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Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 67192

Special Issue Editor

Renal Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Interests: metabolic disease; microvascular/macrovascular complications; diabetes; chronic kidney disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The relationship between diet and disease development or future programming in certain diseases is well known. Diet is the key factor influencing the gut microbiota composition and an important factor in the microbiome balance. Alteration in the microbiome balance plays an important role in physiology and disease states including obesity, diabetes, asthma, allergy, cancer, cardiovascular disease, aging and kidney disease. Hence, recent research has focused on using natural therapies or dietary supplements to modulate the microbiota for disease prevention or to better manage disease development. The mechanisms involved in the direct and transgenerational effects of high/low calorie intake on disease development are not clear. It is also not clear, to date, whether alteration in the microbiota due to bad dietary choices can affect disease onsets or limit disease progression, or whether using dietary supplements or microbiota modulators can limit disease or prevent future disease development.

The overall aims of this Special Issue are to describe and stress the importance of diet in disease development and future disease predisposition; understand the mechanism(s) whereby diet can induce disease development and affect future disease risk; examine potential novel therapies; and identify current gaps in the area of research. The reviews included in this issue will i) summarise the current literature (from animal and human studies) supporting the role of diet in disease onset or development; ii) provide critical analysis of the available data; iii) describe the mechanisms involved in disease development or prevention and in the future risk for certain diseases; iv) identify novel treatments using dietary supplements/compounds to limit disease development and progression; v) examine whether the microbiota diversity can be considered a cause or just an effect of certain diseases; and vi) assess whether modulating the microbiota can provide a novel therapy to limit disease development or can complement current drugs to better manage certain diseases.

This Special Issue titled “Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future” is open only for systematic reviews, scoping reviews, narrative reviews or meta-analysis studies describing the available literature and research evidence, with critical examination of the data and identification of current research outcomes and gaps, study limitations and potential advances in knowledge in the research area. Exploring the effects of diet, nutrients, supplements or microbiota on disease development is within the scope of this study. This includes all types of disease, exploring direct or future effects from animal or human studies.

The topics and themes of this unique collection include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Studies assessing the direct effect of a high-fat diet on disease development and disease mechanisms;
  • Effects of diet modification during gestation on disease development in mothers and offspring, including high-calorie or low-calorie diets or diet supplements;
  • Novel methods to alter the microbiota for disease prevention;
  • Effect of metabolite-based dietary supplementation on disease development;
  • Nutritional approaches to manage specific diseases;
  • Diet composition or modulation for the prevention of obesity and metabolic disease;
  • Mechanisms and pathways linking dietary components to disease development;
  • Diet and endocrine regulation of food intake for optimal health;
  • Role of microbiota in disease onset and development;
  • Effects of prebiotics and probiotics on disease development;
  • Health effects due to dietary risks in different countries;
  • Food-based therapies for disease prevention;
  • Novel treatment to limit disease development or progression due to obesity or high calorie intake;
  • Faecal microbiota transplantation for disease prevention.

Dr. Sonia Saad
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • diet
  • food-based therapy
  • microbiota
  • supplements
  • obesity
  • high-fat diet
  • metabolic and kidney disease
  • cancer
  • diabetes
  • disease prevention and development
  • probiotic and prebiotic
  • maternal effects
  • foetal programming
  • transgenerational disease
  • future disease risk

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Review

19 pages, 3209 KiB  
Review
Metabolic Homeostasis of Amino Acids and Diabetic Kidney Disease
by Luokun Liu, Jingge Xu, Zhiyu Zhang, Dongwen Ren, Yuzheng Wu, Dan Wang, Yi Zhang, Shuwu Zhao, Qian Chen and Tao Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010184 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3532
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) occurs in 25–40% of patients with diabetes. Individuals with DKD are at a significant risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease morbidity and mortality. At present, although renal function-decline can be retarded by intensive glucose lowering and strict blood [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) occurs in 25–40% of patients with diabetes. Individuals with DKD are at a significant risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease morbidity and mortality. At present, although renal function-decline can be retarded by intensive glucose lowering and strict blood pressure control, these current treatments have shown no beneficial impact on preventing progression to kidney failure. Recently, in addition to control of blood sugar and pressure, a dietary approach has been recommended for management of DKD. Amino acids (AAs) are both biomarkers and causal factors of DKD progression. AA homeostasis contributes to renal hemodynamic response and glomerular hyperfiltration alteration in diabetic patients. This review discusses the links between progressive kidney dysfunction and the metabolic homeostasis of histidine, tryptophan, methionine, glutamine, tyrosine, and branched-chain AAs. In addition, we emphasize the regulation effects of special metabolites on DKD progression, with a focus on causality and potential mechanisms. This paper may offer an optimized protein diet strategy with concomitant management of AA homeostasis to reduce the risks of DKD in a setting of hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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13 pages, 696 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota Profile in Adults Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review
by Vívian O. R. Coimbra, Louise Crovesy, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Ana Luísa K. Faller, Fernanda Mattos and Eliane L. Rosado
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 4979; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14234979 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Gut microbiota (GM) after bariatric surgery (BS) has been considered as a factor associated with metabolic improvements and weight loss. In this systematic review, we evaluate changes in the GM, characterized by 16S rRNA and metagenomics techniques, in obese adults who received BS. [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota (GM) after bariatric surgery (BS) has been considered as a factor associated with metabolic improvements and weight loss. In this systematic review, we evaluate changes in the GM, characterized by 16S rRNA and metagenomics techniques, in obese adults who received BS. The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS databases were searched. Two independent reviewers analyzed articles published in the last ten years, using Rayyan QCRI. The initial search resulted in 1275 documents, and 18 clinical trials were included after the exclusion criteria were applied. The predominance of intestinal bacteria phyla varied among studies; however, most of them reported a greater amount of Bacteroidetes (B), Proteobacteria (P), and diversity (D) after BS. Firmicutes (F), B, and the (F/B) ratio was inconsistent, increasing or decreasing after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were conducted, compared to before surgery. There was a reduction in the relative proportion of F. Moreover, a higher proportion of Actinobacteria (A) was observed after RYGB was conducted. However, the same was not identified when SG procedures were applied. Genera abundance and bacteria predominance varied according to the surgical procedure, with limited data regarding the impact on phyla. The present study was approved by PROSPERO, under registration number CRD42020209509. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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8 pages, 553 KiB  
Review
Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Cystic Fibrosis Disease Progression: Role of Genotype and Sex
by Nirajan Shrestha, Alexandra McCarron, Nathan Rout-Pitt, Martin Donnelley, David W. Parsons and Deanne H. Hryciw
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214666 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Adequate intake of nutrients such as essential fatty acids (EFA) are critical in cystic fibrosis (CF). The clinical course of deterioration of lung function in people with CF has been shown to relate to nutrition. Independent of the higher energy consumption and malabsorption [...] Read more.
Adequate intake of nutrients such as essential fatty acids (EFA) are critical in cystic fibrosis (CF). The clinical course of deterioration of lung function in people with CF has been shown to relate to nutrition. Independent of the higher energy consumption and malabsorption due to pancreatic insufficiency, EFA deficiency is closely associated with the risk of pulmonary infection, the most significant pathology in CF. This review will focus on the EFA deficiency identified in people with CF, as well as the limited progress made in deciphering the exact metabolic pathways that are dysfunctional in CF. Specifically, people with CF are deficient in linoleic acid, an omega 6 fatty acid, and the ratio of arachidonic acid (omega 6 metabolite) and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3 metabolite) is increased. Analysis of the molecular pathways in bronchial cells has identified changes in the enzymes that metabolise EFA. However, fatty acid metabolism primarily occurs in the liver, with EFA metabolism in CF liver not yet investigated, indicating that further research is required. Despite limited understanding in this area, it is well known that adequate EFA concentrations are critical to normal membrane structure and function, and thus are important to consider in disease processes. Novel insights into the relationship between CF genotype and EFA phenotype will be discussed, in addition to sex differences in EFA concentrations in people with CF. Collectively, investigating the specific effects of genotype and sex on fatty acid metabolism may provide support for the management of people with CF via personalised genotype- and sex-specific nutritional therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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16 pages, 835 KiB  
Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria: A Promising Tool for Menopausal Health Management in Women
by Qian Chen, Haojue Wang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Haiqin Chen, Xianyi Lu and Wei Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214466 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2880
Abstract
Menopause is a period during which women undergo dramatic hormonal changes. These changes lead to physical and mental discomfort, are greatly afflictive, and critically affect women’s lives. However, the current safe and effective management measures for women undergoing menopause are insufficient. Several probiotic [...] Read more.
Menopause is a period during which women undergo dramatic hormonal changes. These changes lead to physical and mental discomfort, are greatly afflictive, and critically affect women’s lives. However, the current safe and effective management measures for women undergoing menopause are insufficient. Several probiotic functions of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been recognized, including alleviation of lactose intolerance, protection of digestive tract health, activation of the immune system, protection against infections, improvement of nutrient uptake, and improvement of the microbiota. In this review, we highlight the currently available knowledge of the potential protective effects of LAB on preventing or mitigating menopausal symptoms, particularly in terms of maintaining balance in the vaginal microbiota, reducing bone loss, and regulating the nervous system and lipid metabolism. Given the increasing number of women entering menopause and the emphasis on the management of menopausal symptoms, LAB are likely to soon become an indispensable part of clinical/daily care for menopausal women. Herein, we do not intend to provide a comprehensive analysis of each menopausal disorder or to specifically judge the reliability and safety of complementary therapies; rather, we aim to highlight the potential roles of LAB in individualized treatment strategies for the clinical management of menopause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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37 pages, 19361 KiB  
Review
Unravelling the Therapeutic Potential of Nano-Delivered Functional Foods in Chronic Respiratory Diseases
by Dvya Delilaa Clarence, Keshav Raj Paudel, Bikash Manandhar, Sachin Kumar Singh, Hari Prasad Devkota, Jithendra Panneerselvam, Vivek Gupta, Nitin Chitranshi, Nitin Verma, Sonia Saad, Gaurav Gupta, Philip Michael Hansbro, Brian Gregory Oliver, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Kamal Dua and Dinesh Kumar Chellappan
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183828 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
Chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract is one of the most concerning public health issues, as it can lead to chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), some of which are more detrimental than others. Chronic respiratory diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, lung [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract is one of the most concerning public health issues, as it can lead to chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), some of which are more detrimental than others. Chronic respiratory diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, lung cancer, and pulmonary fibrosis. The conventional drug therapies for the management and treatment of CRDs only address the symptoms and fail to reverse or recover the chronic-inflammation-mediated structural and functional damage of the respiratory tract. In addition, the low efficacy and adverse effects of these drugs have directed the attention of researchers towards nutraceuticals in search of potential treatment strategies that can not only ameliorate CRD symptoms but also can repair and reverse inflammatory damage. Hence, there is a growing interest toward investigating the medicinal benefits of nutraceuticals, such as rutin, curcumin, zerumbone, and others. Nutraceuticals carry many nutritional and therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity properties, and usually do not have as many adverse effects, as they are naturally sourced. Recently, the use of nanoparticles has also been increasingly studied for the nano drug delivery of these nutraceuticals. The discrete size of nanoparticles holds great potential for the level of permeability that can be achieved when transporting these nutraceutical compounds. This review is aimed to provide an understanding of the use of nutraceuticals in combination with nanoparticles against CRDs and their mechanisms involved in slowing down or reversing the progression of CRDs by inhibiting pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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28 pages, 846 KiB  
Review
Crosstalk between the Gut Microbiome and Colonic Motility in Chronic Constipation: Potential Mechanisms and Microbiota Modulation
by Ruili Pan, Linlin Wang, Xiaopeng Xu, Ying Chen, Haojue Wang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao and Wei Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183704 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4949
Abstract
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder. Accumulating evidence highlights the link between imbalances in the gut microbiome and constipation. However, the mechanisms by which the microbiome and microbial metabolites affect gut movement remain poorly understood. In this review, [...] Read more.
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder. Accumulating evidence highlights the link between imbalances in the gut microbiome and constipation. However, the mechanisms by which the microbiome and microbial metabolites affect gut movement remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the alteration in the gut microbiota in patients with CC and the effectiveness of probiotics in treating gut motility disorder. We highlight the mechanisms that explain how the gut microbiome and its metabolism are linked to gut movement and how intestinal microecological interventions may counteract these changes based on the enteric nervous system, the central nervous system, the immune function, and the ability to modify intestinal secretion and the hormonal milieu. In particular, microbiota-based approaches that modulate the levels of short-chain fatty acids and tryptophan catabolites or that target the 5-hydroxytryptamine and Toll-like receptor pathways may hold therapeutic promise. Finally, we discuss the existing limitations of microecological management in treating constipation and suggest feasible directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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11 pages, 430 KiB  
Review
Supplementation with NAD+ and Its Precursors to Prevent Cognitive Decline across Disease Contexts
by Jared M. Campbell
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153231 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6401
Abstract
The preservation of cognitive ability by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels through supplementation with NAD+ precursors has been identified as a promising treatment strategy for a number of conditions; principally, age-related cognitive decline (including Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia), [...] Read more.
The preservation of cognitive ability by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels through supplementation with NAD+ precursors has been identified as a promising treatment strategy for a number of conditions; principally, age-related cognitive decline (including Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia), but also diabetes, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Candidate factors have included NAD+ itself, its reduced form NADH, nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and niacin (or nicotinic acid). This review summarises the research findings for each source of cognitive impairment for which NAD+ precursor supplementation has been investigated as a therapy. The findings are mostly positive but have been made primarily in animal models, with some reports of null or adverse effects. Given the increasing popularity and availability of these factors as nutritional supplements, further properly controlled clinical research is needed to provide definitive answers regarding this strategy’s likely impact on human cognitive health when used to address different sources of impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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23 pages, 474 KiB  
Review
A High-Sugar Diet Consumption, Metabolism and Health Impacts with a Focus on the Development of Substance Use Disorder: A Narrative Review
by Kacper Witek, Karolina Wydra and Małgorzata Filip
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142940 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 10979
Abstract
Carbohydrates are important macronutrients in human and rodent diet patterns that play a key role in crucial metabolic pathways and provide the necessary energy for proper body functioning. Sugar homeostasis and intake require complex hormonal and nervous control to proper body energy balance. [...] Read more.
Carbohydrates are important macronutrients in human and rodent diet patterns that play a key role in crucial metabolic pathways and provide the necessary energy for proper body functioning. Sugar homeostasis and intake require complex hormonal and nervous control to proper body energy balance. Added sugar in processed food results in metabolic, cardiovascular, and nervous disorders. Epidemiological reports have shown enhanced consumption of sweet products in children and adults, especially in reproductive age and in pregnant women, which can lead to the susceptibility of offspring’s health to diseases in early life or in adulthood and proneness to mental disorders. In this review, we discuss the impacts of high-sugar diet (HSD) or sugar intake during the perinatal and/or postnatal periods on neural and behavioural disturbances as well as on the development of substance use disorder (SUD). Since several emotional behavioural disturbances are recognized as predictors of SUD, we also present how HSD enhances impulsive behaviour, stress, anxiety and depression. Apart from the influence of HSD on these mood disturbances, added sugar can render food addiction. Both food and addictive substances change the sensitivity of the brain rewarding neurotransmission signalling. The results of the collected studies could be important in assessing sugar intake, especially via maternal dietary patterns, from the clinical perspective of SUD prevention or pre-existing emotional disorders. Methodology: This narrative review focuses on the roles of a high-sugar diet (HSD) and added sugar in foods and on the impacts of glucose and fructose on the development of substance use disorder (SUD) and on the behavioural predictors of drugs abuse. The literature was reviewed by two authors independently according to the topic of the review. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases and Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute open access scientific journals using the following keyword search strategy depending on the theme of the chapter: “high-sugar diet” OR “high-carbohydrate diet” OR “sugar” OR “glucose” OR “fructose” OR “added sugar” AND keywords. We excluded inaccessible or pay-walled articles, abstracts, conference papers, editorials, letters, commentary, and short notes. Reviews, experimental studies, and epidemiological data, published since 1990s, were searched and collected depending on the chapter structure. After the search, all duplicates are thrown out and full texts were read, and findings were rescreened. After the selection process, appropriate papers were included to present in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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12 pages, 1082 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Potential Consequences of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for Diabetes Mellitus and Other Biomedical Applications
by JinJin Pei, Vidhya Rekha Umapathy, Srinivasan Vengadassalapathy, Shazia Fathima Jaffer Hussain, Ponnulakshmi Rajagopal, Selvaraj Jayaraman, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Chella Perumal Palanisamy and Krishnasamy Gopinath
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142932 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4783
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus has become a troublesome and increasingly widespread condition. Treatment strategies for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals are largely attributed to improvements in lifestyle and dietary control. Therefore, it is important to understand the nutritional factors to [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus has become a troublesome and increasingly widespread condition. Treatment strategies for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals are largely attributed to improvements in lifestyle and dietary control. Therefore, it is important to understand the nutritional factors to be used in dietary intervention. A decreased risk of diabetes is associated with daily intake of millet-based foods. Pearl millet is a highly nutritious grain, nutritionally comparable and even superior in calories, protein, vitamins, and minerals to other large cereals, although its intake is confined to lower income segments of society. Pearl millet contains phenolic compounds which possess antidiabetic activity. Thus, it can be used to prepare a variety of food products for diabetes mellitus. Moreover, it also has many health benefits, including combating diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular conditions, decreasing tumour occurrence, lowering blood pressure, heart disease risk, cholesterol, and fat absorption rate. Therefore, the current review addresses the role of pearl millet in managing diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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17 pages, 1096 KiB  
Review
The Potential Roles of Dietary Anthocyanins in Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Cell Senescence and Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases
by Yonghui Dong, Xue Wu, Lin Han, Ji Bian, Caian He, Emad El-Omar, Lan Gong and Min Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142836 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increasingly more evidence has shown that the senescence of vascular endothelial cells is the key to endothelial dysfunction and [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increasingly more evidence has shown that the senescence of vascular endothelial cells is the key to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Anthocyanin is a type of water-soluble polyphenol pigment and secondary metabolite of plant-based food widely existing in fruits and vegetables. The gut microbiome is involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins and mediates the biological activities of anthocyanins and their metabolites, while anthocyanins also regulate the growth of specific bacteria in the microbiota and promote the proliferation of healthy anaerobic flora. Accumulating studies have shown that anthocyanins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging effects. Many animal and in vitro experiments have also proven that anthocyanins have protective effects on cardiovascular-disease-related dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin in eliminating aging endothelial cells and preventing cardiovascular diseases is very complex and is not fully understood. In this systematic review, we summarize the metabolism and activities of anthocyanins, as well as their effects on scavenging senescent cells and cardioprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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28 pages, 1847 KiB  
Review
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) and Chronic Kidney Disease: Does the Modern Diet AGE the Kidney?
by Amelia K. Fotheringham, Linda A. Gallo, Danielle J. Borg and Josephine M. Forbes
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132675 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6629
Abstract
Since the 1980s, chronic kidney disease (CKD) affecting all ages has increased by almost 25%. This increase may be partially attributable to lifestyle changes and increased global consumption of a “western” diet, which is typically energy dense, low in fruits and vegetables, and [...] Read more.
Since the 1980s, chronic kidney disease (CKD) affecting all ages has increased by almost 25%. This increase may be partially attributable to lifestyle changes and increased global consumption of a “western” diet, which is typically energy dense, low in fruits and vegetables, and high in animal protein and ultra-processed foods. These modern food trends have led to an increase in the consumption of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in conjunction with increased metabolic dysfunction, obesity and diabetes, which facilitates production of endogenous AGEs within the body. When in excess, AGEs can be pathological via both receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated pathways. The kidney, as a major site for AGE clearance, is particularly vulnerable to AGE-mediated damage and increases in circulating AGEs align with risk of CKD and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, individuals with significant loss of renal function show increased AGE burden, particularly with uraemia, and there is some evidence that AGE lowering via diet or pharmacological inhibition may be beneficial for CKD. This review discusses the pathways that drive AGE formation and regulation within the body. This includes AGE receptor interactions and pathways of AGE-mediated pathology with a focus on the contribution of diet on endogenous AGE production and dietary AGE consumption to these processes. We then analyse the contribution of AGEs to kidney disease, the evidence for dietary AGEs and endogenously produced AGEs in driving pathogenesis in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney disease and the potential for AGE targeted therapies in kidney disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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18 pages, 1962 KiB  
Review
Ameliorative Effects of Gut Microbial Metabolite Urolithin A on Pancreatic Diseases
by Kailin Li, Yao Xiao, Ji Bian, Lin Han, Caian He, Emad El-Omar, Lan Gong and Min Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122549 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6482
Abstract
Urolithin A (Uro A) is a dietary metabolite of the intestinal microbiota following the ingestion of plant-based food ingredients ellagitannins and ellagic acid in mammals. Accumulating studies have reported its multiple potential health benefits in a broad range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, [...] Read more.
Urolithin A (Uro A) is a dietary metabolite of the intestinal microbiota following the ingestion of plant-based food ingredients ellagitannins and ellagic acid in mammals. Accumulating studies have reported its multiple potential health benefits in a broad range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, cognitive impairment, and diabetes. In particular, Uro A is safe via direct oral administration and is non-genotoxic. The pancreas plays a central role in regulating energy consumption and metabolism by secreting digestive enzymes and hormones. Numerous pathophysiological factors, such as inflammation, deficits of mitophagy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, can negatively affect the pancreas, leading to pancreatic diseases, including pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies showed that Uro A activates autophagy and inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pancreas, thus decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the knowledge of Uro A metabolism and biological activity in the gut, as well as the pathological features and mechanisms of common pancreatic diseases. Importantly, we focus on the potential activities of Uro A and the underlying mechanisms in ameliorating various pancreatic diseases via inhibiting inflammatory signaling pathways, activating autophagy, maintaining the mitochondrial function, and improving the immune microenvironment. It might present a novel nutritional strategy for the intervention and prevention of pancreatic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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17 pages, 761 KiB  
Review
Faecal Microbiota Transplantation and Chronic Kidney Disease
by Ji Bian, Ann Liebert, Brian Bicknell, Xin-Ming Chen, Chunling Huang and Carol A. Pollock
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122528 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3893
Abstract
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted increasing attention as an intervention in many clinical conditions, including autoimmune, enteroendocrine, gastroenterological, and neurological diseases. For years, FMT has been an effective second-line treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with beneficial outcomes. FMT is also promising [...] Read more.
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted increasing attention as an intervention in many clinical conditions, including autoimmune, enteroendocrine, gastroenterological, and neurological diseases. For years, FMT has been an effective second-line treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with beneficial outcomes. FMT is also promising in improving bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that this microbiota-based intervention may influence the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) via modifying a dysregulated gut–kidney axis. Despite the high morbidity and mortality due to CKD, there are limited options for treatment until end-stage kidney disease occurs, which results in death, dialysis, or kidney transplantation. This imposes a significant financial and health burden on the individual, their families and careers, and the health system. Recent studies have suggested that strategies to reverse gut dysbiosis using FMT are a promising therapy in CKD. This review summarises the preclinical and clinical evidence and postulates the potential therapeutic effect of FMT in the management of CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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13 pages, 617 KiB  
Review
Diet Modification before or during Pregnancy on Maternal and Foetal Outcomes in Rodent Models of Maternal Obesity
by Natassia Rodrigo, Sonia Saad, Carol Pollock and Sarah J. Glastras
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102154 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2817
Abstract
The obesity epidemic has serious implications for women of reproductive age; its rising incidence is associated not just with health implications for the mother but also has transgenerational ramifications for the offspring. Increased incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and kidney disease are [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic has serious implications for women of reproductive age; its rising incidence is associated not just with health implications for the mother but also has transgenerational ramifications for the offspring. Increased incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and kidney disease are seen in both the mothers and the offspring. Animal models, such as rodent studies, are fundamental to studying maternal obesity and its impact on maternal and offspring health, as human studies lack rigorous controlled experimental design. Furthermore, the short and prolific reproductive potential of rodents enables examination across multiple generations and facilitates the exploration of interventional strategies to mitigate the impact of maternal obesity, both before and during pregnancy. Given that obesity is a major public health concern, it is important to obtain a greater understanding of its pathophysiology and interaction with reproductive health, placental physiology, and foetal development. This narrative review focuses on the known effects of maternal obesity on the mother and the offspring, and the benefits of interventional strategies, including dietary intervention, before or during pregnancy on maternal and foetal outcomes. It further examines the contribution of rodent models of maternal obesity to elucidating pathophysiological pathways of disease development, as well as methods to reduce the impact of obesity on the mothers and the developing foetus. The translation of these findings into the human experience will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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