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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 16 (August-2 2022) – 202 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sleep influences many aspects of recovery and performance, including decision making and reaction time. As many athletes experience poor sleep and are, therefore, subject to impaired performance, this systematic review seeks to establish the impact that diet has on the sleep of athletic populations. This review supports the assertion that specific dietary factors influence athletes’ sleep. Caffeine intake (>2 mg∙kg−1 body mass) in the evening is detrimental to sleep, whereas the evening intake of high GI carbohydrates and protein sources rich in the amino acid tryptophan may improve the sleep of athletic populations. With the findings from this review, practitioners and athletes should implement dietary strategies in an attempt to aid sleep. View this paper
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Review
Nutritional Management and Role of Multidisciplinary Follow-Up after Endoscopic Bariatric Treatment for Obesity
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163450 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity has risen exponentially, and patients living with obesity suffer from its debilitating consequences. The treatment options for obesity have expanded significantly and include lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy, endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs), and bariatric surgery. Endoscopic bariatric therapies comprise volume-reducing procedures [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity has risen exponentially, and patients living with obesity suffer from its debilitating consequences. The treatment options for obesity have expanded significantly and include lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy, endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs), and bariatric surgery. Endoscopic bariatric therapies comprise volume-reducing procedures such as endoscopic gastroplasty and gastric space-occupying devices such as intragastric balloons. Because of its minimally invasive nature and ease of delivery, EBTs are increasingly being adopted as a treatment option for obesity in several centers. These procedures mainly achieve weight loss by inducing early satiety and reducing meal volume. While the technical aspects of EBTs have been well explained, the nutritional management surrounding EBTs and the effectiveness of multidisciplinary team for maximizing weight loss is less described. There is considerable variation in post-EBT care between studies and centers. In this paper, we review the existing literature and share our experience on nutrition and the role of multidisciplinary management of obesity following EBT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional and Endoscopy Intervention in the Obesity Treatment)
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Article
Association of Different Malnutrition Parameters and Clinical Outcomes among COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3449; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163449 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Background: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in medical inpatients and may also negatively influence clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We analyzed the prognostic implication of different malnutrition parameters with respect to adverse clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in medical inpatients and may also negatively influence clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We analyzed the prognostic implication of different malnutrition parameters with respect to adverse clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: In this observational study, consecutively hospitalized adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Cantonal Hospital Aarau (Switzerland) were included between February and December 2020. The association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) on admission, body mass index, and admission albumin levels with in-hospital mortality and secondary endpoints was studied by using multivariable regression analyses. Results: Our analysis included 305 patients (median age of 66 years, 66.6% male) with a median NRS 2002-score of 2.0 (IQR 1.0, 3.0) points. Overall, 44 patients (14.4%) died during hospitalization. A step-wise increase in mortality risk with a higher nutritional risk was observed. When compared to patients with no risk for malnutrition (NRS 2002 < 3 points), patients with a moderate (NRS 2002 3–4 points) or high risk for malnutrition (NRS 2002 ≥ 5 points) had a two-fold and five-fold increase in risk, respectively (10.5% vs. 22.7% vs. 50.0%, p < 0.001). The increased risk for mortality was also confirmed in a regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, and comorbidities (odds ratio for high risk for malnutrition 4.68, 95% CI 1.18 to 18.64, p = 0.029 compared to patients with no risk for malnutrition). Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, the risk for malnutrition was a risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Future studies should investigate the role of nutritional treatment in this patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Impact of an Integrative Nutrition Package through Home Visit on Maternal and Children Outcome: Finding from Locus Stunting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163448 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Background: Stunting has been a public health problem in several developing countries including Indonesia. One of the strategies to reduce stunting was family assistance. This study was aimed to estimate the effect of family assistance by using an integrative nutrition package through home [...] Read more.
Background: Stunting has been a public health problem in several developing countries including Indonesia. One of the strategies to reduce stunting was family assistance. This study was aimed to estimate the effect of family assistance by using an integrative nutrition package through home visits on the growth and development of stunted children. Method: This was an experimental study using pre-test post-test with control group design, conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on March to May 2022. The intervention group was provided an integrative nutrition package (INP) including maternal education, behavioral change through home visit, as well as monitoring children’s outcome, while the control group was asked to read and follow child care procedure in the maternal and child health (MCH) book as a standard procedure. Both groups were visited by trained health volunteers and had a complementary feeding (CF) package weekly for four weeks. The outcomes of this study were the maternal outcome (knowledge and behavior on children’s growth monitoring (CGM), children’s development monitoring (CDM), and infant/young children feeding (IYCF) as well as children’s outcomes, including body weight (BW), body height (BH), and child score development (CSD). This study used generalized estimating equation (GEE) to estimate the differences in differences (DID) of the impact of intervention compared with control group and compared among three different times (baseline, fourth, and eighth week). Results: There were 60 stunted children under five years in this study, i.e., 30 in intervention group and 30 in control group. From the GEE analysis, it was found that the regression adjusted DID showed statistically significant increase of all outcomes including children’s development score (CDS). The adjusted DID effect (95% CI) on 8th week for children’s weight, height, and development score were 0.31 (0.25–0.37), 0.41 (0.13–0.68), and −0.40 (−0.59–(−0.21)), respectively, among the intervention group. Conclusions: INP through home visit successfully increased maternal and children’s outcomes compared witsh standard procedure. The effect of intervention was found to be consistently significant in the fourth and eighth weeks after intervention. We recommend the local government to apply INP through home visit especially in high-prevalence stunting areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Environment and Children’s Eating Behavior and Health)
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Review
Heart Rate Variability—An Index of the Efficacy of Complementary Therapies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163447 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as a functional and psychosomatic disease, reduces the quality of life and increases the risk of developing mental disorders. Deregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is one of the main causes of the disease. The objective of the [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as a functional and psychosomatic disease, reduces the quality of life and increases the risk of developing mental disorders. Deregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is one of the main causes of the disease. The objective of the present study was to identify the studies in which measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) were performed before and after therapeutic intervention, and to evaluate the effectiveness of IBS therapy in terms of a reduction of IBS symptoms and changes in autonomic tone. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in accordance with PRISMA standards. Six databases were searched for articles published before 2022: PubMed®, MEDLINE®, EBSCO, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were experimental design, diagnosis of IBS (medical and/or diagnosis in accordance with the Rome Criteria), non-pharmacological intervention, and HRV measurement before and after the intervention. The quality of the studies was assessed by JBI Critical appraisal. In total, 455 studies were identified, of which, sixwere included in the review. Expected changes in HRV (increase in parasympathetic activity) were observed in four of the six studies (interventions studied: ear acupressure, transcutaneous auricular vagusnerve stimulation, cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation elements, yoga). In the same studies, therapeutic interventions significantly reduced the symptoms of IBS. The present review indicated that interventions under investigation improve the efficiency of the ANS and reduce the symptoms of IBS. It is advisable to include HRV measurements as a measure of the effectiveness of interventions in IBS therapy, and to assess autonomic changes as a moderator of the effectiveness of IBS therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention on Digestive Diseases)
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Article
Prevalence of Low Muscle Mass in the Computed Tomography at the Third Lumbar Vertebra Level Depends on Chosen Cut-Off in 200 Hospitalised Patients—A Prospective Observational Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163446 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Measuring skeletal muscle area (SMA) at the third lumbar vertebra level (L3) using computed tomography (CT) is increasingly popular for diagnosing low muscle mass. The aim was to describe the effect of the CT L3 cut-off choice on the prevalence of low muscle [...] Read more.
Measuring skeletal muscle area (SMA) at the third lumbar vertebra level (L3) using computed tomography (CT) is increasingly popular for diagnosing low muscle mass. The aim was to describe the effect of the CT L3 cut-off choice on the prevalence of low muscle mass in medical and surgical patients. Two hundred inpatients, who underwent an abdominal CT scan for any reason, were included. Skeletal muscle area (SMA) was measured according to Hounsfield units on a single CT scan at the L3 level. First, we calculated sex-specific cut-offs, adjusted for height or BMI and set at mean or mean-2 SD in our population. Second, we applied published cut-offs, which differed in statistical calculation and adjustment for body stature and age. Statistical calculation of the cut-off led to a prevalence of approximately 50 vs. 1% when cut-offs were set at mean vs. mean-2 SD in our population. Prevalence varied between 5 and 86% when published cut-offs were applied (p < 0.001). The adjustment of the cut-off for the same body stature variable led to similar prevalence distribution patterns across age and BMI classes. The cut-off choice highly influenced prevalence of low muscle mass and prevalence distribution across age and BMI classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients)
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Article
Systems Biology Approaches for Understanding Metabolic Differences Using ‘Multi-Omics’ Profiling of Metabolites in Mice Fed with Honey and Mixed Sugars
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163445 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Honey is proposed to be the oldest natural sweetener and it is a standard component of several dietary patterns. Recent evidence suggests that replacing sugars, such as fructose, with honey has potential health benefits. In this study, we determined the effects of honey [...] Read more.
Honey is proposed to be the oldest natural sweetener and it is a standard component of several dietary patterns. Recent evidence suggests that replacing sugars, such as fructose, with honey has potential health benefits. In this study, we determined the effects of honey supplementation in mice on cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers and changes in gut microbiota and metabolomic profiles. We compared mice fed a honey diet (1 or 2 g/kg) with those fed an analog diet (mixed fructose, glucose, and sucrose (FSG) solutions) at exact dosages for one month. We found the same blood glucose fluctuating trends for honey- and FGS-fed mice. The honey diets resulted in less weight gain and fewer ballooned hepatocytes. Additionally, honey diets decreased the total serum cholesterol and TNF-α and increased the antioxidant enzyme activity. Each diet type was associated with distinct gut microbiota and metabolomics profiles. Systems biology analysis revealed that Lactococcus spp., Lachnospiraceae spp., and oleamide had the strongest correlations with lipid metabolic networks. Although in an animal model, this study provides a good understanding of the potential benefits of choosing honey rather than mixed sugars in regular dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bee Products in Human Health)
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Article
Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3444; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163444 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
(Background) The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men with chronic kidney disease and hypogonadism on conservative and hemodialysis treatment. (Methods) The studied population consisted of 38 men on hemodialysis (HD), 46 [...] Read more.
(Background) The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men with chronic kidney disease and hypogonadism on conservative and hemodialysis treatment. (Methods) The studied population consisted of 38 men on hemodialysis (HD), 46 men with CKD stages II-IV (predialysis group, PreD) and 35 men without kidney disease who were similar in age to others (control group). Serum total testosterone level (TT) was measured, and free testosterone level (fT) was calculated. Hypogonadism criteria according to the EAU definition were fulfilled by 26 men on HD (68.4%) and by 24 men from the PreD group (52%). Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) with testosterone enanthate in intramuscular injections every 3 weeks was applied in 15 men from HD and in 14 men from PreD. The safety of TRT was monitored by measuring PSA and overhydration. (Results) A significant rise of TT and fT was observed after 3 months of TRT, but no significant changes were observed after 6 and 12 months in the HD and PreD group. An intensity of clinical symptoms of hypogonadism measured by ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) questionnaire gradually decreased, and the intensity of erectile dysfunction measured by the IIEF-5 (international index of erectile functioning) questionnaire also decreased after 3, 6 and 12 months of TRT in the HD and PreD group. (Conclusions) The applied model of TRT is effective in the correction of clinical signs of hypogonadism without a significant risk of overhydration or PSA changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal and Nutritional Disorders in Kidney Failure)
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Reply
Reply to Scarpati, G.; Piazza, O. Comment on “Guerrero-Romero et al. Magnesium-to-Calcium Ratio and Mortality from COVID-19. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1686”
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163443 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
We thank Dr. Scarpati and Dr. Piazza for their interest and comments [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium: From In Vitro to Clinical Research)
Comment
Comment on Guerrero-Romero et al. Magnesium-to-Calcium Ratio and Mortality from COVID-19. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1686
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163442 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 398
Abstract
We read with great interest the article by Romero et al. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium: From In Vitro to Clinical Research)
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Review
Early Enteral Nutrition in Paediatric Acute Pancreatitis—A Review of Published Studies
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163441 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Nowadays, nutrition is said to be an integral aspect of acute pancreatitis (AP) treatment. Early enteral nutrition (EEN) is safe and beneficial for patients. This was confirmed by clinical experience and can be found in guidelines on managing adults with AP. Furthermore, paediatric [...] Read more.
Nowadays, nutrition is said to be an integral aspect of acute pancreatitis (AP) treatment. Early enteral nutrition (EEN) is safe and beneficial for patients. This was confirmed by clinical experience and can be found in guidelines on managing adults with AP. Furthermore, paediatric recommendations encourage EEN use in AP. However, paediatric guidelines are based exclusively on studies in adults. Therefore, we present a review of published studies on the time of nutritional interventions in children with AP. A search was independently conducted in April 2022 by two of the authors. Only full-text papers published in English involving children between 0–21 were considered. Only four papers met our inclusion criteria: one randomised-control trial (RCT), one prospective study with retrospective chart review, and two retrospective chart reviews. All studies supported EEN and there was no recommendation of any delay in its initiation. The results of all four papers suggested EEN with a regular, normal-fat diet. EEN is safe in children with mild or moderately severe AP and may decrease the length of hospitalisation. Unfortunately, all the conclusions are based on a small amount of heterogeneous data that are mostly retrospective. Future prospective RCTs are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and NutritionaI Intervention in Childhood Chronic Diseases)
Article
A High-Fat Diet Modifies Brain Neurotransmitter Profile and Hippocampal Proteome and Morphology in an IUGR Pig Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163440 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) hinders the correct growth of the fetus during pregnancy due to the lack of oxygen or nutrients. The developing fetus gives priority to brain development (“brain sparing”), but the risk exists of neurological and cognitive deficits at short or [...] Read more.
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) hinders the correct growth of the fetus during pregnancy due to the lack of oxygen or nutrients. The developing fetus gives priority to brain development (“brain sparing”), but the risk exists of neurological and cognitive deficits at short or long term. On the other hand, diets rich in fat exert pernicious effects on brain function. Using a pig model of spontaneous IUGR, we have studied the effect on the adult of a long-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the neurotransmitter profile in several brain areas, and the morphology and the proteome of the hippocampus. Our hypothesis was that animals affected by IUGR (born with low birth weight) would present a different susceptibility to an HFD when they become adults, compared with normal birth-weight animals. Our results indicate that HFD affected the serotoninergic pathway, but it did not provoke relevant changes in the morphology of the hippocampus. Finally, the proteomic analysis revealed that, in some instances, NBW and LBW individuals respond to HFD in different ways. In particular, NBW animals presented changes in oxidative phosphorylation and the extracellular matrix, whereas LBW animals presented differences in RNA splicing, anterograde and retrograde transport and the mTOR pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Nutrition on Brain Metabolism and Disease)
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Review
The Mutual Relationship among Cardiovascular Diseases and COVID-19: Focus on Micronutrients Imbalance
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163439 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Micronutrients are ions and vitamins humbly required by the human body. They play a main role in several physiological mechanisms and their imbalance is strongly associated with potentially-fatal complications. Micronutrient imbalance is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, such as arrythmias, heart failure, and [...] Read more.
Micronutrients are ions and vitamins humbly required by the human body. They play a main role in several physiological mechanisms and their imbalance is strongly associated with potentially-fatal complications. Micronutrient imbalance is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, such as arrythmias, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. It has been also observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly in most severe patients. The relationship between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 is mutual: the latter triggers cardiovascular disease onset and worsening while patients with previous cardiovascular disease may develop a more severe form of COVID-19. In addition to the well-known pathophysiological mechanisms binding COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases together, increasing importance is being given to the impact of micronutrient alterations, often present during COVID-19 and able to affect the balance responsible for a good functioning of the cardiovascular system. In particular, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia are strongly associated with worse outcome, while vitamin A and D deficiency are associated with thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Thus, considering how frequent the cardiovascular involvement is in patients with COVID-19, and how it majorly affects their prognosis, this manuscript provides a comprehensive review on the role of micronutrient imbalance in the interconnection between COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutrients on Cardio and Cerebrovascular Diseases)
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Review
Testosterone Deficiency as One of the Major Endocrine Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163438 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Reduced testosterone concentration is nowadays thought to be one of the main endocrine disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is caused by the dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The role of testosterone is multifactorial. Testosterone is responsible not only for reproductive processes, [...] Read more.
Reduced testosterone concentration is nowadays thought to be one of the main endocrine disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is caused by the dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The role of testosterone is multifactorial. Testosterone is responsible not only for reproductive processes, but it is a hormone which increases bone and muscle mass, improves lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, erythropoiesis, reduces blood pressure, and ameliorates mood and perception. The implications of hypogonadism in CKD are infertility and loss of libido, reduction of muscle mass and strength, disorders in bone mineralization, the development of sarcopenia and protein energy wasting (PEW), progression of atherosclerosis, increased visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and anaemia. Reduced testosterone serum concentrations in CKD are associated with increased mortality rate. Testosterone supplementation improves sexual functions, reduces the level of inflammatory markers and blood pressure, stimulates muscle protein synthesis, improves insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, and increases muscle mass, bone mineral density, and haemoglobin concentration. It positively affects mood and well-being. The modes of testosterone supplementation are intramuscular injections, subcutaneous pellets, and percutaneous methods—patches and gels. Successful kidney transplantation may improve gonadal function and testosterone production, however, half of men with low testosterone concentrations before kidney transplantation do not restore hormonal function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal and Nutritional Disorders in Kidney Failure)
Article
Synergism Potentiates Oxidative Antiproliferative Effects of Naringenin and Quercetin in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163437 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer as of 2020. Quercetin (Que) and Naringenin (Nar) are predominantly found in citrus fruits and vegetables and have shown promising antiproliferative effects in multiple studies. It is also known that the bioactive [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer as of 2020. Quercetin (Que) and Naringenin (Nar) are predominantly found in citrus fruits and vegetables and have shown promising antiproliferative effects in multiple studies. It is also known that the bioactive effects of these flavonoids are more pronounced in whole fruit than in isolation. This study investigates the potential synergistic effects of Que and Nar (CoQN) in MCF-7 BC cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with a range of concentrations of Que, Nar or CoQN to determine cell viability. The IC50 of CoQN was then used to investigate caspase 3/7 activity, Bcl-2 gene expression, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential to evaluate oxidative stress and apoptosis. CoQN treatment produced significant cytotoxicity, reduced Bcl-2 gene expression and increased caspase 3/7 activity compared to either Nar or Que. Furthermore, CoQN significantly increased lipid peroxidation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) compared to either Nar or Que. Therefore, CoQN treatment has potential pharmacological application in BC chemotherapy by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in MCF-7 BC cells. The results of this study support the increased consumption of whole fruits and vegetables to reduce cell proliferation in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Human Health and Disease)
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Article
Acute Responses to Resistance Training on Body Composition, Muscular Fitness and Flexibility by Sex and Age in Healthy War Veterans Aged 50–80 Years
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163436 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background: Although evidence suggests that resistance training should be prescribed as a method to enhance or maintain physical fitness, these findings are mostly based on research on younger men. Studies investigating responses by sex and age to resistance training, especially in war veterans [...] Read more.
Background: Although evidence suggests that resistance training should be prescribed as a method to enhance or maintain physical fitness, these findings are mostly based on research on younger men. Studies investigating responses by sex and age to resistance training, especially in war veterans aged ≥50 years, are lacking. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine whether a 4-week resistance training program would have similar effects on body composition, muscular fitness, and flexibility in men and women aged 50–80 years. Methods: Seven-hundred and sixty-four participants were recruited and categorized into two groups each of men and women aged 50–64 and 65–80 years. The training intervention lasted 4 weeks and consisted of three 60 min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: body composition, push-ups in 30 s, chair-stands in 30 s, sit-ups in 30 s, and a sit-and-reach test. Results: Over the intervention period of 4 weeks, body weight (p = 0.002) and the percent of fat mass (p < 0.001) decreased, while the percent of lean mass (p < 0.001) in push-ups in 30 s (p < 0.001), chair-stands in 30 s (p < 0.001), sit-ups in 30 s (p < 0.001), and sit-and-reach (p < 0.001) increased. Significant time*age interactions were shown for push-ups in 30 s (F1,763 = 4.348, p = 0.038) and chair-stands in 30 s (F1,763 = 9.552, p = 0.002), where men and women aged 50–64 years exhibited larger time-induced changes compared to their older (65–80 yr) counterparts. Effect sizes were similar between sex- and age-specific groups. Conclusions: The 4-week resistance training produced similar pronounced positive effects on body composition, muscular fitness, and flexibility, while men and women aged 50–64 years displayed significantly larger improvements in upper and lower muscular fitness compared with their 65–80-year-old counterparts. Full article
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Article
Perinatal Propionate Supplementation Protects Adult Male Offspring from Maternal Chronic Kidney Disease-Induced Hypertension
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163435 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Emerging evidence supports that early-life disturbance of gut microbiota has an impact on adult disease in later life. Offspring hypertension can be programmed by maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conversely, perinatal use of gut microbiota-targeted therapy has been implemented to reverse programming processes [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence supports that early-life disturbance of gut microbiota has an impact on adult disease in later life. Offspring hypertension can be programmed by maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD). Conversely, perinatal use of gut microbiota-targeted therapy has been implemented to reverse programming processes and prevent hypertension. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the major gut microbiota-derived metabolites, can be applied as postbiotics. Propionate, one of predominant SCFAs, has been shown to have antihypertensive property. We examined whether perinatal propionate supplementation can prevent offspring hypertension induced by maternal CKD. CKD was induced by chow supplemented with 0.5% adenine for 3 weeks before pregnancy. Propionate (P) was supplemented at 200 mmol/L in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were divided into four groups (n = 7–8/group): control, CKD, control+propionate (CP), and CKD+propionate (CKDP). Maternal CKD-induced offspring hypertension was reversed by perinatal propionate supplementation. The protective effects of perinatal propionate treatment were related to increased propionate-generating bacteria Clostridium spp. and plasma propionate level, increased expression of renal G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41, a SCFA receptor), augmentation of α-diversity, and shifts in gut microbiota composition. In summary, our results highlight that maternal CKD-induced offspring hypertension can be prevented by the use of gut microbial metabolite SCFAs in early life, which could shed light on the prevention of the current hypertension pandemic. Full article
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Review
Role of Dairy Foods, Fish, White Meat, and Eggs in the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies in 2018–2022
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163430 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1566
Abstract
There is limited evidence to support the relationship between the consumption of animal-source foods other than red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We aimed to examine the recent available evidence from observational studies about the association between these food [...] Read more.
There is limited evidence to support the relationship between the consumption of animal-source foods other than red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We aimed to examine the recent available evidence from observational studies about the association between these food groups’ intake and CRC risk. For this systematic review, we searched the PubMed database for the last five years. A total of fourteen cohort studies and seven case–control studies comprising a total of >60,000 cases were included. The studies showed a consistent significant decrease in CRC risk, overall and by subsites, associated with a high consumption of total dairy products. Less strong effects associated with the consumption of any subtype of dairy product were observed. Fish consumption, overall and by subtypes (oily or non-oily and fresh or canned), showed a mild inverse association with CRC risk. The association between white meat and egg intake and CRC risk was low and based on a small number of studies; thus, these findings should be interpreted with caution. In conclusion, a high consumption of total dairy products was associated with a lower CRC risk. However, evidence for fish, white meat, and eggs and the CRC risk were not as strong. Full article
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Article
Bergamot Polyphenol Extract Reduces Hepatocyte Neutral Fat by Increasing Beta-Oxidation
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163434 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Background: Bergamot polyphenolic fraction (PF) extract exerts a beneficial against liver steatosis. However, the fundamental processes underlying this beneficial effect of bergamot PF remain elusive. In this work, we examined the effect of bergamot PF extract on 2D and 3D hepatocyte cultures. Material [...] Read more.
Background: Bergamot polyphenolic fraction (PF) extract exerts a beneficial against liver steatosis. However, the fundamental processes underlying this beneficial effect of bergamot PF remain elusive. In this work, we examined the effect of bergamot PF extract on 2D and 3D hepatocyte cultures. Material and Methods: We evaluated the effect of bergamot PF in 2D and 3D cultures from rat, human hepatoma cells, and human primary hepatocytes. Results: In 2D cell culture, we demonstrated that incubation with bergamot PF decreases intracellular lipid content and is associated with an increase in expression levels of ß-oxidation genes (Acox1, Pparα, and Ucp2) and lipophagy (Atg7). Moreover, we confirm this effect on 3D spheroids and organoids. Conclusion: Incubation with bergamot PF reduces intracellular lipid neutral fat potentially by increasing intracellular pathways related to beta-oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adiposity, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases)
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Biomarkers for Non-Invasive Stratification of Coronary Artery Disease and Prognostic Impact on Long-Term Survival in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163433 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Knowledge about cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is limited. To address this, we analyzed 3072 patients (36% female) with a median follow-up of 10 years in the Leipzig LIFE Heart Study with suspected CAD with coronary [...] Read more.
Knowledge about cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is limited. To address this, we analyzed 3072 patients (36% female) with a median follow-up of 10 years in the Leipzig LIFE Heart Study with suspected CAD with coronary angiography. Selected biomarkers included troponin T (hsTNT), N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), copeptin, C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Patients were stratified by CAD severity: CAD0 (no sclerosis), CAD1 (non-obstructive, i.e., stenosis < 50%), and CAD2 (≥one stenosis ≥ 50%). Group comparison (GC) included GC1: CAD0 + 1 vs. CAD2; GC2: CAD0 vs. CAD1 + 2. CAD0, CAD1, and CAD2 were apparent in 1271, 631, and 1170 patients, respectively. Adjusted for classical risk factors, hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP, and IL-6 differed significantly in both GC and hsCRP only in GC2. After multivariate analysis, hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP, and IL-6 remained significant in GC1. In GC2, hs-cTnT (p < 0.001) and copeptin (p = 0.014) reached significance. Ten-year survival in groups CAD0, CAD1, and CAD2 was 88.3%, 77.3%, and 72.4%. Incorporation of hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP, copeptin, and IL-6 improved risk prediction (p < 0.001). The studied cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers enable fast and precise non-invasive identification of mortality risk in CAD patients, allowing the tailoring of primary and secondary CAD prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Vascular Disease)
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Article
Fasting Glucose for the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163432 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different non-validated tests were proposed to simplify the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM). Aim: To analyse the effects of replacing the two-step approach for Early-GDM and GDM diagnosis, with a fasting plasma glucose test. Material and Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different non-validated tests were proposed to simplify the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM). Aim: To analyse the effects of replacing the two-step approach for Early-GDM and GDM diagnosis, with a fasting plasma glucose test. Material and Methods: This is a cohort study consisting of 3200 pregnant women: 400 with Early-GDM, 800 with GDM and 2000 with Non-GDM diagnosed using the two-step approach. Using fasting plasma glucose for Early-GDM and GDM diagnosis, according to the recommendations of Spain, Australia, Italy and the UK during the pandemic, the rates of missed and new Early-GDM and GDM were calculated and perinatal outcomes were analysed. Results: Using fasting plasma glucose in the first trimester >100 mg/dL for Early-GDM diagnosis, the rates of post-COVID missed and new Early-GDM were 79.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Using fasting plasma glucose at 24–28 weeks <84 or >92, 95 or 100 mg/dL for GDM diagnosis, the rates of missed GDM were 50.4%, 78%, 82.6% and 92.4%, respectively, and 8.6%, 5.6% and 2.3% women with Non-GDM were diagnosed with new GDM. Conclusion: Fasting plasma glucose is not a good test for the diagnosis of GDM either in the first trimester or at 24–28 weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Nutritional and Metabolic Factors in Pregnancy Complications)
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Article
Nutritional and Educational Intervention to Recover a Healthy Eating Pattern Reducing Clinical Ileostomy-Related Complications
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163431 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate a diet intervention implemented by our hospital in order to determinate its capacity to improve the eating pattern of patients with an ileostomy, facilitating the implementation new eating-related behaviors, reducing doubt and dissatisfaction and other [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a diet intervention implemented by our hospital in order to determinate its capacity to improve the eating pattern of patients with an ileostomy, facilitating the implementation new eating-related behaviors, reducing doubt and dissatisfaction and other complications. The study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design in a tertiary level hospital. The elaboration and implementation of a nutritional intervention consisting of a Mediterranean-diet-based set of menus duly modified that was reinforced by specific counseling at the reintroduction of oral diet, hospital discharge and first follow-up appointment. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The protocol was approved by the competent Ethics Committee. The patients of the intervention group considered that the diet facilitated eating five or more meals a day and diminished doubt and concerns related to eating pattern. Most patients (86%) had a favorable experience regarding weight recovery and a significant reduction of all-cause readmissions and readmission with dehydration (p = 0.015 and p < 0.001, respectively). The intervention helped an effective self-management of eating pattern by patients who had a physical improvement related to hydration status, which, together with an improvement in weight regain, decreased the probability of readmissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention on Digestive Diseases)
Article
Processed Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Low Birth Weight at Term among Women of Advanced and Non-Advanced Age
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163429 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Inappropriate dietary intake during pregnancy is a key factor in low birth weight (LBW). This study compares LBW between healthy and processed dietary patterns by focusing on women of advanced maternal age. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 327 postpartum women in Taiwan. [...] Read more.
Inappropriate dietary intake during pregnancy is a key factor in low birth weight (LBW). This study compares LBW between healthy and processed dietary patterns by focusing on women of advanced maternal age. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 327 postpartum women in Taiwan. The participants were assigned to two groups according to their age (≥35 years, n = 151; and 20–34 years, n = 176). An online questionnaire asked women how often they consumed 27 food items during their pregnancy. The prevalence of LBW was higher in the processed dietary pattern (79.3%) than in the healthy pattern (13.78%, p < 0.001). LBW was positively correlated with advanced maternal age (≥35 ages), low pre-pregnancy weight (BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2), insufficient gestational weight gain (GWG), and processed dietary patterns. Older mothers were 5.8 times more likely to have infants with LBW (odds ratio = 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.0–16.6). A processed dietary pattern was 9.4 times more likely to result in LBW. Insufficient GWG was significantly positively associated with LBW (OR = 4.0; 95%CI 1.4–11.6). Maternal diet during pregnancy is an important modifiable factor for LBW. Prenatal advice should emphasize optimal nutrition, especially in older and underweight women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
Article
Nutrigenetic Interaction of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Chromosome 20 Segment and High-Sucrose Diet Sensitizes to Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163428 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Several corresponding regions of human and mammalian genomes have been shown to affect sensitivity to the manifestation of metabolic syndrome via nutrigenetic interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of sucrose administration in a newly established congenic strain BN.SHR20, in which a [...] Read more.
Several corresponding regions of human and mammalian genomes have been shown to affect sensitivity to the manifestation of metabolic syndrome via nutrigenetic interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of sucrose administration in a newly established congenic strain BN.SHR20, in which a limited segment of rat chromosome 20 from a metabolic syndrome model, spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), was introgressed into Brown Norway (BN) genomic background. We mapped the extent of the differential segment and compared the genomic sequences of BN vs. SHR within the segment in silico. The differential segment of SHR origin in BN.SHR20 spans about 9 Mb of the telomeric portion of the short arm of chromosome 20. We identified non-synonymous mutations e.g., in ApoM, Notch4, Slc39a7, Smim29 genes and other variations in or near genes associated with metabolic syndrome in human genome-wide association studies. Male rats of BN and BN.SHR20 strains were fed a standard diet for 18 weeks (control groups) or 16 weeks of standard diet followed by 14 days of high-sucrose diet (HSD). We assessed the morphometric and metabolic profiles of all groups. Adiposity significantly increased only in BN.SHR20 after HSD. Fasting glycemia and the glucose levels during the oral glucose tolerance test were higher in BN.SHR20 than in BN groups, while insulin levels were comparable. The fasting levels of triacylglycerols were the highest in sucrose-fed BN.SHR20, both compared to the sucrose-fed BN and the control BN.SHR20. The non-esterified fatty acids and total cholesterol concentrations were higher in BN.SHR20 compared to their respective BN groups, and the HSD elicited an increase in non-esterified fatty acids only in BN.SHR20. In a new genetically defined model, we have isolated a limited genomic region involved in nutrigenetic sensitization to sucrose-induced metabolic disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Genomics—Fundamental and Clinical Aspects)
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Article
Astaxanthin Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression by Suppressing PI3K/AKT/mTOR Activation in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial Cells
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163427 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activates signaling pathways associated with gastric cell invasion, which are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We previously demonstrated that H. pylori activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and increased expression of MMP-10 [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activates signaling pathways associated with gastric cell invasion, which are mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We previously demonstrated that H. pylori activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and increased expression of MMP-10 in gastric epithelial cells. MMPs degrade the extracellular matrix, enhancing tumor invasion and cancer progression. The signaling pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with MMP expression. ROS activates PIK3/AKT/mTOR signaling in cancer. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, shows antioxidant activity by reducing ROS levels in gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori. This study aimed to determine whether astaxanthin inhibits MMP expression, cell invasion, and migration by reducing the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. H. pylori induced PIK3/AKT/mTOR and NF-κB activation, decreased IκBα, and induced MMP (MMP-7 and -10) expression, the invasive phenotype, and migration in AGS cells. Astaxanthin suppressed these H. pylori-induced alterations in AGS cells. Specific inhibitors of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR reversed the H. pylori-stimulated NF-κB activation and decreased IκBα levels in the cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin suppressed MMP expression, cell invasion, and migration via inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/NF-κB signaling in H. pylori-stimulated gastric epithelial AGS cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Cooking Methods and Their Relationship with Anthropometrics and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Older Spanish Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163426 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Food consumption has a prominent role in the occurrence of cardiometabolic diseases, however, little is known about the specific influence of cooking methods. This study examined the association between cooking methods and anthropometrics, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiac damage biomarkers in older adults. [...] Read more.
Food consumption has a prominent role in the occurrence of cardiometabolic diseases, however, little is known about the specific influence of cooking methods. This study examined the association between cooking methods and anthropometrics, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiac damage biomarkers in older adults. Data were taken from 2476 individuals aged ≥65 from the Seniors-ENRICA 2 cohort in Spain and recruited between 2015 and 2017. Eight cooking methods (raw, boiling, roasting, pan-frying, frying, toasting, sautéing, and stewing) were assessed using a face-to-face validated dietary history. Study associations were summarized as adjusted percentage differences (PDs) in anthropometrics, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiac damage biomarkers between extreme sex-specific quintiles ((5th − 1st/1st) × 100) of food consumed with each cooking method, estimated using marginal effects from generalized linear models. After adjusting for potential confounders, including diet quality, PDs corresponding to raw food consumption were −13.4% (p-trend: <0.001) for weight, −12.9% (p-trend: <0.001) for body mass index (BMI), −14.8% (p-trend: <0.001) for triglycerides, and −13.6% (p-trend: <0.115) for insulin. PDs for boiled food consumption were −13.3% (p-trend: <0.001) for weight, −10.0% (p-trend: <0.001) for BMI, and −20.5% (p-trend: <0.001) for insulin. PDs for roasted food consumption were −11.1 (p-trend: <0.001) for weight and −23.3% (p-trend: <0.001) for insulin. PDs for pan-fried food consumption were −18.7% (p-trend: <0.019) for insulin, −15.3% (p-trend: <0.094) for pro-B-type natriuretic peptide amino-terminal, and −10.9% (p-trend: <0.295) for troponin T. No relevant differences were observed for blood pressure nor for other cooking methods. Raw food consumption along with boiling, roasting, and pan-frying were associated with healthier cardiovascular profiles, mainly due to lower weight and insulin levels. Future experimental research should test the effectiveness of these cooking methods for cardiovascular prevention in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases)
Article
Dietary Nutrient Intake and Blood Micronutrient Status of Children with Crohn’s Disease Compared with Their Shared-Home Environment, Healthy Siblings
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163425 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
(1) The nutritional status of children with Crohn’s disease (CD) is rarely described. This study aimed to assess the dietary intake and blood micronutrient status of children with CD compared with their healthy, shared-environment siblings. (2) Methods: This observational study included children with [...] Read more.
(1) The nutritional status of children with Crohn’s disease (CD) is rarely described. This study aimed to assess the dietary intake and blood micronutrient status of children with CD compared with their healthy, shared-environment siblings. (2) Methods: This observational study included children with CD (cases) and their shared-environment siblings (controls). The dietary nutrient intake was assessed with a four-day food/beverage diary and was compared with the recommended daily intakes (RDI). Blood micronutrient concentrations were measured using laboratory methods. The nutritional analyses were completed through a multivariate analysis of variance between groups. Between-group comparisons of single-nutrients were assessed using a Mann–Whitney U-test. Chi-squared analyses compared the proportion of children who did not meet the RDI for each nutrient. The results were significant at 0.05. (3) Results: The dietary intake was similar for most nutrients, except the controls had a lower intake of vitamins A and E, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium (p < 0.05). Children using partial enteral nutrition had significantly higher intakes of many micronutrients. It was common for both groups to not meet the RDI’s—more than 50% of cases for 9 nutrients and more than 50% of controls for 13 nutrients. (4) Conclusion: New Zealand children with CD and their shared-environment siblings did not meet the RDI for several micronutrients. Dietary education and/or micronutrient supplementation may be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutrition in Pediatric Gastroenterology)
Article
Reversing Type 2 Diabetes in a Primary Care-Anchored eHealth Lifestyle Coaching Programme in Denmark: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163424 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
The goal of this trial was to investigate whether an eHealth lifestyle coaching programme led to significant weight loss and decreased Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In an RCT, 170 patients were enrolled from 2018 to 2019 for intervention [...] Read more.
The goal of this trial was to investigate whether an eHealth lifestyle coaching programme led to significant weight loss and decreased Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In an RCT, 170 patients were enrolled from 2018 to 2019 for intervention or control. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, BMI 30–45 kg/m2, and aged 18–70 years. Exclusion criteria were lacks internet access, pregnant or planning a pregnancy, or has a serious disease. Primary and secondary outcomes were a reduction in body weight and HbA1c. At six months, 75 (75%) patients in the intervention group and 53 (76%) patients in the control group remained in the trial. The mean body weight loss was 4.2 kg (95% CI, −5.49; −2.98) in the intervention group and 1.5 kg (95% CI, −2.57; −0.48) in the control group (p = 0.005). In the intervention group, 24 out of 62 patients with elevated HbA1c at baseline (39%) had a normalized HbA1c < 6.5% at six months, compared to 8 out of 40 patients with elevated HbA1c at baseline (20%) in the control group (p = 0.047). The eHealth lifestyle coaching programme can lead to significant weight loss and decreased HbA1c among patients with type 2 diabetes, compared to standard care. Full article
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Systematic Review
Uncovering the Effect of European Policy-Making Initiatives in Addressing Nutrition-Related Issues: A Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis on Front-of-Pack Labels
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163423 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 689
Abstract
The last decades have been marked by the introduction of front-of-pack labels (FoPL) as an institutional corrective action against obesity and nutrition-related illnesses. However, FoPL-related policy-making initiatives issued by the European Union evolved over time and led to a diversity of labels with [...] Read more.
The last decades have been marked by the introduction of front-of-pack labels (FoPL) as an institutional corrective action against obesity and nutrition-related illnesses. However, FoPL-related policy-making initiatives issued by the European Union evolved over time and led to a diversity of labels with different effects on consumers’ decisions. As a result, the extant literature adapted to the regulative scenario over the years and investigated the effects of the labels, creating consensus on some topics while being fragmented on others. Similarly, policy-makers adapted some regulations to the evidence supported by the research. With the aim to systematize the overall structure and evolution of the literature on FoPL, investigate the presence of a consensus on specific topics through a co-citation analysis, and examine the evolution of the consensus and co-citation networks over the years and potential research gaps, we report the results of bibliometric and co-citation analyses and a systematic literature review involving 170 papers and a selection of 49 articles published in the last months, for a total of 219 articles, analysed according to three timespans (Period 1 (1989–2011); Period 2 (2012–2016) and Period 3 (2017–2022)). Our findings highlight the interplay of policy development and FoPL research, the presence of few self-reinforcing and well-established co-citation networks based on validated evidence in the literature and the presence of alternative emerging theories that offer different and valid perspectives overlooked by mainstream co-citation research networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Brief Report
IL-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1Ra) Levels and Management of Metabolic Disorders
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163422 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Low-grade inflammation is a major player in obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicting development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a vital and natural anti-inflammatory factor and mediator in glucose homeostasis disturbances. The predictive role is independent of [...] Read more.
Low-grade inflammation is a major player in obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicting development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a vital and natural anti-inflammatory factor and mediator in glucose homeostasis disturbances. The predictive role is independent of multiple confounders, and elevated levels appear few years before T2DM. The role of IL-1Ra is important for accumulated risk factors, dysregulated metabolism and glucose homeostasis, and dietary interventions. Longitudinal and cross-sectional population study cohorts have enabled the approximation of IL-1Ra limit values for metabolic dysregulation and guide further analysis as a potential biomarker. The limit value of IL-1Ra is reaching 400 pg/mL with prediabetes and before T2DM. However, subjects with metabolic syndrome are suggested to have lower limit values, especially among men. Future research may evaluate the role of IL-1Ra in actual glucose homeostasis together with routine fasted laboratory tests, such as glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP) instead of the oral glucose tolerance test. The significance of intermediate low IL-1Ra levels in metabolic abnormalities should be further analyzed. It is possible to specify the impact of multiple lifestyle and metabolic parameters together with age and sex. IL-1Ra could be studied in multiple approaches including interventional studies of metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Article
The Expansion of the Hellenic Food Thesaurus; Allergens Labelling and Allergens-Free Claims on Greek Branded Food Products
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163421 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Branded food composition databases (BFCDs) are valuable information tools that meet multiple user needs. Recently, recognising allergies and intolerances as an emerging concern for various stakeholders, BFCDs evolve to embed information on allergens. This study aims to expand the Greek BFCD, HelTH, to [...] Read more.
Branded food composition databases (BFCDs) are valuable information tools that meet multiple user needs. Recently, recognising allergies and intolerances as an emerging concern for various stakeholders, BFCDs evolve to embed information on allergens. This study aims to expand the Greek BFCD, HelTH, to include allergen information for its 4002 products. A new file was added to the structure of HelTH, and data were curated to record label information. In 68.4% of products, at least one allergen was present in the ingredient list and in 38.9% at least one allergen in a precautionary statement. Milk (38.8%), gluten (32.7%), and soybeans (17.4%) were most commonly declared in the ingredient list; nuts (18.3%), eggs (13.1%), and milk (12.2%) were most commonly declared in precautionary statements. Allergen-free claims were present in 5.3% of the products and referred mostly on gluten and milk. In general, no statistically significant differences were identified between the nutritional composition of allergen-free claimed products and their equivalents. This study delivers an expanded BFCD that provides organised and detailed allergen information; new insights on the presence of food allergens in branded foods and issues of concern regarding allergen declaration that need to be addressed in order to improve label information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrients in Asthma and Allergic Disorders)
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