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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 15 (August-1 2022) – 248 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The imbalance in osteoblast (OB)-dependent bone formation in favor of osteoclast (OC)-dependent bone resorption is the main cause of loss of tissue mineral mass during bone remodeling leading to osteoporosis conditions. Thus, the suppression of OC activity together with the improvement in the OB activity has been proposed as an effective therapy for maintaining bone mass during aging. We tested the new dietary product, KYMASIN UP containing standardized Withania somnifera, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum herbal extracts or the single extracts in in vitro models mimicking osteoclastogenesis (i.e., RAW 264.7 cells treated with RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand) and OB differentiation (i.e., C2C12 myoblasts treated with BMP2, bone morphogenetic protein 2). View this paper
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10 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Study of Parental Perceptions of Baby Food Pouches: A Netnographic Analysis
by Madeleine Rowan, Miranda Mirosa, Anne-Louise M. Heath, Ioanna Katiforis, Rachael W. Taylor and Sheila A. Skeaff
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153248 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Globally, a recent phenomenon in complementary feeding is the use of squeezable baby food pouches. However, some health agencies have raised concerns about their possible long-term health effects. The aim of this study was to describe parental perceptions of the use of baby [...] Read more.
Globally, a recent phenomenon in complementary feeding is the use of squeezable baby food pouches. However, some health agencies have raised concerns about their possible long-term health effects. The aim of this study was to describe parental perceptions of the use of baby food pouches during complementary feeding (i.e., the transition from an entirely milk-based diet to solid foods) using a netnographic analysis of discussions on publicly available forums. In this study, the community was parents of young children. Six parenting forums were identified through a Google search using defined selection criteria. Discussion threads relating to baby food pouches were collected and imported into NVivo12 for thematic analysis via inductive reasoning. Perceptions of baby food pouches fell within two broad categories—benefits and concerns. The most commonly reported themes related to benefits were: convenience, health, baby enjoys, variety, and cost; whereas the most common concerns reported were: health, cost, lack of dietary exposure, dependence, and waste. Many parents reported both benefits and concerns. Once research has determined the long-term effect of using pouches on infants’ health regarding eating habits, nutritional status, growth, and development, the findings of this study can inform educational strategies to either encourage or discourage their use. Full article
14 pages, 3123 KiB  
Article
Supplementation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Combined with Aerobic Exercise Ameliorates High-Fat-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis via AMPK/PPARα/PGC-1α Pathway
by Dou-Dou Li, Jia-Min Ma, Ming-Jing Li, Lu-Lu Gao, Yan-Na Fan, Yan-Nan Zhang, Xiu-Juan Tao and Jian-Jun Yang
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153247 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2972
Abstract
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Either Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) or aerobic exercise (AE) has been reported to be beneficial to hepatic lipid metabolism. However, whether the combination of LBP with AE improves lipid accumulation of [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Either Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) or aerobic exercise (AE) has been reported to be beneficial to hepatic lipid metabolism. However, whether the combination of LBP with AE improves lipid accumulation of NASH remains unknown. Our study investigated the influence of 10 weeks of treatment of LBP, AE, and the combination (LBP plus AE) on high-fat-induced NASH in Sprague–Dawley rats. The results showed that LBP or AE reduced the severity of the NASH. LBP plus AE treatment more effectively ameliorated liver damage and lowered levels of serum lipid and inflammation. In addition, the combination can also regulate genes involved in hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. LBP plus AE activated AMPK, thereby increasing the expression of PPARα which controls hepatic fatty acid oxidation and its coactivator PGC-1α. Our study demonstrated the improvement of LBP plus AE on NASH via enhancing fatty acid oxidation (FAO) which was dependent on AMPK/PPARα/PGC-1α pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutrition in Gene Regulation)
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8 pages, 2971 KiB  
Communication
Utilization of Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Testing in Korean Patients Visiting Local Clinics and Hospitals
by Rihwa Choi, Sang Gon Lee and Eun Hee Lee
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153246 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Small dense low-density cholesterol (sdLDL) has been the focus of studies due to its potential as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the utilization of sdLDL testing by LDL particle size analysis and the prevalence of an [...] Read more.
Small dense low-density cholesterol (sdLDL) has been the focus of studies due to its potential as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the utilization of sdLDL testing by LDL particle size analysis and the prevalence of an sdLDL predominant phenotype in Korean adult patients by visiting local clinics and hospitals. Among 9222 Korean adults (4577 men and 4645 women) with a median age of 62.8 years (interquartile range, IQR 54.5 to 71.8 years) undergoing lipid profile testing using LDL particle size analysis, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL), hypo HDL cholesterolemia (<40 mg/dL), and hyper LDL cholesterolemia (≥160 mg/dL) was 7.8%, 12.9%, and 0.5%, respectively. The overall prevalence of the sdLDL predominant non-A phenotype of LDL was 46.8% of study subjects. Approximately 32.8% of the study subjects possessed lipid test results that did not exhibit increased risk except for sdLDL (only the sdLDL predominant non-A phenotype as a risk factor). In Korea, sdLDL testing was utilized in patients whose LDL cholesterol level was not increased. Future studies to clarify the clinical significance of this test in the Korean population are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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11 pages, 599 KiB  
Review
Epigenome Modulation Induced by Ketogenic Diets
by Paola Ungaro, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Fabiana Franchini, Giuseppe Palatucci, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Annamaria Colao and Paolo Emidio Macchia
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153245 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4295
Abstract
Ketogenic diets (KD) are dietary strategies low in carbohydrates, normal in protein, and high, normal, or reduced in fat with or without (Very Low-Calories Ketogenic Diet, VLCKD) a reduced caloric intake. KDs have been shown to be useful in the treatment of obesity, [...] Read more.
Ketogenic diets (KD) are dietary strategies low in carbohydrates, normal in protein, and high, normal, or reduced in fat with or without (Very Low-Calories Ketogenic Diet, VLCKD) a reduced caloric intake. KDs have been shown to be useful in the treatment of obesity, metabolic diseases and related disorders, neurological diseases, and various pathological conditions such as cancer, nonalcoholic liver disease, and chronic pain. Several studies have investigated the intracellular metabolic pathways that contribute to the beneficial effects of these diets. Although epigenetic changes are among the most important determinants of an organism’s ability to adapt to environmental changes, data on the epigenetic changes associated with these dietary pathways are still limited. This review provides an overview of the major epigenetic changes associated with KDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutrition on Epigenetic Status)
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18 pages, 4489 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Role of Curcumin in Diabetes: An Analysis Based on Bioinformatic Findings
by Ali Mahmoudi, Stephen L. Atkin, Nikita G. Nikiforov and Amirhossein Sahebkar
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153244 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Background: Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent global disease caused by the impairment in insulin production or insulin function. Diabetes in the long term causes both microvascular and macrovascular complications that may result in retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and [...] Read more.
Background: Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent global disease caused by the impairment in insulin production or insulin function. Diabetes in the long term causes both microvascular and macrovascular complications that may result in retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Considerable effort has been expended looking at the numerous genes and pathways to explain the mechanisms leading to diabetes-related complications. Curcumin is a traditional medicine with several properties such as being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial, which may have utility for treating diabetes complications. This study, based on the system biology approach, aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on critical genes and pathways related to diabetes. Methods: We first searched interactions of curcumin in three different databases, including STITCH, TTD, and DGIdb. Subsequently, we investigated the critical curated protein targets for diabetes on the OMIM and DisGeNET databases. To find important clustering groups (MCODE) and critical hub genes in the network of diseases, we created a PPI network for all proteins obtained for diabetes with the aid of a string database and Cytoscape software. Next, we investigated the possible interactions of curcumin on diabetes-related genes using Venn diagrams. Furthermore, the impact of curcumin on the top scores of modular clusters was analysed. Finally, we conducted biological process and pathway enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG based on the enrichR web server. Results: We acquired 417 genes associated with diabetes, and their constructed PPI network contained 298 nodes and 1651 edges. Next, the analysis of centralities in the PPI network indicated 15 genes with the highest centralities. Additionally, MCODE analysis identified three modular clusters, which highest score cluster (MCODE 1) comprises 19 nodes and 92 edges with 10.22 scores. Screening curcumin interactions in the databases identified 158 protein targets. A Venn diagram of genes related to diabetes and the protein targets of curcumin showed 35 shared proteins, which observed that curcumin could strongly interact with ten of the hub genes. Moreover, we demonstrated that curcumin has the highest interaction with MCODE1 among all MCODs. Several significant biological pathways in KEGG enrichment associated with 35 shared included the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The biological processes of GO analysis were involved with the cellular response to cytokine stimulus, the cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, positive regulation of intracellular signal transduction and cytokine production in the inflammatory response. Conclusion: Curcumin targeted several important genes involved in diabetes, supporting the previous research suggesting that it may have utility as a therapeutic agent in diabetes. Full article
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13 pages, 1422 KiB  
Article
Trajectories of Lipid Profile and Risk of Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Haixu Yu, Yanguang Li, Liyuan Tao, Lincheng Yang, Dan Liu, Yang Wang, Xiaoyan Hao, Honghai He, Ying Che, Peng Wang, Wei Zhao and Wei Gao
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153243 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
Background: Early assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics is essential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk stratification and prediction. We aimed to identify different trajectories of lipid profiles and investigate the association of lipid trajectories with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) progression in a large, [...] Read more.
Background: Early assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics is essential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk stratification and prediction. We aimed to identify different trajectories of lipid profiles and investigate the association of lipid trajectories with carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) progression in a large, longitudinal cohort of the Chinese population. Methods: 10,412 participants aged ≥18 years with ≥2 times general health checkups were included in this longitudinally prospective cohort study at Peking University Third Hospital. We used latent class trajectory models to identify trajectories of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) over follow-up time (757 days, IQR: 388–844 days). Results: Participants with carotid plaque were more likely to be older, male, have higher body mass index, have a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, and have a higher level of blood pressure, TG, TC, and LDL-C, compared with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and normal group. Subjects were trichotomized according to different trajectory patterns into stable, moderate-stable, and elevated-increasing classes. TC ≥ 5.18 mmol/L and moderate-stable class (hazard ratio (HR): 1.416, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.285–1.559, p: 0.000), TG ≥ 1.70 mmol/L and moderate-stable class (HR: 1.492, 95% CI: 1.163–1.913, p: 0.002), TG ≥ 1.70 mmol/L and elevated-increasing class (HR: 1.218, 95% CI: 1.094–1.357, p: 0.000), LDL-C ≥ 3.36 mmol/L and stable class (HR: 1.500, 95% CI: 1.361–1.653, p: 0.000) were statistically significant associated with CAS progression compared with the reference group. Conclusions: Borderline elevated baseline lipid (TC, TG, and LDL-C) with stable and elevated-increasing trajectories were associated with CAS progression. Long-term strategies for low-level lipid are beneficial for ASCVD management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Lipids and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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24 pages, 1673 KiB  
Systematic Review
Maternal Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods-Rich Diet and Perinatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Walkyria O. Paula, Erika S. O. Patriota, Vivian S. S. Gonçalves and Nathalia Pizato
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153242 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5685
Abstract
The consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF)-rich diets represents a potential threat to human health. Considering maternal diet adequacy during pregnancy is a major determinant for perinatal health outcomes, this study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze studies investigating the association between maternal consumption [...] Read more.
The consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF)-rich diets represents a potential threat to human health. Considering maternal diet adequacy during pregnancy is a major determinant for perinatal health outcomes, this study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze studies investigating the association between maternal consumption of a UPF-rich diet and perinatal outcomes. Conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, five electronic databases and gray literature using Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global were searched up to 31 May 2022. No restrictions were applied on language and publication date. Two reviewers independently conducted the study selection and data extraction process. Meta-analysis was conducted according to the random-effects model. In total, 61 studies were included in the systematic review and the overall population comprised 698,803 women from all gestational trimesters. Meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that maternal consumption of UPF-rich diets was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR): 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17, 1.87) and preeclampsia (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.42). Neonatal outcomes showed no association. The overall GRADE quality of the evidence for the associations was very low. The findings highlight the need to monitor and reduce UPF consumption, specifically during the gestational period, as a strategy to prevent adverse perinatal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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12 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Longitudinal Changes in Cardiometabolic Risk in Adolescents with Overweight/Obesity: The EVASYON Study
by Miguel Martín-Matillas, Dinalrilan Rocha-Silva, Abel Plaza-Florido, Manuel Delgado-Fernández, Amelia Marti, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Luis A. Moreno, Ascensión Marcos and Cristina Campoy
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3241; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153241 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
We investigated which determinants (socioeconomic, early life factors, body composition changes, fitness changes and/or physical activity changes) best predicted longitudinal outcomes in cardiometabolic risk profile (Z-score change) in adolescents with OW/OB who underwent a 13-month multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. A total of 165 adolescents [...] Read more.
We investigated which determinants (socioeconomic, early life factors, body composition changes, fitness changes and/or physical activity changes) best predicted longitudinal outcomes in cardiometabolic risk profile (Z-score change) in adolescents with OW/OB who underwent a 13-month multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. A total of 165 adolescents (13–16 y; 46% boys) from the EVASYON study were included. Socioeconomic variables and early life factors were obtained from the medical records. Body composition was assessed using anthropometry. Fitness and physical activity were measured with field-based tests and questionnaires. Cardiometabolic risk factors (fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and waist circumference) were derived from standard methods in the hospital. Body weight changes, sex and mother’s education were selected in the stepwise process as the most important determinants of changes in cardiometabolic risk profile (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.002; R2 = 0.14, p = 0.013; and R2 = 0.14, p = 0.017, respectively). Both boys and girls showed a lower cardiometabolic risk score with the reduction in body weight (r = 0.535, p = 0.009 and r = 0.506, p = 0.005, respectively). There was no interaction between sex and body weight change (p = 0.614). In conclusion, the simple measure of changes in body weight should be considered to track changes in cardiometabolic risk profile in adolescents with OW/OB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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13 pages, 623 KiB  
Review
Parkinson’s Disease and Sugar Intake—Reasons for and Consequences of a Still Unclear Craving
by Julienne Haas, Daniela Berg, Anja Bosy-Westphal and Eva Schaeffer
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153240 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
Lately, studies have shown that patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) report a strong craving for sweets and consume significantly more fast-acting carbohydrates than healthy controls. Consuming food with a high-sugar content is assumed to lead to an increase in insulin concentration, which could [...] Read more.
Lately, studies have shown that patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) report a strong craving for sweets and consume significantly more fast-acting carbohydrates than healthy controls. Consuming food with a high-sugar content is assumed to lead to an increase in insulin concentration, which could positively influence dopamine concentration in the brain and unconsciously be used by patients as kind of “self-medication” to compensate for a lack of dopamine in PD. On the other hand, high-sugar intake could also lead to insulin resistance and diabetes, which is discussed as a causative factor for progressive neurodegeneration in PD. In this critical appraisal, we discuss the role of sugar intake and insulin on dopamine metabolism in patients with PD and how this could influence the potential neurodegeneration mediated by insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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13 pages, 1722 KiB  
Article
Effects of Probiotics on Gut Microbiomes of Extremely Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Ching-Min Chang, Ming-Horng Tsai, Wei-Chao Liao, Peng-Hong Yang, Shiao-Wen Li, Shih-Ming Chu, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang and Jen-Fu Hsu
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3239; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153239 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
Background: Probiotics have been previously reported to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely preterm infants, but the mechanisms by which the probiotics work remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota of extremely preterm [...] Read more.
Background: Probiotics have been previously reported to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely preterm infants, but the mechanisms by which the probiotics work remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota of extremely preterm infants. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 120 extremely preterm neonates (gestational age ≤ 28 weeks) between August 2019 and December 2021. All neonates were divided into the study (receiving probiotics) and the control (no probiotics) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the significantly different compositions of gut microbiota between these two groups. The effects of probiotics on the occurrence of NEC and late-onset sepsis were also investigated. Results: An increased abundance of Lactobacillus was noted in neonates who received the probiotics (AOR 4.33; 95% CI, 1.89–9.96, p = 0.009) when compared with the control group. Subjects in the probiotic group had significantly fewer days of total parenteral nutrition (median [interquartile range, IQR]) 29.0 (26.8–35.0) versus 35.5 (27.8–45.0), p = 0.004) than those in the control group. The probiotic group had a significantly lower rate of late-onset sepsis than the control group (47.1% versus 70.0%, p = 0.015), but the rate of NEC, duration of hospitalization and the final in-hospital mortality rates were comparable between these two groups. Conclusions: Probiotic supplementation of extremely preterm infants soon after the initiation of feeding increased the abundance of Lactobacillus. Probiotics may reduce the risk of late-onset sepsis, but further randomized controlled trials are warranted in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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19 pages, 3258 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effects of Flaxseed and/or Mulberry Extracts Supplementation in Ovariectomized Wistar Rats
by Jéssica Petrine Castro Pereira, Erika Aparecida Oliveira, Fernanda Aparecida Castro Pereira, Josilene Nascimento Seixas, Camila Souza de Oliveira Guimaraes and Bruno Del Bianco Borges
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153238 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
Low endogenous estrogen action causes several injuries. Medicinal plants, such as flaxseed and mulberry, contain substances that have been shown to be effective to the organism. The aim was to verify the effects of flaxseed and/or mulberry extracts on ovariectomized Wistar rats. The [...] Read more.
Low endogenous estrogen action causes several injuries. Medicinal plants, such as flaxseed and mulberry, contain substances that have been shown to be effective to the organism. The aim was to verify the effects of flaxseed and/or mulberry extracts on ovariectomized Wistar rats. The animals received supplements of extracts and estrogen or saline by gavage for 60 days and were weighed weekly. Vaginal wash, blood, pituitary, uterus, liver, and kidneys were collected. Phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the extracts, lipid profile, uric acid, liver enzymes, and pituitary weight were measured. Histomorphometric for uterine wall and histopathological analyses for liver and kidney were performed. Flaxseed and mulberry extracts showed great antioxidant activity and large amounts of phenolic compounds. The treatment with extracts had less weight gain, increased pituitary weight, the predominance of vaginal epithelial cells, and reduced TC, LDL-c and lipase activity, similar to estrogen animals. Estrogen or flaxseed + mulberry animals reduced VLDL-c and TAG. HDL-c, uric acid, and liver enzymes did not differ. Estrogen or extracts demonstrated trophic action on the endometrial thickness and have not shown hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. We suggested the beneficial effects of flaxseed and mulberry extract as an alternative to reduce and/or prevent the negative effects caused by low estrogenic action. Full article
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16 pages, 5587 KiB  
Article
Investigating Causal Associations of Diet-Derived Circulating Antioxidants with the Risk of Digestive System Cancers: A Mendelian Randomization Study
by Xuening Zhang, Hao Zhao, Jinyu Man, Xiaolin Yin, Tongchao Zhang, Xiaorong Yang and Ming Lu
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153237 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4657
Abstract
Molecular mechanisms and observational studies have found that diet-derived antioxidants are associated with digestive system cancers, whereas there is a lack of causal evidence from randomized clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to assess the causality of these associations through a Mendelian [...] Read more.
Molecular mechanisms and observational studies have found that diet-derived antioxidants are associated with digestive system cancers, whereas there is a lack of causal evidence from randomized clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to assess the causality of these associations through a Mendelian randomization (MR) study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of diet-derived circulating antioxidants (i.e., α- and γ-tocopherol, ascorbate, retinol, β-carotene, lycopene, and urate), accessed by absolute levels and relative metabolite concentrations, were used as genetic instruments. Summary statistics for digestive system cancers were obtained from the UK Biobank and FinnGen studies. Two-sample MR analyses were performed in each of the two outcome databases, followed by a meta-analysis. The inverse-variance weighted MR was adopted as the primary analysis. Five additional MR methods (likelihood-based MR, MR-Egger, weighted median, penalized weighted median, and MR-PRESSO) and replicate MR analyses for outcomes from different sources were used as sensitivity analyses. Genetically determined antioxidants were not significantly associated with five digestive system cancers, after correcting for multiple tests. However, we found suggestive evidence that absolute ascorbate levels were negatively associated with colon cancer in UK Biobank—the odds ratio (OR) per unit increase in ascorbate was 0.774 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.608–0.985, p = 0.037), which was consistent with the results in FinnGen, and the combined OR was 0.764 (95% CI 0.623–0.936, p = 0.010). Likewise, higher absolute retinol levels suggestively reduced the pancreatic cancer risk in FinnGen—the OR per 10% unit increase in ln-transformed retinol was 0.705 (95% CI 0.529–0.940, p = 0.017), which was consistent with the results in UK Biobank and the combined OR was 0.747 (95% CI, 0.584–0.955, p = 0.020). Sensitivity analyses verified the above suggestive evidence. Our findings suggest that higher levels of antioxidants are unlikely to be a causal protective factor for most digestive system cancers, except for the suggestive protective effects of ascorbate on colon cancer and of retinol on pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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15 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
An Oral Polyphenol Formulation to Modulate the Ocular Surface Inflammatory Process and to Improve the Symptomatology Associated with Dry Eye Disease
by Dalia Ng, Juan Carlos Altamirano-Vallejo, Alejandro Gonzalez-De la Rosa, Jose Navarro-Partida, Jorge Eugenio Valdez-Garcia, Ricardo Acosta-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Martinez Camarillo, Andres Bustamante-Arias, Juan Armendariz-Borunda and Arturo Santos
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153236 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
Due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-angiogenic effects, polyphenols are first-rate candidates to prevent or treat chronic diseases in which oxidative stress-induced inflammation plays a role in disease pathogenesis. Dry eye disease (DED) is a common pathology, on which novel phenolic compound [...] Read more.
Due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-angiogenic effects, polyphenols are first-rate candidates to prevent or treat chronic diseases in which oxidative stress-induced inflammation plays a role in disease pathogenesis. Dry eye disease (DED) is a common pathology, on which novel phenolic compound formulations have been tested as an adjuvant therapeutic approach. However, polyphenols are characterized by limited stability and solubility, insolubility in water, very rapid metabolism, and a very short half-life. Thus, they show poor bioavailability. To overcome these limitations and improve their stability and bioavailability, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of an oral formulation containing among other compounds, polyphenols and omega-3 fatty acids, with the addition of a surfactant in patients with DED. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four study groups including the study formulation (A), placebo (P), the study formulation + eye lubricant (A + L), and placebo + eye lubricant (P + L). Patients from the A and P groups were instructed to take two capsules every 24 h, while patients in the L groups also added one drop of lubricant twice a day for 12 weeks as well. Regarding safety, non-ocular abnormalities were observed during study formulation therapy. Liver function tests did not show any statistically significant difference (baseline vs. week 4). Concerning efficacy, there was a statistically significant difference between baseline, month 1, and month 3 in the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) test results in both treatment groups (group A and group A + L). Furthermore, both groups showed statistically significant differences between baseline and month 3 regarding the non-invasive film tear breakup time (NIF-BUT) score and a positive trend related to Shirmer’s test at month 3. The non-invasive average breakup time (NIAvg-BUT) score showed a statistically significant difference at month 3 when compared with baseline in the A + L group. The P + L group showed a statistically significant difference in terms of the OSDI questionary between baseline and month 3. Regarding the lissamine green staining, the A + L group showed a statistical difference between baseline and month 3 (p = 0.0367). The placebo + lubricant group did not show statistically significant differences. Finally, the placebo group did not show any data with statistically significant differences. Consequently, this polyphenol formulation as a primary treatment outperformed the placebo alone, and the polyphenol oral formulation used as an adjuvant to artificial tears was superior to the combination of the placebo and the artificial tears. Thus, our data strongly suggest that this polyphenol oral formulation improves visual strain symptoms and tear film status in patients with mild to moderate DED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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14 pages, 323 KiB  
Review
Effect of Undernutrition and Obesity on Clinical Outcomes in Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
by Diego Viasus, Valentina Pérez-Vergara and Jordi Carratalà
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153235 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2996
Abstract
Malnutrition comprises two groups of conditions: undernutrition and overweight or obesity. It has been associated with a high risk of contracting infectious diseases and with elevated mortality rates. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide and its prognosis [...] Read more.
Malnutrition comprises two groups of conditions: undernutrition and overweight or obesity. It has been associated with a high risk of contracting infectious diseases and with elevated mortality rates. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide and its prognosis is affected by a large number of recognizable risk factors. This narrative review updates the information on the impact of malnutrition, including both undernutrition and obesity, on the risk and prognosis of adults with CAP. Studies of CAP that have evaluated undernutrition have applied a variety of definitions when assessing the nutritional status of patients. Undernutrition has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes, such as prolonged hospital stay, need for intensive care unit admission, and mortality; in contrast, most published studies have found that increased body mass index is significantly associated with higher survival in patients with CAP. However, some authors have presented divergent results, mainly in relation to the etiology of CAP (bacterial versus viral). Influenza infection, caused by influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, has been associated with worse prognosis in obese patients. The current data underscore the need for larger studies to examine the physiological mechanisms that explain the differential impact of malnutrition on outcomes. Achieving a better understanding may help to guide the design of new interventions to improve prognosis. Full article
14 pages, 1213 KiB  
Article
Effect of Early and Intensive Telephone or Electronic Nutrition Counselling Delivered to People with Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer on Quality of Life: A Three-Arm Randomised Controlled Trial
by Catherine E. Huggins, Lauren Hanna, Kate Furness, Mary Anne Silvers, June Savva, Helena Frawley, Daniel Croagh, Paul Cashin, Liang Low, Judy Bauer, Helen Truby and Terry P. Haines
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3234; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153234 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
Background: Delay in dietetic service provision for upper gastrointestinal cancer exacerbates disease-related malnutrition and consequently increases morbidity and mortality. Dietetic services are usually referral-based and provided face-to-face in inpatient or outpatient settings, which can delay the commencement of nutrition care. The aim of [...] Read more.
Background: Delay in dietetic service provision for upper gastrointestinal cancer exacerbates disease-related malnutrition and consequently increases morbidity and mortality. Dietetic services are usually referral-based and provided face-to-face in inpatient or outpatient settings, which can delay the commencement of nutrition care. The aim of this study was to provide intensive dietetic intervention close to the time of diagnosis for upper gastrointestinal cancer and assess the effect on quality-adjusted life years. Methods: A three-arm randomised controlled trial of adults newly diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed. A behavioural-based, individually tailored, symptom-directed nutrition intervention was provided in addition to usual care, delivered by a dietitian using a telephone (synchronously) or a mobile application (asynchronously) for 18 weeks, compared with a usual care control group. Data were collected at baseline, three, six, and twelve months post-randomisation. The primary outcome was quality-adjusted life years (EQ-5D-5L quality of life assessment tool). Data were analysed using linear mixed models. Results: One hundred and eleven participants were randomised. Quality-adjusted life years were not different in the intervention groups compared with control (telephone: mean (95% CI) 0.04 (0.43, 2.3), p = 0.998; App: −0.08 (−0.18, 0.02), p = 0.135) after adjustment for baseline, nutrition risk status, age, and gender. Survival was similar between groups over 12 months. The asynchronous mobile app group had a greater number of withdrawals compared with the telephone group. Conclusion: Early and intensive nutrition counselling, delivered at home, during anticancer treatment did not change quality-adjusted life years or survival over 12 months compared with usual care. Behavioural counselling alone was unable to achieve nutritional adequacy. Dietetic services delivered asynchronously using a mobile app had low acceptance for patients undergoing anticancer treatment. Trial Registration: 27 January 2017 Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12617000152325. Full article
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16 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake Patterns and Lifestyle Behaviors of Pregnant Women Living in a Manitoba First Nations Community: Implications for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
by Olena Kloss, Marie Jebb, Linda Chartrand, Albert E. Chudley, Michael N. A. Eskin and Miyoung Suh
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153233 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
The information on the nutrition status of women at-risk of carrying a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is scarce, particularly in the First Nations population living on reserve. This study examined and compared nutrition status, dietary intake, and lifestyle patterns of [...] Read more.
The information on the nutrition status of women at-risk of carrying a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is scarce, particularly in the First Nations population living on reserve. This study examined and compared nutrition status, dietary intake, and lifestyle patterns of pregnant at-risk, defined as those who consume alcoholic drink during the current pregnancy, and non-at-risk women living in northern Manitoban community. Thirty-seven pregnant, First Nations women (at-risk n = 15; non-at-risk, n = 22) were recruited to participate in the study. A questionnaire, presented in paper and iPad formats, collected information on participants’ demographics, dietary intake, lifestyle, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal health. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall were used to determine nutrient intake. Nutrient values were assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). At-risk and non-at-risk women were below the Canada Food Guide serving size recommended for Vegetable and Fruit, Grain, and Milk Products with 93%, 92%, and 93% of participants not meeting the recommendations, respectively. Women met the recommendations for vitamins A, B1, B12, C, niacin, choline, as well as calcium, and zinc. Sixty eight percentage (%) of participants did not meet the recommendations for folate and iron, and 97% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Significant differences were observed between non-at-risk and at-risk women for mean % DRI intakes of vitamin C (313 ± 224 vs. 172 ± 81 mg/day), niacin (281 ± 123 vs. 198 ± 80 mg/day), folate (70 ± 38 vs. 10 ± 22 mcg/day), and iron (101 ± 74 vs. 74 ± 30 mg/day). The findings of this study lay a fundamental premise for the development of community nutrition programs, nutrition education, and nutrition intervention, such as community specific prenatal supplementation. These will assist in ensuring adequate maternal nutrient intake and benefit families and communities in Northern Manitoba with and without alcohol insult. Full article
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20 pages, 4602 KiB  
Article
Selenium Yeast and Fish Oil Combination Diminishes Cancer Stem Cell Traits and Reverses Cisplatin Resistance in A549 Sphere Cells
by I-Chun Lai, Chien-Huang Liao, Ming-Hung Hu, Chia-Lun Chang, Gi-Ming Lai, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Simon Hsia, Wei-Lun Tsai, Yu-Yin Lin, Shuang-En Chuang, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Hsuan-Yu Chen and Chih-Jung Yao
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153232 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Cisplatin is a prevalent chemotherapeutic agent used for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is difficult to treat by targeted therapy, but the emergence of resistance severely limits its efficacy. Thus, an effective strategy to combat cisplatin resistance is required. This study demonstrated [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is a prevalent chemotherapeutic agent used for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is difficult to treat by targeted therapy, but the emergence of resistance severely limits its efficacy. Thus, an effective strategy to combat cisplatin resistance is required. This study demonstrated that, at clinically achievable concentrations, the combination of selenium yeast (Se-Y) and fish oil (FO) could synergistically induce the apoptosis of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like A549 NSCLC sphere cells, accompanied by a reversal of their resistance to cisplatin. Compared to parental A549 cells, sphere cells have higher cisplatin resistance and possess elevated CSC markers (CD133 and ABCG2), epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers (anexelekto (AXL), vimentin, and N-cadherin), and cytoprotective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker (glucose-regulated protein 78) and increased oncogenic drivers, such as yes-associated protein, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, β-catenin, and cyclooxygenase-2. In contrast, the proapoptotic ER stress marker CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity were reduced in sphere cells. The Se-Y and FO combination synergistically counteracted the above molecular features of A549 sphere cells and diminished their elevated CSC-like side population. AMPK inhibition by compound C restored the side population proportion diminished by this nutrient combination. The results suggest that the Se-Y and FO combination can potentially improve the outcome of cisplatin-treated NSCLC with phenotypes such as A549 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium Intake and Human Health)
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11 pages, 430 KiB  
Review
Supplementation with NAD+ and Its Precursors to Prevent Cognitive Decline across Disease Contexts
by Jared M. Campbell
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153231 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 7130
Abstract
The preservation of cognitive ability by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels through supplementation with NAD+ precursors has been identified as a promising treatment strategy for a number of conditions; principally, age-related cognitive decline (including Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia), [...] Read more.
The preservation of cognitive ability by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels through supplementation with NAD+ precursors has been identified as a promising treatment strategy for a number of conditions; principally, age-related cognitive decline (including Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia), but also diabetes, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Candidate factors have included NAD+ itself, its reduced form NADH, nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and niacin (or nicotinic acid). This review summarises the research findings for each source of cognitive impairment for which NAD+ precursor supplementation has been investigated as a therapy. The findings are mostly positive but have been made primarily in animal models, with some reports of null or adverse effects. Given the increasing popularity and availability of these factors as nutritional supplements, further properly controlled clinical research is needed to provide definitive answers regarding this strategy’s likely impact on human cognitive health when used to address different sources of impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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19 pages, 3454 KiB  
Article
Comparative Effects of Allulose, Fructose, and Glucose on the Small Intestine
by Takuji Suzuki, Yuki Sato, Sumire Kadoya, Takumi Takahashi, Moeko Otomo, Hanna Kobayashi, Kai Aoki, Mai Kantake, Maika Sugiyama and Ronaldo P. Ferraris
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153230 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3915
Abstract
Despite numerous studies on the health benefits of the rare sugar allulose, its effects on intestinal mucosal morphology and function are unclear. We therefore first determined its acute effects on the small intestinal transcriptome using DNA microarray analysis following intestinal allulose, fructose and [...] Read more.
Despite numerous studies on the health benefits of the rare sugar allulose, its effects on intestinal mucosal morphology and function are unclear. We therefore first determined its acute effects on the small intestinal transcriptome using DNA microarray analysis following intestinal allulose, fructose and glucose perfusion in rats. Expression levels of about 8-fold more genes were altered by allulose compared to fructose and glucose perfusion, suggesting a much greater impact on the intestinal transcriptome. Subsequent pathway analysis indicated that nutrient transport, metabolism, and digestive system development were markedly upregulated, suggesting allulose may acutely stimulate these functions. We then evaluated whether allulose can restore rat small intestinal structure and function when ingested orally following total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We also monitored allulose effects on blood levels of glucagon-like peptides (GLP) 1 and 2 in TPN rats and normal mice. Expression levels of fatty acid binding and gut barrier proteins were reduced by TPN but rescued by allulose ingestion, and paralleled GLP-2 secretion potentially acting as the mechanism mediating the rescue effect. Thus, allulose can potentially enhance disrupted gut mucosal barriers as it can more extensively modulate the intestinal transcriptome relative to glucose and fructose considered risk factors of metabolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Fructose and Glucose Metabolism for Human Health)
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12 pages, 441 KiB  
Article
Household Income Is Related to Dietary Fiber Intake and Dietary Acid Load in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Fuyuko Takahashi, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Yukiko Kobayashi, Ayumi Kaji, Ryosuke Sakai, Takuro Okamura, Naoko Nakanishi, Saori Majima, Hiroshi Okada, Takafumi Senmaru, Emi Ushigome, Mai Asano, Masahide Hamaguchi, Masahiro Yamazaki, Wataru Aoi, Masashi Kuwahata and Michiaki Fukui
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153229 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2681
Abstract
Household income was related to habitual dietary intake in general Japanese people. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between household income and habitual dietary intake in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Household income was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire and categorized [...] Read more.
Household income was related to habitual dietary intake in general Japanese people. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between household income and habitual dietary intake in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Household income was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire and categorized into high and low household income. Nutritional status was assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Among 128 men and 73 women, the proportions of participants with low household income were 67.2% (n = 86/128) in men and 83.6% (n = 61/73) in women. Dietary fiber intake (11.3 ± 4.2 vs. 13.8 ± 6.0 g/day, p = 0.006) was lower, and dietary acid load, net endogenous aid production score (NEAP) (51.7 ± 10.5 vs. 46.8 ± 10.4 mEq/day, p = 0.014) and potential renal acid load score (PRAL) (9.5 ± 10.7 vs. 3.7 ± 14.1 mEq/day, p = 0.011) were higher in men with low household income than in those without. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that log (dietary fiber intake) in men with low household income was lower than that in those with high household income after adjusting for covariates (2.35 [2.26–2.44] vs. 2.52 [2.41–2.62], p = 0.010). Furthermore, NEAP (54.6 [51.7–57.4] vs. 45.8 [42.5–49.2], p <0.001) in men with low household income were higher than in those with high household income after adjusting for covariates. Contrastingly, household income was not related to diet quality in women. This study showed that household income was related to dietary fiber intake and dietary acid load in men but not in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Food Environment and Diet Diversity)
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9 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Score for Insulin Resistance (METS-IR) and Circulating Cytokines in Older Persons: The Role of Gender and Body Mass Index
by Virginia Boccardi, Francesca Mancinetti, Marta Baroni, Roberta Cecchetti, Patrizia Bastiani, Carmelinda Ruggiero and Patrizia Mecocci
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153228 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 11471
Abstract
Background: Inflammation, along with aging processes, contributes to the development of insulin resistance (IR), but the roles of different inflammatory and other cytokines in this process remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to analyze the association between several plasma cytokines with IR as evaluated [...] Read more.
Background: Inflammation, along with aging processes, contributes to the development of insulin resistance (IR), but the roles of different inflammatory and other cytokines in this process remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to analyze the association between several plasma cytokines with IR as evaluated by the metabolic score for insulin resistance, METS-IR. Methods: We measured the plasma concentrations of thirty cytokines from a cohort of older persons and analyzed their role as independent factors for IR. We used regression analyses adjusted for known IR-associated factors (including age, gender, cholesterol levels, and BMI) to find the determinants of IR. Results: The study evaluated 132 subjects, mostly women (82F/50M), slightly overweight, and with a mean age of 78.5 ± 6.5 years. In the overall population, IL-15 significantly and negatively correlates with METS-IR (r = −0.183, p = 0.036). A regression model showed that the association between IL-15 and METS-IR was significantly modulated by gender and BMI (R2: 0.831). Only in women, EGF, Eotaxin and MCP-1 significantly correlated with METS-IR even after controlling by age (EGF, r = 0.250 p = 0.025; Eotaxin, r = 0.276 p = 0.13; MCP-1, r = 0.237, p = 0.033). Furthermore, regression models showed that these molecules were associated with METS-IR and were strongly mediated by BMI. Conclusions: Our results indicate the association between cytokines and IR has to be interpreted in a gender-specific manner. In women, EGF, Eotaxin, and MCP-1 circulating levels are associated with METS-IR being BMI a significant mediator. Understanding the role of gender in the relationship between cytokines and IR will help to define individualized preventive and treatment interventions to reduce the risk of age-related metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging - Featured Perspectives on Health and Metabolism)
14 pages, 530 KiB  
Article
Consumption of Omega-3 and Maintenance and Incidence of Depressive Episodes: The ELSA-Brasil Study
by Renata da Conceição Silva Chaves, Odaleia Barbosa Aguiar, Arlinda B. Moreno, André R. Brunoni, Maria del Carmem B. Molina, Maria Carmen Viana, Isabela Bensoñor, Rosane H. Griep and Maria de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153227 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3688
Abstract
Depression affects 264 million persons in the world, accounting for some 4.3% of the global burden of disease. Current studies indicate that the decrease in the consumption of omega-3 food sources is associated with the increasing incidence of depression. The study aims to [...] Read more.
Depression affects 264 million persons in the world, accounting for some 4.3% of the global burden of disease. Current studies indicate that the decrease in the consumption of omega-3 food sources is associated with the increasing incidence of depression. The study aims to assess the association between the consumption of omega-3 and the maintenance and incidence of depressive episodes in adults (39–64 years) and elderly adults (>65 years). This was a longitudinal study using data from the baseline and first follow-up wave of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Depressive episodes were obtained with the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R), and food consumption was measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between the consumption of omega-3 and depressive episodes. Fatty acids from the omega-3 family showed a protective effect against the maintenance of depressive episodes. In relation to incidence, the estimates suggest that the higher the consumption of omega-3 acids, the lower the risk of developing depressive episodes, and significant associations were found between the consumption of omega-3 and alpha-linolenic acid. Dietary consumption of omega-3, DHA, EPA, DPA, and alpha linolenic fatty acids may have a protective effect against the maintenance and incidence of depressive episodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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12 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
Effects of Green Tea and Green Tea Incorporated in Nanoparticle Lyotropic Liquid Crystal on Exercise Adaptations: A High-Intensity Interval Training Pre-Clinical Study
by Vitor Nieri, Juliana Ferreira de Souza, Talita Cristina Mena Segato, Érika Leão Ajala Caetano, Fernanda Gomes Leite, Marco Vinícius Chaud and Denise Grotto
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153226 - 7 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Green tea (GT) is a natural antioxidant, sensitive to oxidation after preparation. Lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) are nanostructured systems used to incorporate bioactive compounds. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a workout modality that increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, this [...] Read more.
Green tea (GT) is a natural antioxidant, sensitive to oxidation after preparation. Lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) are nanostructured systems used to incorporate bioactive compounds. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a workout modality that increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, this research aimed to compare the effects of GT and GT loaded in LLC in animals subjected to HIIT, considering hematological, biochemical and histological parameters, redox status, and body mass. Monoolein, GT in infusion and Poloxamer 407 were mixed to obtain nanoparticles of LLC (NP-LLC). Healthy male rats were randomized into six groups (n = 6/group): Control (C), GT, GT-NP-LLC, Exercise (Ex), GT+Ex, GT-NP-LLC+Ex. Body weight was significantly lower in all groups subjected to HIIT compared to C. The percentages of body mass reduction were 11.3, 13.0, 10.0 and 11.0% for Ex, GT+Ex, GT-NP-LLC and GT-NP-LLC+Ex, respectively, compared to control. GT-NP-LLC and Ex reduced triglycerides compared to C. GT and GT-NP-LLC supplementation combined with HIIT presented higher muscle hypertrophy (25 and 21%, respectively), better physical conditioning, and reduced body weight gain rate compared to HIIT by itself. Moreover, the effects of GT-NP-LLC itself on body mass and biochemical parameters are promising, suggesting NP-LLC could improve the bioavailability of GT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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13 pages, 703 KiB  
Review
Relationship between Nutrition-Related Problems and Falls in Hemodialysis Patients: A Narrative Review
by Nobuyuki Shirai, Tatsuro Inoue, Masato Ogawa, Masatsugu Okamura, Shinichiro Morishita, Yamamoto Suguru and Atsuhiro Tsubaki
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153225 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3785
Abstract
Falls are a social problem that increase healthcare costs. Hemodialysis (HD) patients need to avoid falling because fractures increase their risk of death. Nutritional problems such as frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition, protein-energy wasting (PEW), and cachexia may increase the risk of falls and fractures [...] Read more.
Falls are a social problem that increase healthcare costs. Hemodialysis (HD) patients need to avoid falling because fractures increase their risk of death. Nutritional problems such as frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition, protein-energy wasting (PEW), and cachexia may increase the risk of falls and fractures in patients with HD. This review aimed to summarize the impact of frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition, PEW, and cachexia on falls in HD patients. The reported global incidence of falls in HD patients is 0.85–1.60 falls per patient per year. HD patients fall frequently, but few reports have investigated the relationship between nutrition-related problems and falls. Several studies reported that frailty and undernutrition increase the risk of falls in HD patients. Nutritional therapy may help to prevent falls in HD patients. HD patients’ falls are caused by nutritional problems such as iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic factors. Falls increase a person’s fear of falling, reducing physical activity, which then causes muscle weakness and further decreased physical activity; this cycle can cause multiple falls. Further research is necessary to clarify the relationships between falls and sarcopenia, cachexia, and PEW. Routine clinical assessments of nutrition-related problems are crucial to prevent falls in HD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation Nutrition in Older People)
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15 pages, 1228 KiB  
Article
Curcumin Offers No Additional Benefit to Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Status in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
by Kaveh Naseri, Saeede Saadati, Zahra Yari, Behzad Askari, Davood Mafi, Pooria Hoseinian, Omid Asbaghi, Azita Hekmatdoost and Barbora de Courten
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3224; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153224 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3950
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Curcumin has been shown to exert glucose-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic effects in type 2 diabetes. Hence, we investigated curcumin’s effects on atherogenesis markers, fatty liver, insulin resistance, [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Curcumin has been shown to exert glucose-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic effects in type 2 diabetes. Hence, we investigated curcumin’s effects on atherogenesis markers, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue-related indicators in patients with NAFLD. In this secondary analysis of a 12-week randomized controlled trial, fifty-two patients with NAFLD received lifestyle modification. In addition, they were randomly allocated to either the curcumin group (1.5 g/day) or the matching placebo. Outcome variables (assessed before and after the study) were: the fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver score (FLS), BMI, age, ALT, TG score (BAAT), triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, Castelli risk index-I (CRI-I), Castelli risk index-II (CRI-II), TG/HDL–C ratio, atherogenic coefficient (AC), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), lipoprotein combine index (LCI), cholesterol index (CHOLINDEX), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI), visceral adiposity index (VAI), metabolic score for visceral fat (METS-VF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) values. The TyG index decreased in the curcumin group and increased in the placebo group, with a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.029). However, a between-group change was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Other indices were not significantly different between the groups either before or after multiple test correction. After the intervention, there was a lower number of patients with severe fatty liver (FLI ≥ 60) and metabolic syndrome in the curcumin group compared to the placebo (p = 0.021 and p = 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, curcumin offers no additional cardiometabolic benefits to lifestyle intervention in patients with NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Efficacy and Role of Dietary Polyphenols)
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16 pages, 1659 KiB  
Article
Geographical and Temporal Variability of Ultra-Processed Food Consumption in the Spanish Population: Findings from the DRECE Study
by Carmen Romero Ferreiro, Pilar Cancelas Navia, David Lora Pablos and Agustín Gómez de la Cámara
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153223 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
The consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) has increased in recent decades, worldwide. Evidence on the negative impacts of food processing on health outcomes has also been steadily increasing. The aim of this study is to describe changes in consumption patterns of ultra-processed foods [...] Read more.
The consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) has increased in recent decades, worldwide. Evidence on the negative impacts of food processing on health outcomes has also been steadily increasing. The aim of this study is to describe changes in consumption patterns of ultra-processed foods in the Spanish population over time and their geographical variability. Data from four representative cohorts of the Spanish population were used (1991–1996–2004–2008). Dietary information was collected using a validated frequency questionnaire and categorized using the NOVA classification. A total increase of 10.8% in UPF consumption between 1991 and 2008 was found in Spain (p-value < 0.001). The products contributing most to UPF consumption were sugar-sweetened beverages, processed meats, dairy products, and sweets. Those who consumed more ultra-processed foods were younger (p-value < 0.001) and female (p-value = 0.01). Significant differences between the different geographical areas of Spain were found. The eastern part of Spain was the area with the lowest UPF consumption, whereas the north-western part was the area with the highest increase in UPF consumption. Given the negative effect that the consumption of ultra-processed foods has on health, it is necessary to implement public health policies to curb this increase in UPF consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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22 pages, 2118 KiB  
Article
Association of Polygenic Variants with Type 2 Diabetes Risk and Their Interaction with Lifestyles in Asians
by Haeng Jeon Hur, Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Kyun-Hee Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim and Sunmin Park
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153222 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Over the last several decades, there has been a considerable growth in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Asians. A pathophysiological mechanism in Asian T2DM is closely linked to low insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and inability to compensate for insulin resistance. We hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Over the last several decades, there has been a considerable growth in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Asians. A pathophysiological mechanism in Asian T2DM is closely linked to low insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and inability to compensate for insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with lower β-cell mass and function and their combination with unhealthy lifestyle factors significantly raise T2DM risk among Asians. This hypothesis was explored with participants aged over 40. Participants were categorized into T2DM (case; n = 5383) and control (n = 53,318) groups. The genetic variants associated with a higher risk of T2DM were selected from a genome-wide association study in a city hospital-based cohort, and they were confirmed with a replicate study in Ansan/Ansung plus rural cohorts. The interacted genetic variants were identified with generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, and the polygenic risk score (PRS)-nutrient interactions were examined. The 8-SNP model was positively associated with T2DM risk by about 10 times, exhibiting a higher association than the 20-SNP model, including all T2DM-linked SNPs with p < 5 × 10−6. The SNPs in the models were primarily involved in pancreatic β-cell growth and survival. The PRS of the 8-SNP model interacted with three lifestyle factors: energy intake based on the estimated energy requirement (EER), Western-style diet (WSD), and smoking status. Fasting serum glucose concentrations were much higher in the participants with High-PRS in rather low EER intake and high-WSD compared to the High-EER and Low-WSD, respectively. They were shown to be higher in the participants with High-PRS in smokers than in non-smokers. In conclusion, the genetic impact of T2DM risk was mainly involved with regulating pancreatic β-cell mass and function, and the PRS interacted with lifestyles. These results highlight the interaction between genetic impacts and lifestyles in precision nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics from Research to Practice)
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12 pages, 2950 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D and Diseases of Mineral Homeostasis: A Cyp24a1 R396W Humanized Preclinical Model of Infantile Hypercalcemia Type 1
by René St-Arnaud, Alice Arabian, Dila Kavame, Martin Kaufmann and Glenville Jones
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153221 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
Infantile hypercalcemia type 1 (HCINF1), previously known as idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, is caused by mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, CYP24A1. The R396W loss-of-function mutation in CYP24A1 is the second most frequent mutated allele observed in affected HCINF1 patients. We have [...] Read more.
Infantile hypercalcemia type 1 (HCINF1), previously known as idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, is caused by mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, CYP24A1. The R396W loss-of-function mutation in CYP24A1 is the second most frequent mutated allele observed in affected HCINF1 patients. We have introduced the site-specific R396W mutation within the murine Cyp24a1 gene in knock-in mice to generate a humanized model of HCINF1. On the C57Bl6 inbred background, homozygous mutant mice exhibited high perinatal lethality with 17% survival past weaning. This was corrected by crossbreeding to the CD1 outbred background. Mutant animals had hypercalcemia in the first week of life, developed nephrolithiasis, and had a very high 25(OH)D3 to 24,25(OH)2D3 ratio which is a diagnostic hallmark of the HCINF1 condition. Expression of the mutant Cyp24a1 allele was highly elevated while Cyp27b1 expression was abrogated. Impaired bone fracture healing was detected in CD1-R396w/w mutant animals. The augmented lethality of the C57Bl6-R396W strain suggests an influence of distinct genetic backgrounds. Our data point to the utility of unique knock-in mice to probe the physiological ramifications of CYP24A1 variants in isolation from other biological and environmental factors. Full article
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14 pages, 725 KiB  
Review
Positive Effects of α-Lactalbumin in the Management of Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
by Vincenzo Cardinale, Elisa Lepore, Sabrina Basciani, Salvatore Artale, Maurizio Nordio, Mariano Bizzarri and Vittorio Unfer
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153220 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4674
Abstract
To date, the involvement of α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) refers to its ability to improve intestinal absorption of natural molecules like inositols, overcoming the inositol resistance. However, due to its own aminoacidic building blocks, α-LA is involved [...] Read more.
To date, the involvement of α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) refers to its ability to improve intestinal absorption of natural molecules like inositols, overcoming the inositol resistance. However, due to its own aminoacidic building blocks, α-LA is involved in various biological processes that can open new additional applications. A great portion of women with PCOS exhibit gastrointestinal dysbiosis, which is in turn one of the triggering mechanisms of the syndrome. Due to its prebiotic effect, α-LA can recover dysbiosis, also improving the insulin resistance, obesity and intestinal inflammation frequently associated with PCOS. Further observations suggest that altered gut microbiota negatively influence mental wellbeing. Depressive mood and low serotonin levels are indeed common features of women with PCOS. Thanks to its content of tryptophan, which is the precursor of serotonin, and considering the strict link between gut and brain, using α-LA contributes to preserving mental well-being by maintaining high levels of serotonin. In addition, considering women with PCOS seeking pregnancy, both altered microbiota and serotonin levels can induce later consequences in the offspring. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of potential applications of α-LA is required to transition to preclinical and clinical studies extending its therapeutic advantages in PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets/Nutrients and Microbiota for Weight Management)
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15 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity—A New Indicator of Healthy Diet Quality in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Polish Cross-Sectional Study
by Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko, Anna Waśkiewicz, Anna Maria Witkowska, Alicja Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Kinga Zujko and Wojciech Drygas
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153219 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the relationship between the dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), as well as healthy diet quality, in a representative sample (n = 5690) of the whole Polish adult population (WOBASZ II [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the relationship between the dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), as well as healthy diet quality, in a representative sample (n = 5690) of the whole Polish adult population (WOBASZ II study). Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24 h dietary recall method. Antioxidant vitamins (C, E, and β-carotene) and minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu) from the diet and supplements were calculated using 5D Diet software, and dietary total polyphenol intake (DTPI) was determined using the Phenol-Explorer database and our database. Total diet quality was measured by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for the prevention of CVD. DTAC was calculated using the data on food consumption and the antioxidant potential of foods measured by the FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant potential) method. It was shown that higher DTAC was associated with a higher intake of polyphenols, antioxidant vitamins, and minerals. Moreover, a higher quartile of DTAC was associated with a reduced odds ratio for cardiovascular diseases in a Polish population, as well as with a higher HDI. Therefore, dietary recommendations for the prevention and therapy of CVDs should take into account a high DTAC. DTAC, measured by the FRAP method, can be considered an indicator of healthy diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Nutritional Value in Non-communicable Diseases)
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