of MHC-fast/slow (both p < 0.05) compared with the control group, and the addition of maca had no effect on the phosphorylation of mTOR (p = 0.287) but increased the AMPK phosphorylation (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that intervention with maca and EPS has a positive effect on muscle hypertrophy, which has a positive impact on sarcopenia. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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12 pages, 941 KiB  
Article
The Role of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels with and without Explanatory Videos on Parent and Child Food Choices
by Dan J. Graham, Rachel G. Lucas-Thompson and Gina Slejko
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184082 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine whether parent/child pairs choosing products from a grocery aisle labeled with front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels would make more healthful choices than pairs who viewed the same items without labels, and to determine the added value [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to determine whether parent/child pairs choosing products from a grocery aisle labeled with front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels would make more healthful choices than pairs who viewed the same items without labels, and to determine the added value of viewing an explanatory video before choosing. In this experiment, 175 parent/child pairs chose USD 20 worth of packaged foods and beverages from a grocery aisle in a research laboratory and were randomly assigned to see products that either did or did not have 0–4-star FOP labels, with more stars indicating more healthful products. Among those participants with access to FOP labels, half were randomly assigned to view a 30 s video explaining the FOP labels before selecting foods. Participants who saw the explanatory video before selecting among products with FOP labels chose foods with significantly more stars than participants who saw the FOP-labeled products without the video; however, there was no significant difference in mean stars on selected products between the group that saw the videos and the control group that saw neither the video nor FOP labels. We conclude that explaining new FOP labels to consumers may be necessary for the labels to prompt more healthful choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Nutrition Labels in Relation to Diet and Public Health)
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12 pages, 763 KiB  
Article
Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation on Inflammatory Marker Concentrations in Older Adults
by Samuel Adler, Wyatt Olsen, Bryna Rackerby, Rachel Spencer and David C. Dallas
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184081 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 3577
Abstract
Although whey protein isolate (WPI) has been shown to be immunomodulatory, its ability to modulate production of a broad array of inflammatory markers has not previously been investigated in healthy adults. We investigated the effects of daily supplementation with 35 g of WPI [...] Read more.
Although whey protein isolate (WPI) has been shown to be immunomodulatory, its ability to modulate production of a broad array of inflammatory markers has not previously been investigated in healthy adults. We investigated the effects of daily supplementation with 35 g of WPI for 3 weeks on inflammatory marker concentrations in the blood serum and feces of 14 older adult subjects (mean age: 59). Serum was analyzed using a multiplex assay to quantify the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A and TNF-α. Fecal samples were analyzed using an ELISA for the inflammatory markers calprotectin and lactoferrin. Our results yielded high inter-subject variability and a significant proportion of cytokine concentrations that were below our method’s limit of quantification. We observed decreases in serum IL-12p70 in the washout phase compared with baseline, as well as the washout stage for fecal lactoferrin relative to the intervention stage. Serum IL-13 was also significantly reduced during the intervention and washout stages. Our data suggest that whey protein supplementation did not significantly alter most inflammatory markers measured but can alter concentrations of some inflammatory markers in healthy older adults. However, our study power of 35% suggests the number of participants was too low to draw strong conclusions from our data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Milk Proteins and Human Health)
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18 pages, 8526 KiB  
Article
Chinese Sumac Fruits (Rhus chinesis Mill.) Alleviate Type 2 Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice through Repairing Islet Cell Functions, Regulating IRS-1/PI3K/AKT Pathways and Promoting the Entry of Nrf2 into the Nucleus
by Xiaojing Liu, Shengbao Cai, Junjie Yi and Chuanqi Chu
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184080 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
This research aimed to probe the potential alleviative effects of ethanol extracts of Chinese sumac (Rhus chinesis Mill.) fruits against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat/high-fructose diet (HFFD) and streptozotocin. The results showed that the ethanol extracts could [...] Read more.
This research aimed to probe the potential alleviative effects of ethanol extracts of Chinese sumac (Rhus chinesis Mill.) fruits against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat/high-fructose diet (HFFD) and streptozotocin. The results showed that the ethanol extracts could significantly regulate blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance, while also restoring endogenous oxidative stress. Pathological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the extracts partially restored the physiological function of islet cells. Furthermore, Western blotting results suggested that the extracts could regulate the protein expression in IRS-1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and immunofluorescence findings demonstrated their potential to promote the translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus. This study elucidated a novel finding that ethanol extracts derived from Chinese sumac fruits have the potential to alleviate symptoms of T2DM in mice. Moreover, these findings could offer valuable scientific insights into the potential utilization of R. chinensis fruits as nutritional supplement and/or functional food to prevent or ameliorate diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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16 pages, 1958 KiB  
Article
Associations between Milk Intake and Sleep Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Jinzhong Xu, Jiaying Lao, Qingxi Jiang, Wenhui Lin, Xiyi Chen, Chongrong Zhu, Shencong He, Wenbo Xie, Fan Wang, Bo Yang and Yanlong Liu
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4079; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184079 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
We aimed to examine the association of milk intake with sleep disorders and their specific indicators. The current study included 768 adults aged 28–95 from Wenling, China. Milk intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire with ten food items, while sleep disorders [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the association of milk intake with sleep disorders and their specific indicators. The current study included 768 adults aged 28–95 from Wenling, China. Milk intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire with ten food items, while sleep disorders were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), with higher scores indicating poorer sleep. The participants were divided into two groups according to the average intake of milk per week: rare intake (≤62.5 mL/week) and regular intake (>62.5 mL/week). Primary measurements were multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of sleep disorders concerning regular milk intake compared with rare intake. In secondary analyses, linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effects of milk intake on sleep disorders and their specific dimensions. Regular intake of milk did not have a significant association with sleep disorders compared with rare intake (adjusted OR: 0.72, 95%; CI: 0.51, 1.03), but this association was found to be pronounced with sleep disturbances (OR: 0.49, 95%; CI: 0.28, 0.87). Increased intake of milk was significantly associated with the lower scores of PSQI for sleep quality (β: −0.045, 95%; CI: −0.083, −0.007) and sleep disturbances (β: −0.059, 95%; CI: −0.090, −0.029), respectively. When stratified by age and gender, the benefits of milk intake for sleep disorders and sleep disturbances were more significant in older adults (≥65) and men than in younger persons and women. In summary, regular milk intake benefits sleep quality, which may contribute to nutritional psychiatric support for prevention against sleep disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Roles of Dairy Intake in Health Development)
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15 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Associations of Dietary Inflammatory Potential with Esophageal Precancerous Lesions and Esophageal Squamous-Cell Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Jingwen Dong, Min Gao, Lin Li, Xiaoyu Pan, Sheng-Yin Chen, Jun Li, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner, Xiaoguang Li, Hui Wang and Jiali Zheng
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184078 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Chronic inflammation plays a central role in the progression from esophageal precancerous lesions (EPLs) to esophageal squamous-cell cancer (ESCC). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the overall inflammatory potential of diets and EPLs and ESCC. We aimed to study the association [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation plays a central role in the progression from esophageal precancerous lesions (EPLs) to esophageal squamous-cell cancer (ESCC). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the overall inflammatory potential of diets and EPLs and ESCC. We aimed to study the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and EPLs and ESCC. As part of the National Cohort of Esophageal Cancer (NCEC) in China, 3967 residents (1993 men and 1974 women) aged from 40 to 69 years living in Yanting County received free gastroscopy screenings from 2017 to 2019. Dietary intake during the past year was assessed at enrollment of the cohort before screening and DII scores were calculated based on 28 food parameters. EPLs (classified into mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia) and ESCC were histologically confirmed by biopsy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations of DII scores with EPLs and ESCC. A total of 312 participants were diagnosed with EPLs (226 with mild dysplasia, 40 with moderate dysplasia, and 46 with severe dysplasia) and 72 were diagnosed with ESCC. A statistically significant positive association was observed between DII scores and overall EPLs (ORT3 vs. T1 = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.01–2.09); the association was similar but not statistically significant for mild dysplasia (ORone-unit-increment = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.95–1.34) and for moderate and severe dysplasia combined (ORone-unit-increment = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.87–1.51). The association with ESCC was similar in magnitude but not significant, likely due to the small number of cases. In this cross-sectional study of a population in China at high risk of ESCC, DII scores were positively associated with odds of EPLs and ESCC. Consumption of anti-inflammatory foods may be beneficial to prevent EPLs and ESCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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14 pages, 1886 KiB  
Review
Thymus atlanticus: A Source of Nutrients with Numerous Health Benefits and Important Therapeutic Potential for Age-Related Diseases
by Adil El Midaoui, Farid Khallouki, Réjean Couture, Florina Moldovan, Mahmoud Ali Ismael, Brice Ongali, Marie Yvonne Akoume, Chakib Alem, Ali Ait Boughrous, Wafa Zennouhi, Mhammed Chaoui Roqai, Lhoussain Hajji, Imen Ghzaiel, Anne Vejux and Gérard Lizard
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184077 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Thymus atlanticus (Lamiaceae) is a plant endemic to the Mediterranean basin that is found in significant quantities in the arid regions of Morocco. Thymus atlanticus is used in traditional medicine to treat infectious and non-infectious diseases. It is also used for the isolation [...] Read more.
Thymus atlanticus (Lamiaceae) is a plant endemic to the Mediterranean basin that is found in significant quantities in the arid regions of Morocco. Thymus atlanticus is used in traditional medicine to treat infectious and non-infectious diseases. It is also used for the isolation of essential oils and for the seasoning of many dishes in the Mediterranean diet. The major constituents of Thymus atlanticus are saponins, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, various simple and hydroxycinnamic phenolic compounds, and terpene compounds. Several of these compounds act on signaling pathways of oxidative stress, inflammation, and blood sugar, which are parameters often dysregulated during aging. Due to its physiochemical characteristics and biological activities, Thymus atlanticus could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of age-related diseases. These different aspects are treated in the present review, and we focused on phytochemistry and major age-related diseases: dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
Caloric Restriction: A Novel Conditioning Strategy to Improve the Survival of Ischemically Challenged Musculocutaneous Random Pattern Flaps
by Andrea Weinzierl, Maximilian Coerper, Yves Harder, Michael D. Menger and Matthias W. Laschke
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184076 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Caloric restriction (CR) is a cost-effective and easy-to-perform approach to counteracting surgical stress. The present study therefore evaluates the tissue-protective effects of a 30% CR in musculocutaneous flaps undergoing ischemia. For this purpose, a well-established murine dorsal skinfold chamber model, in combination with [...] Read more.
Caloric restriction (CR) is a cost-effective and easy-to-perform approach to counteracting surgical stress. The present study therefore evaluates the tissue-protective effects of a 30% CR in musculocutaneous flaps undergoing ischemia. For this purpose, a well-established murine dorsal skinfold chamber model, in combination with random pattern musculocutaneous flaps, was used. C57BL/6N mice were divided at random into a CR group (n = 8) and a control group with unrestricted access to standard chow (n = 8). The CR animals were subjected to a 30% reduction in caloric intake for 10 days before flap elevation. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was carried out on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after flap elevation to assess the nutritive blood perfusion, angiogenesis and flap necrosis. Subsequently, the flap tissue was harvested for additional histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The CR-treated animals exhibited a significantly higher functional capillary density and more newly formed microvessels within the flap tissue when compared to the controls; this was associated with a significantly higher flap survival rate. Immunohistochemical analyses showed a decreased invasion of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophilic granulocytes into the flap tissue of the CR-treated mice. Moreover, the detection of cleaved caspase-3 revealed fewer cells undergoing apoptosis in the transition zone between the vital and necrotic tissue in the flaps of the CR-treated mice. These results demonstrate that a CR of 30% effectively prevents flap necrosis by maintaining microperfusion on a capillary level and inhibiting inflammation under ischemic stress. Hence, CR represents a promising novel conditioning strategy for improving the survival of musculocutaneous flaps with random pattern perfusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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16 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Acceptability, Functionality, and Validity of a Passive Image-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Method in Adults and Children of Ghanaian and Kenyan Origin Living in London, UK
by Modou L. Jobarteh, Megan A. McCrory, Benny Lo, Konstantinos K. Triantafyllidis, Jianing Qiu, Jennifer P. Griffin, Edward Sazonov, Mingui Sun, Wenyan Jia, Tom Baranowski, Alex K. Anderson, Kathryn Maitland and Gary Frost
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184075 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Background: Accurate estimation of dietary intake is challenging. However, whilst some progress has been made in high-income countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain behind, contributing to critical nutritional data gaps. This study aimed to validate an objective, passive image-based dietary intake assessment [...] Read more.
Background: Accurate estimation of dietary intake is challenging. However, whilst some progress has been made in high-income countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain behind, contributing to critical nutritional data gaps. This study aimed to validate an objective, passive image-based dietary intake assessment method against weighed food records in London, UK, for onward deployment to LMICs. Methods: Wearable camera devices were used to capture food intake on eating occasions in 18 adults and 17 children of Ghanaian and Kenyan origin living in London. Participants were provided pre-weighed meals of Ghanaian and Kenyan cuisine and camera devices to automatically capture images of the eating occasions. Food images were assessed for portion size, energy, nutrient intake, and the relative validity of the method compared to the weighed food records. Results: The Pearson and Intraclass correlation coefficients of estimates of intakes of food, energy, and 19 nutrients ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 and 0.67 to 0.90, respectively. Bland–Altman analysis showed good agreement between the image-based method and the weighed food record. Under-estimation of dietary intake by the image-based method ranged from 4 to 23%. Conclusions: Passive food image capture and analysis provides an objective assessment of dietary intake comparable to weighed food records. Full article
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16 pages, 4485 KiB  
Article
Alleviating Effects of Ovatodiolide and Antcin K Supplements on High-Fat Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction in ApoE-Knockout Mice by Attenuating Oxidative Stress
by Chen-Wen Lu, Wen-Jhen Wu, Thi Kim Ngan Nguyen, Szu-Chuan Shen, Yeh-B. Wu, Hui-Ju Liang and Chung-Hsin Wu
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184074 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
A high-fat diet (HFD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Many pure compounds have been demonstrated to be effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effects of oral ovatodiolide and antcin K (OAK) supplements on HFD-induced [...] Read more.
A high-fat diet (HFD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Many pure compounds have been demonstrated to be effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effects of oral ovatodiolide and antcin K (OAK) supplements on HFD-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-knockout mice. Cardiovascular dysfunction was induced in ApoE-knockout mice by feeding them an HFD for 12 weeks. The degree of cardiovascular dysfunction was assessed through echocardiography, hematological and biochemical analyses, and immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. The HFD-fed mice exhibited cardiovascular dysfunction—abnormal blood biochemical index. The arterial wall tissue exhibited the marked deposition of lipids, upregulated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and CD36 receptors, and downregulated expression of the ABCA1 receptor. Macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity of the mice exhibited increased levels of lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species, and CD11b expression but reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. The expression of superoxide dismutase 2 was downregulated and that of tumor necrosis factor-α was upregulated in the myocardial tissue. Oral OAK supplements twice a day for 12 weeks significantly mitigated HFD-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in the experimental mice. Oral OAK supplements appear to be a promising strategy for treating HFD-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms may involve the reduction of lipid accumulation in the artery and oxidative stress and inflammation in the cardiovascular tissue. Full article
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41 pages, 1501 KiB  
Review
Anabolic Resistance in the Pathogenesis of Sarcopenia in the Elderly: Role of Nutrition and Exercise in Young and Old People
by Caterina Tezze, Marco Sandri and Paolo Tessari
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184073 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4892
Abstract
The development of sarcopenia in the elderly is associated with many potential factors and/or processes that impair the renovation and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and strength as ageing progresses. Among them, a defect by skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is [...] Read more.
The development of sarcopenia in the elderly is associated with many potential factors and/or processes that impair the renovation and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and strength as ageing progresses. Among them, a defect by skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is to be considered. Common anabolic stimuli/signals in skeletal muscle are hormones (insulin, growth hormones, IGF-1, androgens, and β-agonists such epinephrine), substrates (amino acids such as protein precursors on top, but also glucose and fat, as source of energy), metabolites (such as β-agonists and HMB), various biochemical/intracellular mediators), physical exercise, neurogenic and immune-modulating factors, etc. Each of them may exhibit a reduced effect upon skeletal muscle in ageing. In this article, we overview the role of anabolic signals on muscle metabolism, as well as currently available evidence of resistance, at the skeletal muscle level, to anabolic factors, from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Some indications on how to augment the effects of anabolic signals on skeletal muscle are provided. Full article
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17 pages, 1158 KiB  
Review
Brown Fat and Nutrition: Implications for Nutritional Interventions
by Lloyd Noriega, Cheng-Ying Yang and Chih-Hao Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184072 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Brown and beige adipocytes are renowned for their unique ability to generate heat through a mechanism known as thermogenesis. This process can be induced by exposure to cold, hormonal signals, drugs, and dietary factors. The activation of these thermogenic adipocytes holds promise for [...] Read more.
Brown and beige adipocytes are renowned for their unique ability to generate heat through a mechanism known as thermogenesis. This process can be induced by exposure to cold, hormonal signals, drugs, and dietary factors. The activation of these thermogenic adipocytes holds promise for improving glucose metabolism, reducing fat accumulation, and enhancing insulin sensitivity. However, the translation of preclinical findings into effective clinical therapies poses challenges, warranting further research to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the differentiation and function of brown and beige adipocytes. Consequently, research has focused on the development of drugs, such as mirabegron, ephedrine, and thyroid hormone, that mimic the effects of cold exposure to activate brown fat activity. Additionally, nutritional interventions have been explored as an alternative approach to minimize potential side effects. Brown fat and beige fat have emerged as promising targets for addressing nutritional imbalances, with the potential to develop strategies for mitigating the impact of metabolic diseases. Understanding the influence of nutritional factors on brown fat activity can facilitate the development of strategies to promote its activation and mitigate metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 4th APNNO Biennial Conference 2022)
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12 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Impact of Replacing Soft Drinks with Dairy Products on Micronutrient Intakes of Chinese Preschool Children: A Simulation Study
by Yiding Zhuang, Jia Yin, Fei Han, Jialu You, Ye Ding and Zhixu Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184071 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
At present, energy surplus and micronutrient deficiency coexist in preschool children in China. The low intake of dairy products accompanied by an increased consumption of soft drinks in this age group reveals some of the reasons for this phenomenon. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
At present, energy surplus and micronutrient deficiency coexist in preschool children in China. The low intake of dairy products accompanied by an increased consumption of soft drinks in this age group reveals some of the reasons for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of key micronutrients in preschool children by quantifying the dietary nutritional gap before and after simulating the use of dairy products instead of equal amounts of soft drinks. In the cross-sectional dietary intake survey of infants and young children in China (2018–2019), 676 preschool children aged 3–6 years were randomly selected. Four days of dietary data were collected through an online diary for simulation. The individual intake of soft drinks was substituted at a corresponding volume by soymilk, cow’s milk, or formulated milk powder for preschool children (FMP-PSC). In these three models, the simulated nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacy or surplus were compared with the actual baseline data of the survey. The results of this study indicated that all three models made the nutrient intakes of this group more in line with the recommendations. For the whole population, the replacement of soymilk improved the intake of zinc (from 4.80 to 4.85 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 836.82 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 213.92 μg retinol activity equivalent/d), and vitamin B9 (from 115.94 to 122.79 μg dietary folate equivalent/d); the simulation of cow’s milk improved the intake of calcium (from 311.82 to 330.85 mg/d), zinc (from 4.80 to 4.87 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 833.62 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 215.12 μg retinol activity equivalent/d), vitamin B2 (from 0.53 to 0.54 mg/d), and vitamin B12 (from 1.63 to 1.67 μg/d); and the substitution of FMP-PSC improved the intake of calcium (from 311.82 to 332.32 mg/d), iron (from 9.91 to 9.36 mg/d), zinc (from 4.80 to 4.96 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 828.71 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 217.93 μg retinol activity equivalent/d), vitamin B2 (from 0.53 to 0.54 mg/d), vitamin B9 (from 115.94 to 118.80 μg RA dietary folate equivalent/d), and vitamin B12 (from 1.63 to 1.70 μg/d). Therefore, correct nutritional information should be provided to parents and preschool children. In addition to changing the consumption behavior of soft drinks, it is also necessary to have a diversified and balanced diet. When necessary, the use of food ingredients or nutritional fortifiers can be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
16 pages, 470 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Polyphenols, Minerals, Fibers, and Fruits on Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review
by Giuseppe Chiarioni, Stefan Lucian Popa, Abdulrahman Ismaiel, Cristina Pop, Dinu Iuliu Dumitrascu, Vlad Dumitru Brata, Traian Adrian Duse, Victor Incze and Teodora Surdea-Blaga
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184070 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. Various dietary factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis and management of IBS symptoms. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. Various dietary factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis and management of IBS symptoms. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of polyphenols, minerals, fibers, and fruits on the symptoms and overall well-being of individuals with IBS. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in several electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies published up until July 2023 were included. Results: The selected studies varied in terms of study design, participant characteristics, intervention duration, and outcome measures. Overall, the findings suggest that dietary interventions involving polyphenols, minerals, fibers, and fruits can have a positive impact on IBS symptoms. Dietary fiber supplementation, particularly soluble fiber, has been associated with reduced bloating and enhanced stool consistency. Conclusions: This systematic review provides evidence supporting the beneficial effects of polyphenols, minerals, fibers, and fruits in IBS patients. These dietary components hold promise as complementary approaches for managing IBS symptoms. However, due to the heterogeneity of the included studies and the limited number of high-quality randomized controlled trials, further well-designed trials are warranted to establish the optimal dosages, duration, and long-term effects of these interventions. Understanding the role of specific dietary components in IBS management may pave the way for personalized dietary recommendations and improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from this complex disorder. Full article
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3 pages, 205 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Mahat, R.K.; Rathore, V. Comment on “Xiang et al. Association between the Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients 2023, 15, 639”
by Qunyan Xiang, Hui Xu, Junkun Zhan, Shuzhen Lu, Shuang Li, Yanjiao Wang, Yi Wang, Jieyu He, Yuqing Ni, Linsen Li, Yiyang Liu and Youshuo Liu
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184069 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
We are pleased to see that Mahat and Rathore [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
2 pages, 203 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Xiang et al. Association between the Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients 2023, 15, 639
by Roshan Kumar Mahat and Vedika Rathore
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184068 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
We read with great interest the article entitled “Association between the Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” by Xiang Q et al. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
12 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps in Kashgar Prefecture of Xinjiang, China
by Zhuo-Jie He, Weili Yusufu, Shuang Zhang, Min-Yi Luo, Yong-Cheng Chen, Hui Peng and Xing-Yang Wan
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184067 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Malignant colorectal tumors and precancerous lesions are closely associated with chronic inflammation. Specific dietary patterns can increase chronic inflammation in the body, thereby promoting the occurrence of tumors and precancerous lesions. We have conducted a case–control study in Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang, China, to [...] Read more.
Malignant colorectal tumors and precancerous lesions are closely associated with chronic inflammation. Specific dietary patterns can increase chronic inflammation in the body, thereby promoting the occurrence of tumors and precancerous lesions. We have conducted a case–control study in Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang, China, to explore the association between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (CAP). A total of 52 newly diagnosed patients with CAP and 192 controls at the First People’s Hospital of Kashgar Prefecture were enrolled in this study. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. The E-DII was calculated based on dietary data, reflecting an individual’s dietary inflammatory potential. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between the E-DII and the risk of CAP, with adjustments for potential confounding factors. The results showed that the maximum anti- and pro-inflammatory values of E-DII were −4.33 and +3.48, respectively. Higher E-DII scores were associated with an increased risk of CAP, and this association remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and other relevant variables. Notably, a more pro-inflammatory dietary pattern may be related to an increased risk of developing CAP in Kashgar Prefecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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27 pages, 5326 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a High-Protein Diet Supplemented with Blackthorn Flower Extract on Polyphenol Bioavailability and Antioxidant Status in the Organs of C57BL/6 Mice
by Vedran Balta, Domagoj Đikić, Irena Landeka Jurčević, Dyana Odeh, Nada Oršolić, Nikola Ferara, Dario Dilber, Petar Dragičević and Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184066 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The health benefits of polyphenols are based on their bioavailability, which is why a significant portion of research focuses on factors that affect their bioavailability. Previous studies suggest that the intake of polyphenols along with macronutrients in food represents one of the key [...] Read more.
The health benefits of polyphenols are based on their bioavailability, which is why a significant portion of research focuses on factors that affect their bioavailability. Previous studies suggest that the intake of polyphenols along with macronutrients in food represents one of the key factors influencing the bioavailability of polyphenols and, consequently, their biological activity in the organism. Since polyphenols in the human diet are mainly consumed in food together with macronutrients, this study investigated the in vivo absorption, metabolism, and distribution of polyphenolic compounds from the water extract of blackthorn flower (Prunus spinosa L.) in combination with a protein-enriched diet in the organs (small intestine, liver, kidney) of C57BL/6 mice. The bioaccumulation of polyphenol molecules, biologically available maximum concentrations of individual groups of polyphenol molecules, and their effect on the oxidative/antioxidative status of organs were also examined. The results of this study indicate increased bioabsorption and bioavailability of flavan-3-ols (EC, EGCG) and reduced absorption kinetics of certain polyphenols from the groups of flavonols, flavones, and phenolic acids in the organs of C57BL/6 mice after intragastric administration of the water extract of blackthorn flower (Prunus spinosa L.) in combination with a diet enriched with whey proteins. Furthermore, subchronic intake of polyphenols from the water extract of blackthorn flower (Prunus spinosa L.) in combination with a diet enriched with whey proteins induces the synthesis of total glutathione (tGSH) in the liver and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver and small intestine. The results of this study suggest potential applications in the development of functional foods aimed at achieving the optimal health status of the organism and the possibility of reducing the risk of oxidative stress-related disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Mechanism of Bioactive Compounds and Health Benefits)
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16 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Multi-Level Determinants of Food Insecurity among Racially and Ethnically Diverse College Students
by Nashira I. Brown, Acadia W. Buro, Rashida Jones, David Himmelgreen, Amber D. Dumford, Kyaien Conner, Marilyn Stern and Rita DeBate
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4065; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184065 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Compared with the general population, the prevalence of food insecurity (FI) is higher among college students. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated FI disparities and highlighted the need for further research to better understand and address FI in this population. Although race and ethnicity are [...] Read more.
Compared with the general population, the prevalence of food insecurity (FI) is higher among college students. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated FI disparities and highlighted the need for further research to better understand and address FI in this population. Although race and ethnicity are two of the strongest predictors of FI among college students, little research is available on the determinants of FI among racial/ethnic minority college students. A cross-sectional study (n = 588) based on the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities research framework was examined to identify population-specific determinants of FI among racially/ethnically diverse college students through the assessment of multiple domains (behavioral, environmental, socio-cultural) and levels of influence (individual, interpersonal, and community levels). Discrimination was the sole predictor of FI for non-Hispanic Black students. Coping mechanisms for FI (savings, reduced intake) and body mass index (BMI) were predictors of FI for Hispanic and non-Hispanic White students. Additionally, decreased holistic support from faculty and staff was also observed as a predictor of FI in Hispanic students. Implications include the need for further research and the development of multi-level, tailored interventions to address FI among college students with the goal of decreasing disparities. Full article
10 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Is There a Time and a Place for the Gluten-Free Diet in Potential Celiac Disease?
by Roxana Nemteanu, Andreea Clim, Corina Elena Hincu, Liliana Gheorghe, Irina Ciortescu, Anca Trifan and Alina Plesa
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184064 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Potential celiac disease (PCD) is characterized by the absence of villous atrophy on duodenal biopsies (Marsh 0 or 1) despite positive celiac serology and HLA DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimers. Recent epidemiological studies report that PCD represents one fifth of the total CD diagnoses. [...] Read more.
Potential celiac disease (PCD) is characterized by the absence of villous atrophy on duodenal biopsies (Marsh 0 or 1) despite positive celiac serology and HLA DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimers. Recent epidemiological studies report that PCD represents one fifth of the total CD diagnoses. Compared to patients with CD, the majority of adult patients with PCD show lower rates of nutrient deficiencies and extraintestinal symptoms at diagnosis. Recommending a gluten-free diet (GFD) to PCD patients depends on whether they have symptoms or not. A significant clinical improvement is reported by symptomatic patients, but for asymptomatic PCD, diet implementation is still a matter of debate. Some questions remain to be answered: does PCD serve as an intermediary phase leading to the progression of true CD? Is it reasonable to hypothesize that PCD and active CD represent different manifestations of the same condition? Is there a potential for both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of CD in those who may have the condition? Additional research is required to address these inquiries and ascertain the specific subset of people with potential progression to overt CD, as well as to determine the potential advantages of early implementation of a GFD for these individuals. The investigation of risk factors in CD warrants examination of variables such as the timing of diagnosis, the genetic profile, the extent of gluten exposure, and the composition of the microbiome. Full article
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15 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
The Synergistic Effect of Dietary Acid Load Levels and Cigarette Smoking Status on the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Healthy, Middle-Aged Korean Men
by Jihyun Park, Mi Ri Ha, Juhyun Song and Oh Yoen Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 4063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15184063 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
We investigated whether cigarette smoking and dietary acid load (DAL) are associated with a risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in healthy, middle-aged Korean men. Healthy men without diagnosed chronic disease (aged 40–64 years) from the KNHANES-VI (2013–2015) were included in the [...] Read more.
We investigated whether cigarette smoking and dietary acid load (DAL) are associated with a risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in healthy, middle-aged Korean men. Healthy men without diagnosed chronic disease (aged 40–64 years) from the KNHANES-VI (2013–2015) were included in the analysis (n = 774) and were subdivided by smoking status and DAL levels, as estimated using the quartile of net endogenous acid production (NEAP). The current smokers tended to have a higher risk of COPD than the never-smokers before and after adjustment. When divided by the DAL quartile, the Q4 group tended to have a higher risk of COPD than the Q1 group. Additionally, the current smokers with lower (Q2), modest (Q3), and the highest NEAP scores (Q4) showed risks of COPD that were more than fourfold higher than those of the never-smokers with the lowest NEAP scores (Q1). The ex-smokers with higher NEAP scores (Q3 and Q4) showed risks of COPD that were more than fourfold higher than those of the Q1 group. Interestingly, the risk of COPD was also more than sixfold higher in the never-smokers with the highest NEAP scores compared to that in the Q1 group. The NEAP scores and smoking status synergistically increased the risk of COPD in healthy, middle-aged Korean men. This suggests that DAL levels are an important factor in the prevention and management of COPD. Full article
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