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Pharmaceutics, Volume 12, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 92 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A modularized product design concept is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The concept comprises combinations of modules, with unique drug release functionalities that are independent of dose and dosage form size. An increased variety of drug release profiles can thereby be designed into dosage forms through the reconfigurable assembly of only a limited number of standardized modules. Accordingly, the modularized product design promotes patient access to affordable individualized therapies. View this paper.
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Article
Bioreactor-Grown Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Protects Badgers against Virulent Mycobacterium bovis When Administered Orally: Identifying Limitations in Baited Vaccine Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080782 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Great Britain adversely affects animal health and welfare and is a cause of considerable economic loss. The situation is exacerbated by European badgers (Meles meles) acting as a wildlife source of recurrent Mycobacterium bovis infection to cattle. [...] Read more.
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Great Britain adversely affects animal health and welfare and is a cause of considerable economic loss. The situation is exacerbated by European badgers (Meles meles) acting as a wildlife source of recurrent Mycobacterium bovis infection to cattle. Vaccination of badgers against TB is a possible means to reduce and control bovine TB. The delivery of vaccine in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. There are practical limitations over the volume and concentration of Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) that can be prepared for inclusion in bait. The production of BCG in a bioreactor may overcome these issues. We evaluated the efficacy of oral, bioreactor-grown BCG against experimental TB in badgers. We demonstrated repeatable protection through the direct administration of at least 2.0 × 108 colony forming units of BCG to the oral cavity, whereas vaccination via voluntary consumption of bait containing the same preparation of BCG did not result in demonstrable protection at the group-level, although a minority of badgers consuming bait showed immunological responses and protection after challenge equivalent to badgers receiving oral vaccine by direct administration. The need to deliver oral BCG in the context of a palatable and environmentally robust bait appears to introduce such variation in BCG delivery to sites of immune induction in the badger as to render experimental studies variable and inconsistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Vaccine Research and Development)
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Article
Stability of Ophthalmic Atropine Solutions for Child Myopia Control
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080781 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Myopia is an ophthalmic condition affecting more than 1/5th of the world population, especially children. Low-dose atropine eyedrops have been shown to limit myopia evolution during treatment. However, there are currently no commercial industrial forms available and there is little data published concerning [...] Read more.
Myopia is an ophthalmic condition affecting more than 1/5th of the world population, especially children. Low-dose atropine eyedrops have been shown to limit myopia evolution during treatment. However, there are currently no commercial industrial forms available and there is little data published concerning the stability of medications prepared by compounding pharmacies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of two 0.1 mg/mL atropine formulations (with and without antimicrobiobial preservatives) for 6 months in two different low-density polyethylene (LDPE) multidose eyedroppers. Analyses used were the following: visual inspection, turbidity, chromaticity measurements, osmolality and pH measurements, atropine quantification by a stability-indicating liquid chromatography method, breakdown product research, and sterility assay. In an in-use study, atropine quantification was also performed on the drops emitted from the multidose eyedroppers. All tested parameters remained stable during the 6 months period, with atropine concentrations above 94.7% of initial concentration. A breakdown product (tropic acid) did increase slowly over time but remained well below usually admitted concentrations. Atropine concentrations remained stable during the in-use study. Both formulations of 0.1 mg/mL of atropine (with and without antimicrobial preservative) were proved to be physicochemically stable for 6 months at 25 °C when stored in LDPE bottles, with an identical microbial shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Drug Delivery)
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Review
Uniting Drug and Delivery: Metal Oxide Hybrid Nanotherapeutics for Skin Wound Care
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080780 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Wound care and soft tissue repair have been a major human concern for millennia. Despite considerable advancements in standards of living and medical abilities, difficult-to-heal wounds remain a major burden for patients, clinicians and the healthcare system alike. Due to an aging population, [...] Read more.
Wound care and soft tissue repair have been a major human concern for millennia. Despite considerable advancements in standards of living and medical abilities, difficult-to-heal wounds remain a major burden for patients, clinicians and the healthcare system alike. Due to an aging population, the rise in chronic diseases such as vascular disease and diabetes, and the increased incidence of antibiotic resistance, the problem is set to worsen. The global wound care market is constantly evolving and expanding, and has yielded a plethora of potential solutions to treat poorly healing wounds. In ancient times, before such a market existed, metals and their ions were frequently used in wound care. In combination with plant extracts, they were used to accelerate the healing of burns, cuts and combat wounds. With the rise of organic chemistry and small molecule drugs and ointments, researchers lost their interest in inorganic materials. Only recently, the advent of nano-engineering has given us a toolbox to develop inorganic materials on a length-scale that is relevant to wound healing processes. The robustness of synthesis, as well as the stability and versatility of inorganic nanotherapeutics gives them potential advantages over small molecule drugs. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches have yielded functional inorganic nanomaterials, some of which unite the wound healing properties of two or more materials. Furthermore, these nanomaterials do not only serve as the active agent, but also as the delivery vehicle, and sometimes as a scaffold. This review article provides an overview of inorganic hybrid nanotherapeutics with promising properties for the wound care field. These therapeutics include combinations of different metals, metal oxides and metal ions. Their production, mechanism of action and applicability will be discussed in comparison to conventional wound healing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Multifunctional Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Hot-Melt Extrusion as an Advantageous Technology to Obtain Effervescent Drug Products
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080779 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Here, we assessed the feasibility of hot-melt extrusion (HME) to obtain effervescent drug products for the first time. For this, a combined mixture design was employed using paracetamol as a model drug. Extrudates were obtained under reduced torque (up to 0.3 Nm) at [...] Read more.
Here, we assessed the feasibility of hot-melt extrusion (HME) to obtain effervescent drug products for the first time. For this, a combined mixture design was employed using paracetamol as a model drug. Extrudates were obtained under reduced torque (up to 0.3 Nm) at 100 °C to preserve the stability of the effervescent salts. Formulations showed vigorous and rapid effervescent disintegration (<3 min), adequate flow characteristics, and complete solubilization of paracetamol instantly after the effervescent reaction. Formulations containing PVPVA in the concentration range of 15–20% m/m were demonstrated to be sensitive to accelerated aging conditions, undergoing marked microstructural changes, since the capture of water led to the agglomeration and loss of their functional characteristics. HPMC matrices, in contrast, proved to be resistant to storage conditions in high relative humidity, showing superior performance to controls, including the commercial product. Moreover, the combined mixture design allowed us to identify significant interactions between the polymeric materials and the disintegrating agents, showing the formulation regions in which the responses are kept within the required levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HME can bring important benefits to the elaboration of effervescent drug products, simplifying the production process and obtaining formulations with improved characteristics, such as faster disintegration, higher drug solubilization, and better stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot-Melt Extrusion: Applications in Pharmaceutics)
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Article
Combination Delivery of Alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate and Curcumin Using a GSH-Sensitive Micelle (PAH-SS-PLGA) to Treat Pancreatic Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080778 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is one of the highest causes of mortality throughout the world; thus, it requires an effective treatment strategy. Some chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinics or under clinical trials are hydrophobic and have poor aqueous solubility; consequently, they also have minimal [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is one of the highest causes of mortality throughout the world; thus, it requires an effective treatment strategy. Some chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinics or under clinical trials are hydrophobic and have poor aqueous solubility; consequently, they also have minimal systemic bioavailability. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery tactics have the potential for overcoming these limitations and enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. Herein, a glutathione (GSH)-sensitive micelle (PAH-SS-PLGA) was synthesized for the combined delivery of alpha-tocopheryl succinate (TOS) and curcumin to improve its therapeutic efficacy. The chemical structures of PAH-SS-PLGA were analyzed using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whereas the particle size, zeta potential, and surface morphology were observed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release results revealed that more TOS and curcumin were released in the presence of GSH (5 mM) than the physiological pH value. Fluorescence microscopy images revealed that nanoformulated curcumin/rhodamine was uptaken by PAN02 pancreatic cancer cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed higher cytotoxicity for nanoformulated TOS and/or curcumin than free TOS and/or curcumin. In addition, higher cytotoxicity was observed for combination drugs than free drugs alone. Most interestingly, at all tested concentrations of nanoformulated drugs (PAH-SS-PLGA, TOS, and curcumin), the calculated combination index (CI) value was less than one, which shows that TOS and curcumin have a synergistic effect on cellular proliferation inhibition. Overall, synthesized co-polymers are the best carriers for combination drugs, TOS, and curcumin, because they enhance the therapeutic efficacy and improve pancreatic cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Spontaneous In Situ Formation of Liposomes from Inert Porous Microparticles for Oral Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080777 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Despite the wide-spread use of liposomal drug delivery systems, application of these systems for oral purposes is limited due to their large-scale formulation and storage issues. Proliposomes are one of the formulation approaches for achieving solid powders that readily form liposomes upon hydration. [...] Read more.
Despite the wide-spread use of liposomal drug delivery systems, application of these systems for oral purposes is limited due to their large-scale formulation and storage issues. Proliposomes are one of the formulation approaches for achieving solid powders that readily form liposomes upon hydration. In this work, we investigated a dry powder formulation of a model low-soluble drug with phospholipids loaded in porous functionalized calcium carbonate microparticles. We characterized the liposome formation under conditions that mimic the different gastrointestinal stages and studied the factors that influence the dissolution rate of the model drug. The liposomes that formed upon direct contact with the simulated gastric environment had a capacity to directly encapsulate 25% of the drug in situ. The emerged liposomes allowed complete dissolution of the drug within 15 min. We identified a negative correlation between the phospholipid content and the rate of water uptake. This correlation corroborated the results obtained for the rate of dissolution and liposome encapsulation efficiency. This approach allows for the development of solid proliposomal dosage formulations, which can be scaled up with regular processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preclinical Evaluation of Lipid-Based Nanosystems)
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Article
Compatible Stability and Aerosol Characteristics of Atrovent® (Ipratropium Bromide) Mixed with Salbutamol Sulfate, Terbutaline Sulfate, Budesonide, and Acetylcysteine
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080776 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
(1) Background: It is common practice in the treatment of respiratory diseases to mix different inhalation solutions for simultaneous inhalation. At present, a small number of studies have been published that evaluate the physicochemical compatibility and aerosol characteristics of different inhalation medications. However, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: It is common practice in the treatment of respiratory diseases to mix different inhalation solutions for simultaneous inhalation. At present, a small number of studies have been published that evaluate the physicochemical compatibility and aerosol characteristics of different inhalation medications. However, none of them studied Atrovent®. Our work aims to address the lack of studies on Atrovent®. (2) Methods: Portions of admixtures were withdrawn at certain time intervals after mixing and were tested by pH determination, osmolarity measurement, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of each active ingredient as measures of physicochemical compatibility. The geometrical and aerosol particle size distribution, active drug delivery rate, and total active drug delivered were measured to characterize aerosol behaviors. (3) Results: During the testing time, no significant variation was found in the pH value, the osmotic pressure, or the active components of admixtures. With the increase in nebulization volume after mixing, fine particle dose (FPD) and total active drug delivered showed statistically significant improvements, while the active drug delivery rate decreased compared to the single-drug preparations. (4) Conclusions: These results endorse the physicochemical compatibility of Atrovent® over 1 h when mixed with other inhalation medications. Considering aerosol characteristics, simultaneous inhalation is more efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery through Pulmonary)
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Article
Noninvasive Assessment of Fibrosis Following Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rodents Utilizing Na Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080775 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Fibrosis is often heterogeneously distributed, and classical biopsies do not reflect this. Noninvasive methods for renal fibrosis have been developed to follow chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and to monitor anti-fibrotic therapy. In this study, we combined two approaches to assess fibrosis regression following [...] Read more.
Fibrosis is often heterogeneously distributed, and classical biopsies do not reflect this. Noninvasive methods for renal fibrosis have been developed to follow chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and to monitor anti-fibrotic therapy. In this study, we combined two approaches to assess fibrosis regression following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI): magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and noninvasive extracellular matrix (ECM) biomarkers. MRI was used to evaluate fibrosis in bilateral IRI in rats after reperfusion at 7, 14, and 21 days. This was performed with 1HT1 and T2* mapping, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and chemical shift imaging (CSI)-23Na. The degradation of laminin gamma-1 chain (LG1M) and type III collagen (C3M) was measured in urine and plasma. Fibrosis was analyzed in tissue using fibronectin (FN) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction qPCR and western blotting. We found increased fibrosis 7 days after reperfusion, which dropped to sham levels after 21 days. Single kidney glomerular filtration rate (skGFR), perfusion (DCE-MRI), and total 23Na kidney content correlated positively with fibrotic markers FN and α-SMA as well as noninvasive LG1M and C3M. We showed that novel MRI protocols and ECM markers could track fibrogenic development. This could give rise to a multi-parametric practice to diagnose and assess fibrosis whilst treating kidney disease without using invasive methods. Full article
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Review
The Multifaceted Histidine-Based Carriers for Nucleic Acid Delivery: Advances and Challenges
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080774 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Histidines incorporated into carriers of nucleic acids may enhance the extracellular stability of the nanoparticle, yet aid in the intracellular disruption of the nanoparticle, enabling the release of the nucleic acid. Moreover, protonation of histidines in the endosomes may result in endosomal swelling [...] Read more.
Histidines incorporated into carriers of nucleic acids may enhance the extracellular stability of the nanoparticle, yet aid in the intracellular disruption of the nanoparticle, enabling the release of the nucleic acid. Moreover, protonation of histidines in the endosomes may result in endosomal swelling with subsequent lysis. These properties of histidine are based on its five-member imidazole ring in which the two nitrogen atoms may form hydrogen bonds or act as a base in acidic environments. A wide variety of carriers have integrated histidines or histidine-rich domains, which include peptides, polyethylenimine, polysaccharides, platform delivery systems, viral phages, mesoporous silica particles, and liposomes. Histidine-rich carriers have played key roles in our understanding of the stability of nanocarriers and the escape of the nucleic acids from endosomes. These carriers show great promise and offer marked potential in delivering plasmids, siRNA, and mRNA to their intracellular targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Delivery Vectors and Physical Methods: Present and Future Trends)
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Review
Use of Supplemented or Human Material to Simulate PD Behavior of Antibiotics at the Target Site In Vitro
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080773 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
In antimicrobial drug development, in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing is conducted in standard growth media, such as Mueller–Hinton broth (MHB). These growth media provide optimal bacterial growth, but do not consider certain host factors that would be necessary to mimic the in vivo [...] Read more.
In antimicrobial drug development, in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing is conducted in standard growth media, such as Mueller–Hinton broth (MHB). These growth media provide optimal bacterial growth, but do not consider certain host factors that would be necessary to mimic the in vivo bacterial environment in the human body. The present review aimed to include relevant data published between 1986 and 2019. A database search (PubMed) was done with text keywords, such as “MIC” (minimal inhibitory concentration), “TKC” (time kill curve), “blood”, “body fluid”, “PD” (pharmacodynamic), and “in vitro”, and 53 papers were ultimately selected. Additionally, a literature search for physiologic characteristics of body fluids was conducted. This review gives an excerpt of the complexity of human compartments with their physiologic composition. Furthermore, we present an update of currently available in vitro models operated either with adapted growth media or body fluids themselves. Moreover, the feasibility of testing the activity of antimicrobials in such settings is discussed, and pro and cons for standard practice methods are given. The impact on bacterial killing varies between individual adapted microbiological media, as well as direct pharmacodynamic simulations in body fluids, between bacterial strains, antimicrobial agents, and the compositions of the adjuvants or the biological fluid itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics)
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Article
Radical Dendrimers Based on Biocompatible Oligoethylene Glycol Dendrimers as Contrast Agents for MRI
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080772 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Finding alternatives to gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (CA) with the same or even better paramagnetic properties is crucial to overcome their established toxicity. Herein we describe the synthesis and characterization of entirely organic metal-free paramagnetic macromolecules based on biocompatible oligoethylene glycol dendrimers fully [...] Read more.
Finding alternatives to gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (CA) with the same or even better paramagnetic properties is crucial to overcome their established toxicity. Herein we describe the synthesis and characterization of entirely organic metal-free paramagnetic macromolecules based on biocompatible oligoethylene glycol dendrimers fully functionalized with 5 and 20 organic radicals (OEG Gn-PROXYL (n = 0, 1) radical dendrimers) with the aim to be used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Conferring high water solubility on such systems is often a concern, especially in large generation dendrimers. Our approach to overcome such an issue in this study is by synthesizing dendrimers with highly water-soluble branches themselves. In this work, we show that the highly water-soluble OEG Gn-PROXYL (n = 0, 1) radical dendrimers obtained showed properties that convert them in good candidates to be studied as contrast agents for MRI applications like diagnosis and follow-up of infectious diseases, among others. Importantly, with the first generation radical dendrimer, a similar r1 relaxivity value (3.4 mM−1s−1) in comparison to gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) used in clinics (3.2 mM−1s−1, r.t. 7T) has been obtained, and it has been shown to not be cytotoxic, avoiding the toxicity risks associated with the unwanted accumulation of Gd in the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers and Dendritic Materials against Infectious Diseases)
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Article
Independent Tailoring of Dose and Drug Release via a Modularized Product Design Concept for Mass Customization
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080771 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Independent individualization of multiple product attributes, such as dose and drug release, is a crucial overarching requirement of pharmaceutical products for individualized therapy as is the unified integration of individualized product design with the processes and production that drive patient access to such [...] Read more.
Independent individualization of multiple product attributes, such as dose and drug release, is a crucial overarching requirement of pharmaceutical products for individualized therapy as is the unified integration of individualized product design with the processes and production that drive patient access to such therapy. Individualization intrinsically demands a marked increase in the number of product variants to suit smaller, more stratified patient populations. One established design strategy to provide enhanced product variety is product modularization. Despite existing customized and/or modular product design concepts, multifunctional individualization in an integrated manner is still strikingly absent in pharma. Consequently, this study aims to demonstrate multifunctional individualization through a modular product design capable of providing an increased variety of release profiles independent of dose and dosage form size. To further exhibit that increased product variety is attainable even with a low degree of product modularity, the modular design was based upon a fixed target dosage form size of approximately 200 mm3 comprising two modules, approximately 100 mm3 each. Each module contained a melt-extruded and molded formulation of 40% w/w metoprolol succinate in a PEG1500 and Kollidon® VA64 erodible hydrophilic matrix surrounded by polylactic acid and/or polyvinyl acetate as additional release rate-controlling polymers. Drug release testing confirmed the generation of predictable, combined drug release kinetics for dosage forms, independent of dose, based on a product’s constituent modules and enhanced product variety through a minimum of six dosage form release profiles from only three module variants. Based on these initial results, the potential of the reconfigurable modular product design concept is discussed for unified integration into a pharmaceutical mass customization/mass personalization context. Full article
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Article
Electrospun Bioactive Wound Dressing Containing Colloidal Dispersions of Birch Bark Dry Extract
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080770 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Novel birch bark dry extract (TE)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber mats intended for wound therapy were developed through an electrospinning process. Colloidal dispersions containing TE as the active substance were prepared by the high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique using hydrogenated phospholipids as stabilizer. Subsequently, [...] Read more.
Novel birch bark dry extract (TE)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber mats intended for wound therapy were developed through an electrospinning process. Colloidal dispersions containing TE as the active substance were prepared by the high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique using hydrogenated phospholipids as stabilizer. Subsequently, the colloidal dispersions were blended with aqueous PVA solutions in the ratio of 60:40 (wt.%) and electrospun to form the nanofiber mats. Fiber morphology examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that fibers were uniform and achieved diameters in the size range of 300–1586 nm. Confocal Raman spectral imaging gave good evidence that triterpenes were encapsulated within the electrospun mats. In vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation studies indicated that the electrospun nanofibers showed a sustained release of betulin, the main component of birch bark dry extract, making the examined dressings highly applicable for several wound care applications. Ex vivo wound healing studies proved that electrospun fiber mats containing TE accelerated wound healing significantly more than TE oleogel, which was comparable to an authorized product that consists of TE and sunflower oil and has proved to enhance wound healing. Therefore, our results conclude that the developed TE-PVA-based dressings show promising potential for wound therapy, an area where effective remedy is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development of Electrospinning for Drug Delivery Volume II)
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Article
Hybrid Pectin-Liposome Formulation against Multi-Resistant Bacterial Strains
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080769 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
This work describes the development of a gastroresistant antimicrobial formulation composed of two carriers, pectin and liposomes, intended to improve the efficiency of norfloxacin (NOR) against multi-resistant bacterial strains. The formulations showed physicochemical stability for 180 days (4 °C) in terms of size, [...] Read more.
This work describes the development of a gastroresistant antimicrobial formulation composed of two carriers, pectin and liposomes, intended to improve the efficiency of norfloxacin (NOR) against multi-resistant bacterial strains. The formulations showed physicochemical stability for 180 days (4 °C) in terms of size, polydispersity, and zeta potential of the vesicles, prolonging the in vitro release of NOR for 11 h. The hybrid nanocarriers improved the in vitro antimicrobial activity against different multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, such as Salmonella sp., Pseudomonasaeruginosa, E. coli and Campylobacterjejuni, in comparison to commercial NOR and liposomal suspensions. The in vivo toxicity assay in chicken embryos revealed that the hybrid systems were not toxic in any of the different parameters analyzed, a result also corroborated by the analyses of biochemical biomarkers of the chicken-embryos liver function. Full article
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Article
Cyclopropenium Nanoparticles and Gene Transfection in Cells
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080768 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Non-viral vectors for the transfection of genetic material are at the frontier of medical science. In this article, we introduce for the first time, cyclopropenium-containing nanoparticles as a cationic carrier for gene transfection, as an alternative to the common quaternary ammonium transfection agents. [...] Read more.
Non-viral vectors for the transfection of genetic material are at the frontier of medical science. In this article, we introduce for the first time, cyclopropenium-containing nanoparticles as a cationic carrier for gene transfection, as an alternative to the common quaternary ammonium transfection agents. Cyclopropenium-based cationic nanoparticles were prepared by crosslinking poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) with tetrachlorocyclopropene. These nanoparticles were electrostatically complexed with plasmid DNA into nanoparticles (~50 nm). Their cellular uptake into F929 mouse fibroblast cells, and their eventual expression in vitro have been described. Transfection is enhanced relative to PEI with minimal toxicity. These cyclopropenium nanoparticles possess efficient gene transfection capabilities with minimal cytotoxicity, which makes them novel and promising candidates for gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liposomes for Gene and Drug Delivery)
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Review
Adeno-Associated Virus Mediated Gene Therapy for Corneal Diseases
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080767 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization, corneal diseases are the fourth leading cause of blindness worldwide accounting for 5.1% of all ocular deficiencies. Current therapies for corneal diseases, which include eye drops, oral medications, corrective surgeries, and corneal transplantation are largely inadequate, have [...] Read more.
According to the World Health Organization, corneal diseases are the fourth leading cause of blindness worldwide accounting for 5.1% of all ocular deficiencies. Current therapies for corneal diseases, which include eye drops, oral medications, corrective surgeries, and corneal transplantation are largely inadequate, have undesirable side effects including blindness, and can require life-long applications. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated gene therapy is an optimistic strategy that involves the delivery of genetic material to target human diseases through gene augmentation, gene deletion, and/or gene editing. With two therapies already approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and 200 ongoing clinical trials, recombinant AAV (rAAV) has emerged as the in vivo viral vector-of-choice to deliver genetic material to target human diseases. Likewise, the relative ease of applications through targeted delivery and its compartmental nature makes the cornea an enticing tissue for AAV mediated gene therapy applications. This current review seeks to summarize the development of AAV gene therapy, highlight preclinical efficacy studies, and discuss potential applications and challenges of this technology for targeting corneal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocular Drug Delivery: Present Innovations and Future Challenges)
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Article
Medicines Acceptability in Hospitalized Children: An Ongoing Need for Age-Appropriate Formulations
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080766 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Although knowledge on medicine acceptability remains fragmented, this multi-faceted concept has emerged as a key factor for compliance in pediatrics. In order to investigate the acceptability of medicines used in the University Medical Centre Ibn Sina (CHIS) of Rabat, Morocco, an observational study [...] Read more.
Although knowledge on medicine acceptability remains fragmented, this multi-faceted concept has emerged as a key factor for compliance in pediatrics. In order to investigate the acceptability of medicines used in the University Medical Centre Ibn Sina (CHIS) of Rabat, Morocco, an observational study was conducted. Using a multivariate approach integrating the many aspects of acceptability, standardized observer reports were collected for 570 medicine intakes in patients up to the age of 16, then analyzed on a reference framework. Tablets appeared to be well accepted in children greater than 6 years old, but were crushed/dissolved for 90% of the 40 children aged from 3 to 5, and 100% of the 38 patients younger than 3. Moreover, the prescribed dose was fully taken for only 52% and 16% of these younger children, respectively. Despite this, tablets represented 24% of evaluations in children from 3 to 5 and 20% in infants and toddlers. Oral liquid preparations appeared to be better accepted than tablets in preschoolers, but not for those under 3. Overall, these findings highlight the lack of suitable alternatives for the younger children, especially for formulations of antiepileptics, antithrombotic, and psycholeptic agents in the local context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Drug Delivery)
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Article
The Effect of Particle Size and Surface Roughness of Spray-Dried Bosentan Microparticles on Aerodynamic Performance for Dry Powder Inhalation
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080765 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to prepare spray dried bosentan microparticles for dry powder inhaler and to characterize its physicochemical and aerodynamic properties. The microparticles were prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing bosentan using spray dryer. Three types of formulations (SD60, SD80, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to prepare spray dried bosentan microparticles for dry powder inhaler and to characterize its physicochemical and aerodynamic properties. The microparticles were prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing bosentan using spray dryer. Three types of formulations (SD60, SD80, and SD100) depending on the various ethanol concentrations (60%, 80%, and 100%, respectively) were used. Bosentan microparticle formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction particle sizing, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dissolution test, and in vitro aerodynamic performance using Andersen cascade impactor (ACI) system. In addition, particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used for directly confirming the actual movement of the aerosolized particles. Bosentan microparticles resulted in formulations with various shapes, surface morphology, and particle size distributions. SD100 was a smooth surface with spherical morphology, SD80 was a rough surfaced with spherical morphology and SD60 was a rough surfaced with corrugated morphology. SD100, SD80, and SD60 showed significantly high drug release up to 1 h compared with raw bosentan. The aerodynamic size of SD80 and SD60 was 1.27 µm and SD100 was 6.95 µm. The microparticles with smaller particle size and a rough surface aerosolized better (%FPF: 63.07 ± 2.39 and 68.27 ± 8.99 for SD60 and SD80, respectively) than larger particle size and smooth surface microparticle (%FPF: 22.64 ± 11.50 for SD100). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery through Pulmonary)
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Article
Safety of Nanoclay/Spring Water Hydrogels: Assessment and Mobility of Hazardous Elements
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080764 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The presence of impurities in medicinal products have to be controlled within safety limits from a pharmaceutical quality perspective. This matter is of special significance for those countries and regions where the directives, guidelines, or legislations, which prescribe the rules for the application [...] Read more.
The presence of impurities in medicinal products have to be controlled within safety limits from a pharmaceutical quality perspective. This matter is of special significance for those countries and regions where the directives, guidelines, or legislations, which prescribe the rules for the application of some products is quite selective or incomplete. Clay-based hydrogels are quite an example of this matter since they are topically administered, but, in some regions, they are not subjected to well-defined legal regulations. Since hydrogels establish an intimate contact with the skin, hazardous elements present in the ingredients could potentially be bioavailable and compromise their safety. The elemental composition and mobility of elements present in two hydrogels have been assessed. Sepiolite, palygorskite, and natural spring water were used as ingredients. The release of a particular element mainly depends on its position in the structure of the hydrogels, not only on its concentration in each ingredient. As a general trend, elements’ mobility reduced with time. Among the most dangerous elements, whose presence in cosmetics is strictly forbidden by European legal regulations, As and Cd were mobile, although in very low amounts (0.1 and 0.2 μg/100 g of hydrogel, respectively). That is, assuming 100% bioavailability, the studied hydrogels would be completely safe at normal doses. Although there is no sufficient evidence to confirm that their presence is detrimental to hydrogels safety, legally speaking, their mobility could hinder the authorization of these hydrogels as medicines or cosmetics. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that hydrogels prepared with sepiolite, palygorskite, and Alicún spring water could be topically applied without major intoxication risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clay-Based Pharmaceutical Formulations and Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Light-Activated Liposomes Coated with Hyaluronic Acid as a Potential Drug Delivery System
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080763 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Light-activated liposomes permit site and time-specific drug delivery to ocular and systemic targets. We combined a light activation technology based on indocyanine green with a hyaluronic acid (HA) coating by synthesizing HA–lipid conjugates. HA is an endogenous vitreal polysaccharide and a potential targeting [...] Read more.
Light-activated liposomes permit site and time-specific drug delivery to ocular and systemic targets. We combined a light activation technology based on indocyanine green with a hyaluronic acid (HA) coating by synthesizing HA–lipid conjugates. HA is an endogenous vitreal polysaccharide and a potential targeting moiety to cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44)-expressing cells. Light-activated drug release from 100 nm HA-coated liposomes was functional in buffer, plasma, and vitreous samples. The HA-coating improved stability in plasma compared to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated liposomes. Liposomal protein coronas on HA- and PEG-coated liposomes after dynamic exposure to undiluted human plasma and porcine vitreous samples were hydrophilic and negatively charged, thicker in plasma (~5 nm hard, ~10 nm soft coronas) than in vitreous (~2 nm hard, ~3 nm soft coronas) samples. Their compositions were dependent on liposome formulation and surface charge in plasma but not in vitreous samples. Compared to the PEG coating, the HA-coated liposomes bound more proteins in vitreous samples and enriched proteins related to collagen interactions, possibly explaining their slightly reduced vitreal mobility. The properties of the most abundant proteins did not correlate with liposome size or charge, but included proteins with surfactant and immune system functions in plasma and vitreous samples. The HA-coated light-activated liposomes are a functional and promising alternative for intravenous and ocular drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preclinical Evaluation of Lipid-Based Nanosystems)
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Article
Subset Analysis for Screening Drug–Drug Interaction Signal Using Pharmacovigilance Database
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080762 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Many patients require multi-drug combinations, and adverse event profiles reflect not only the effects of individual drugs but also drug–drug interactions. Although there are several algorithms for detecting drug–drug interaction signals, a simple analysis model is required for early detection of adverse events. [...] Read more.
Many patients require multi-drug combinations, and adverse event profiles reflect not only the effects of individual drugs but also drug–drug interactions. Although there are several algorithms for detecting drug–drug interaction signals, a simple analysis model is required for early detection of adverse events. Recently, there have been reports of detecting signals of drug–drug interactions using subset analysis, but appropriate detection criterion may not have been used. In this study, we presented and verified an appropriate criterion. The data source used was the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database; “hypothetical” true data were generated through a combination of signals detected by three detection algorithms. The accuracy of the signal detection of the analytic model under investigation was verified using indicators used in machine learning. The newly proposed subset analysis confirmed that the signal detection was improved, compared with signal detection in the previous subset analysis, on the basis of the indicators of Accuracy (0.584 to 0.809), Precision (= Positive predictive value; PPV) (0.302 to 0.596), Specificity (0.583 to 0.878), Youden’s index (0.170 to 0.465), F-measure (0.399 to 0.592), and Negative predictive value (NPV) (0.821 to 0.874). The previous subset analysis detected many false drug–drug interaction signals. Although the newly proposed subset analysis provides slightly lower detection accuracy for drug–drug interaction signals compared to signals compared to the Ω shrinkage measure model, the criteria used in the newly subset analysis significantly reduced the amount of falsely detected signals found in the previous subset analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug–Drug Interactions)
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Article
Thymoquinone-Loaded Soy-Phospholipid-Based Phytosomes Exhibit Anticancer Potential against Human Lung Cancer Cells
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080761 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Thymoquinone (TQ), a natural polyphenol, has been associated with various pharmacological responses; however, low bioavailability of TQ limits its clinical application. Thus, a novel phytosomal delivery system of TQ-Phospholipon® 90H complex (TQ-phytosome) was developed by refluxing combined with anti-solvent precipitation. This TQ [...] Read more.
Thymoquinone (TQ), a natural polyphenol, has been associated with various pharmacological responses; however, low bioavailability of TQ limits its clinical application. Thus, a novel phytosomal delivery system of TQ-Phospholipon® 90H complex (TQ-phytosome) was developed by refluxing combined with anti-solvent precipitation. This TQ delivery system was optimized by a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimized TQ-phytosome size was (45.59 ± 1.82 nm) and the vesicle size was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro release pattern of the formulation indicated a biphasic release pattern, where an initial burst release was observed within 2 h, followed by a prolonged release. A remarkable increase in dose-dependent cytotoxicity was evident from the significant decrease in IC50 value of TQ-phytosomes (4.31 ± 2.21 µM) against the A549 cell line. The differential effect of TQ-phytosomes in cell cycle analysis was observed, where cancer cells were accumulated on G2-M and pre-G1 phases. Furthermore, increased apoptotic induction and cell necrosis of TQ-phytosomes were revealed with the annexin V staining technique via activation of caspase-3. In reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis, TQ-phytosomes acted to significantly increase ROS generation in A549 cells. In conclusion, the sustained release profile with significantly-improved anticancer potential could be obtained with TQ by this phytosomal nanocarrier platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery Systems)
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Article
Progestogens Are Metabolized by the Gut Microbiota: Implications for Colonic Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080760 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Following oral administration, the bioavailability of progestogens is very low and highly variable, in part due to metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes found in the mucosa of the small intestine. Conversely, the mucosa in the colon contains much lower levels of cytochrome P450 [...] Read more.
Following oral administration, the bioavailability of progestogens is very low and highly variable, in part due to metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes found in the mucosa of the small intestine. Conversely, the mucosa in the colon contains much lower levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes, thus, colonic delivery of progestogens may be beneficial. Microbiota in the colon are known to metabolize a great number of drugs, therefore, it is important to understand the stability of these hormones in the presence of colonic flora before developing formulations. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of three progestogens: progesterone, and its two synthetic analogues, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and levonorgestrel (LNG), in the presence of human colonic microbiota. Progesterone, MPA, and LNG were incubated in mixed fecal inoculum (simulated human colonic fluid) under anerobic conditions. Progesterone was completely degraded after 2 h, whereas levels of MPA and LNG were still detectable after 24 h. The half-lives of progesterone, MPA, and LNG in fecal inoculum were 28, 644, and 240 min, respectively. This study describes the kinetics of colonic microbial metabolism of these hormones for the first time. MPA and LNG show promise for delivery to the colon, potentially improving pharmacokinetics over current oral delivery methods. Full article
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Review
Synthetic Virus-Derived Nanosystems (SVNs) for Delivery and Precision Docking of Large Multifunctional DNA Circuitry in Mammalian Cells
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080759 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
DNA delivery is at the forefront of current research efforts in gene therapy and synthetic biology. Viral vectors have traditionally dominated the field; however, nonviral delivery systems are increasingly gaining traction. Baculoviruses are arthropod-specific viruses that can be easily engineered and repurposed to [...] Read more.
DNA delivery is at the forefront of current research efforts in gene therapy and synthetic biology. Viral vectors have traditionally dominated the field; however, nonviral delivery systems are increasingly gaining traction. Baculoviruses are arthropod-specific viruses that can be easily engineered and repurposed to accommodate and deliver large sequences of exogenous DNA into mammalian cells, tissues, or ultimately organisms. These synthetic virus-derived nanosystems (SVNs) are safe, readily customized, and can be manufactured at scale. By implementing clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) modalities into this system, we developed SVNs capable of inserting complex DNAs into genomes, at base pair precision. We anticipate a major role for SVNs as an attractive alternative to viral vectors in accelerating genome engineering and gene therapy applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Viral Gene Delivery Systems)
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Review
Like a Rolling Stone: Sting-Cgas Pathway and Cell-Free DNA as Biomarkers for Combinatorial Immunotherapy
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080758 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with other treatments likely to harness tumor immunity is a rising strategy in oncology. The exact modalities of such a combinatorial regimen are yet to be defined, and most attempts have relied so far on concomitant dosing, rather than [...] Read more.
Combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with other treatments likely to harness tumor immunity is a rising strategy in oncology. The exact modalities of such a combinatorial regimen are yet to be defined, and most attempts have relied so far on concomitant dosing, rather than sequential or phased administration. Because immunomodulating features are likely to be time-, dose-, and-schedule dependent, the need for biomarkers providing real-time information is critical to better define the optimal time-window to combine immune checkpoint inhibitors with other drugs. In this review, we present the various putative markers that have been investigated as predictive tools with immune checkpoint inhibitors and could be used to help further combining treatments. Whereas none of the current biomarkers, such as the PDL1 expression of a tumor mutational burden, is suitable to identify the best way to combine treatments, monitoring circulating tumor DNA is a promising strategy, in particular to check whether the STING-cGAS pathway has been activated by cytotoxics. As such, circulating tumor DNA could help defining the best time-window to administrate immune checkpoint inhibitors after that cytotoxics have been given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Anticancer Strategies)
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Article
Preparation of Hot-Melt Extruded Dosage Form for Enhancing Drugs Absorption Based on Computational Simulation
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080757 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
The aim of this study was to control the dissolution rate and permeability of cilostazol. To enhance the dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology was applied to prepare a solid dispersion (SD). To control permeability in the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to control the dissolution rate and permeability of cilostazol. To enhance the dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology was applied to prepare a solid dispersion (SD). To control permeability in the gastrointestinal tract regardless of food intake, the HME process was optimized based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) simulation. The extrudates were produced using a laboratory-scale twin-screw hot-melt extruder with co-rotatory screws and a constant feeding rate. Next, for PBPK simulation, parameter-sensitive analysis (PSA) was conducted to determine the optimization approach direction. As demonstrated by the dissolution test, the solubility of extrudate was enhanced comparing cilostazol alone. Based on the PSA analysis, the surfactant induction was a crucial factor in cilostazol absorption; thus, an extrudate with an even distribution of lipids was produced using hot-melt extrusion technology, for inducing the bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract. In vivo experiments with rats demonstrated that the optimized hot-melt extruded formulation was absorbed more rapidly with lower deviation and regardless of the meal consumed when compared to marketed cilostazol formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot-Melt Extrusion: Applications in Pharmaceutics)
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Article
Mitochondrion-Directed Nanoparticles Loaded with a Natural Compound and a microRNA for Promoting Cancer Cell Death via the Modulation of Tumor Metabolism and Mitochondrial Dynamics
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080756 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction may cause cancer and metabolic syndrome. Ellagic acid (abbreviated as E), a phytochemical, possesses anticancer activity. MicroRNA 125 (miR-125) may regulate metabolism. However, E has low aqueous solubility, and miR-125 is unstable in a biological fluid. Hence, this study aimed to [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial dysfunction may cause cancer and metabolic syndrome. Ellagic acid (abbreviated as E), a phytochemical, possesses anticancer activity. MicroRNA 125 (miR-125) may regulate metabolism. However, E has low aqueous solubility, and miR-125 is unstable in a biological fluid. Hence, this study aimed to develop nanoparticle formulations for the co-treatment of miR-125 and E. These nanoparticles were modified with one mitochondrion-directed peptide and a tumor-targeted ligand, and their modulating effects on mitochondrial dysfunction, antitumor efficacy, and safety in head and neck cancer (HNC) were evaluated. Results revealed that miR-125- and E-loaded nanoparticles effectively targeted cancer cells and intracellular mitochondria. The co-treatment significantly altered cellular bioenergetics, lipid, and glucose metabolism in human tongue squamous carcinoma SAS cells. This combination therapy also regulated protein expression associated with bioenergenesis and mitochondrial dynamics. These formulations also modulated multiple pathways of tumor metabolism, apoptosis, resistance, and metastasis in SAS cells. In vivo mouse experiments showed that the combined treatment of miR-125 and E nanoparticles exhibited significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. The combinatorial therapy of E and miR-125 nanoparticles effectively reduced SAS tumor growth. To our best knowledge, this prospective study provided a basis for combining miRNA with a natural compound in nanoformulations to regulate mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism associated with cancer. Full article
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Review
Prediction of Drug-Induced Hyperbilirubinemia by In Vitro Testing
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080755 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Bilirubin, the end product of heme catabolism, is produced continuously in the body and may reach toxic levels if accumulates in the serum and tissues; therefore, a highly efficient mechanism evolved for its disposition. Normally, unconjugated bilirubin enters hepatocytes through the uptake transporters [...] Read more.
Bilirubin, the end product of heme catabolism, is produced continuously in the body and may reach toxic levels if accumulates in the serum and tissues; therefore, a highly efficient mechanism evolved for its disposition. Normally, unconjugated bilirubin enters hepatocytes through the uptake transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3, undergoes glucuronidation by the Phase II enzyme UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), and conjugated forms are excreted into the bile by the canalicular export pump multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2). Any remaining conjugated bilirubin is transported back to the blood by MRP3 and passed on for uptake and excretion by downstream hepatocytes or the kidney. The bile salt export pump BSEP as the main motor of bile flow is indirectly involved in bilirubin disposition. Genetic mutations and xenobiotics that interfere with this machinery may impede bilirubin disposition and cause hyperbilirubinemia. Several pharmaceutical compounds are known to cause hyperbilirubinemia via inhibition of OATP1Bs, UGT1A1, or BSEP. Herein we briefly review the in vitro prediction methods that serve to identify drugs with a potential to induce hyperbilirubinemia. In vitro assays can be deployed early in drug development and may help to minimize late-stage attrition. Based on current evidence, drugs that behave as mono- or multispecific inhibitors of OATP1B1, UGT1A1, and BSEP in vitro are at risk of causing clinically significant hyperbilirubinemia. By integrating inhibition data from in vitro assays, drug serum concentrations, and clinical reports of hyperbilirubinemia, predictor cut-off values have been established and are provisionally suggested in this review. Further validation of in vitro readouts to clinical outcomes is expected to enhance the predictive power of these assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Transporters in Absorption, Disposition and Elimination)
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Article
Development of Mannose-Modified Carboxylated Curdlan-Coated Liposomes for Antigen Presenting Cell Targeted Antigen Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080754 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Specific delivery to antigen presenting cells (APC) and precise control of the intracellular fate of antigens are crucial to induce cellular immunity that directly and specifically attacks cancer cells. We previously achieved cytoplasmic delivery of antigen and activation of APC using carboxylated curdlan-modified [...] Read more.
Specific delivery to antigen presenting cells (APC) and precise control of the intracellular fate of antigens are crucial to induce cellular immunity that directly and specifically attacks cancer cells. We previously achieved cytoplasmic delivery of antigen and activation of APC using carboxylated curdlan-modified liposomes, which led to the induction of cellular immunity in vivo. APCs express mannose receptors on their surface to recognize pathogen specifically and promote cross-presentation of antigen. In this study, mannose-residue was additionally introduced to carboxylated curdlan as a targeting moiety to APC for further improvement of polysaccharide-based antigen carriers. Mannose-modified curdlan derivatives were synthesized by the condensation between amino group-introduced mannose and carboxy group in pH-sensitive curdlan. Mannose residue-introduced carboxylated curdlan-modified liposomes showed higher pH-sensitivity than that of liposomes modified with conventional carboxylated curdlan. The introduction of mannose-residue to the liposomes induced aggregation in the presence of Concanavalin A, indicating that mannose residues were presented onto liposome surface. Mannose residue-introduced carboxylated curdlan-modified liposomes exhibited high and selective cellular association to APC. Furthermore, mannose residue-introduced carboxylated curdlan-modified liposomes promoted cross-presentation of antigen and induced strong antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, these liposomes are promising as APC-specific antigen delivery systems for the induction of antigen-specific cellular immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liposomes for Gene and Drug Delivery)
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Article
Controlled Catheter Movement Affects Dye Dispersal Volume in Agarose Gel Brain Phantoms
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(8), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080753 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The standard of care for treatment of glioblastoma results in a mean survival of only 12 to 15 months. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an investigational therapy to treat glioblastoma that utilizes locoregional drug delivery via a small-caliber catheter placed into the brain parenchyma. [...] Read more.
The standard of care for treatment of glioblastoma results in a mean survival of only 12 to 15 months. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an investigational therapy to treat glioblastoma that utilizes locoregional drug delivery via a small-caliber catheter placed into the brain parenchyma. Clinical trials have failed to reach their endpoints due to an inability of standard catheters to fully saturate the entire brain tumor and its margins. In this study, we examine the effects of controlled catheter movement on dye dispersal volume in agarose gel brain tissue phantoms. Four different catheter movement control protocols (stationary, continuous retraction, continuous insertion, and intermittent insertion) were applied for a single-port stepped catheter capable of intrainfusion movement. Infusions of indigo carmine dye into agarose gel brain tissue phantoms were conducted during the controlled catheter movement. The dispersal volume (Vd), forward dispersal volume (Vdf), infusion radius, backflow distance, and forward flow distance were quantified for each catheter movement protocol using optical images recorded throughout the experiment. Vd and Vdf for the retraction and intermittent insertion groups were significantly higher than the stationary group. The stationary group had a small but significantly larger infusion radius than either the retracting or the intermittent insertion groups. The stationary group had a greater backflow distance and lower forward flow distance than either the retraction or the intermittent insertion groups. Continuous retraction of catheters during CED treatments can result in larger Vd than traditional stationary catheters, which may be useful for improving the outcomes of CED treatment of glioblastoma. However, catheter design will be crucial in preventing backflow of infusate up the needle tract, which could significantly alter both the Vd and shape of the infusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery to Brain Tumors)
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