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Mar. Drugs, Volume 18, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 61 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The extract of a Pseudosuberites sp. sponge provided three new aryl alkaloids named suberitamides A–C. Assignment of the relative configuration of the four contiguous stereogenic centers in the conformationally flexible oxolane ring in suberitamide A was accomplished using a variety of contemporary NMR techniques. These included J-based methodologies that employed new NMR experiments for the accurate determination of heteronuclear coupling constants between protons and nonprotonated carbons. The ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is an attractive potential target for immune system modulation, and suberitamides A and B inhibited autoubiquitination of Cbl-b at low micromolar concentrations. View this paper
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Review
Carrageenan: Drug Delivery Systems and Other Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110583 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Marine resources are today a renewable source of various compounds, such as polysaccharides, that are used in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, and food fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on carrageenan-based biomaterials due to their multifunctional qualities, including biodegradability, biocompatibility, [...] Read more.
Marine resources are today a renewable source of various compounds, such as polysaccharides, that are used in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, and food fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on carrageenan-based biomaterials due to their multifunctional qualities, including biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, in addition to bioactive attributes, such as their antiviral, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulating properties. They have been applied in pharmaceutical formulations as both their bioactive and physicochemical properties make them suitable biomaterials for drug delivery, and recently for the development of tissue engineering. This article provides a review of recent research on the various types of carrageenan-based biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Polymers in Drug Release)
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Article
Structural Similarities between Some Common Fluorophores Used in Biology, Marketed Drugs, Endogenous Metabolites, and Natural Products
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110582 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
It is known that at least some fluorophores can act as ‘surrogate’ substrates for solute carriers (SLCs) involved in pharmaceutical drug uptake, and this promiscuity is taken to reflect at least a certain structural similarity. As part of a comprehensive study seeking the [...] Read more.
It is known that at least some fluorophores can act as ‘surrogate’ substrates for solute carriers (SLCs) involved in pharmaceutical drug uptake, and this promiscuity is taken to reflect at least a certain structural similarity. As part of a comprehensive study seeking the ‘natural’ substrates of ‘orphan’ transporters that also serve to take up pharmaceutical drugs into cells, we have noted that many drugs bear structural similarities to natural products. A cursory inspection of common fluorophores indicates that they too are surprisingly ‘drug-like’, and they also enter at least some cells. Some are also known to be substrates of efflux transporters. Consequently, we sought to assess the structural similarity of common fluorophores to marketed drugs, endogenous mammalian metabolites, and natural products. We used a set of some 150 fluorophores along with standard fingerprinting methods and the Tanimoto similarity metric. Results: The great majority of fluorophores tested exhibited significant similarity (Tanimoto similarity > 0.75) to at least one drug, as judged via descriptor properties (especially their aromaticity, for identifiable reasons that we explain), by molecular fingerprints, by visual inspection, and via the “quantitative estimate of drug likeness” technique. It is concluded that this set of fluorophores does overlap with a significant part of both the drug space and natural products space. Consequently, fluorophores do indeed offer a much wider opportunity than had possibly been realised to be used as surrogate uptake molecules in the competitive or trans-stimulation assay of membrane transporter activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Antimicrobial Resistance with Marine Antibacterial Compounds)
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Article
Oxygenated Acyclic Diterpenes with Anticancer Activity from the Irish Brown Seaweed Bifurcaria bifurcata
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110581 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
Brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata is a prolific source of bioactive acyclic (linear) diterpenes with high structural diversity. In the continuation of our investigations on Irish brown algae, we undertook an in-depth chemical study on the n-hexanes and chloroform subextracts of B. bifurcata [...] Read more.
Brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata is a prolific source of bioactive acyclic (linear) diterpenes with high structural diversity. In the continuation of our investigations on Irish brown algae, we undertook an in-depth chemical study on the n-hexanes and chloroform subextracts of B. bifurcata that led to isolation of six new (16) and two known (78) acyclic diterpenes. Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, FT-IR, [α]D and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. Compounds 18, as well as three additional linear diterpenes (911), which we isolated from the same seaweed before, were tested against the human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Several compounds moderately inhibited the growth of the MDA-MB-231 cell line with IC50 values ranging from 11.6 to 32.0 μg/mL. The present study carried out on the lipophilic extracts of the Irish B. bifurcata shows the enormous capacity of this seaweed to produce a large palette of acyclic diterpenes with diverse oxygenation and substitution patterns and promising bioactivities. Full article
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Review
Application-Oriented Marine Isomerases in Biocatalysis
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110580 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
The class EC 5.xx, a group of enzymes that interconvert optical, geometric, or positional isomers are interesting biocatalysts for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical intermediates. This class, named “isomerases,” can transform cheap biomolecules into expensive isomers with suitable stereochemistry useful in synthetic [...] Read more.
The class EC 5.xx, a group of enzymes that interconvert optical, geometric, or positional isomers are interesting biocatalysts for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical intermediates. This class, named “isomerases,” can transform cheap biomolecules into expensive isomers with suitable stereochemistry useful in synthetic medicinal chemistry, and interesting cases of production of l-ribose, d-psicose, lactulose, and d-phenylalanine are known. However, in two published reports about potential biocatalysts of marine origin, isomerases are hardly mentioned. Therefore, it is of interest to deepen the knowledge of these biocatalysts from the marine environment with this specialized in-depth analysis conducted using a literature search without time limit constraints. In this review, the focus is dedicated mainly to example applications in biocatalysis that are not numerous confirming the general view previously reported. However, from this overall literature analysis, curiosity-driven scientific interest for marine isomerases seems to have been long-standing. However, the major fields in which application examples are framed are placed at the cutting edge of current biotechnological development. Since these enzymes can offer properties of industrial interest, this will act as a promoter for future studies of marine-originating isomerases in applied biocatalysis. Full article
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Article
Endolysins from Antarctic Pseudomonas Display Lysozyme Activity at Low Temperature
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110579 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Organisms specialized to thrive in cold environments (so-called psychrophiles) produce enzymes with the remarkable ability to catalyze chemical reactions at low temperature. Cold activity relies on adaptive changes in the proteins’ sequence and structural organization that result in high conformational flexibility. As a [...] Read more.
Organisms specialized to thrive in cold environments (so-called psychrophiles) produce enzymes with the remarkable ability to catalyze chemical reactions at low temperature. Cold activity relies on adaptive changes in the proteins’ sequence and structural organization that result in high conformational flexibility. As a consequence of flexibility, several such enzymes are inherently heat sensitive. Cold-active enzymes are of interest for application in a number of bioprocesses, where cold activity coupled with easy thermal inactivation can be of advantage. We describe the biochemical and functional properties of two glycosyl hydrolases (named LYS177 and LYS188) of family 19 (GH19), identified in the genome of an Antarctic marine Pseudomonas. Molecular evolutionary analysis placed them in a group of characterized GH19 endolysins active on lysozyme substrates, such as peptidoglycan. Enzyme activity peaks at about 25–35 °C and 40% residual activity is retained at 5 °C. LYS177 and LYS188 are thermolabile, with Tm of 52 and 45 °C and half-lives of 48 and 12 h at 37 °C, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that low heat stability may be associated to temperature-driven increases in local flexibility occurring mainly in a specific region of the polypeptide that is predicted to contain hot spots for aggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Ice Binding Proteins from Marine Cold-Adapted Organisms)
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Article
Antimicrobial Meroterpenoids and Erythritol Derivatives Isolated from the Marine-Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum XNM-12
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110578 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
One new meroterpenoid-type alkaloid, oxalicine C (1), and two new erythritol derivatives, penicierythritols A (6) and B (7), together with four known meroterpenoids (25), were isolated from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium [...] Read more.
One new meroterpenoid-type alkaloid, oxalicine C (1), and two new erythritol derivatives, penicierythritols A (6) and B (7), together with four known meroterpenoids (25), were isolated from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum XNM-12. Their planar structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analyses, including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS spectra. Their stereochemical configurations were established by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra for compound 1, as well as by comparison of the optical rotations with literature data for compounds 6 and 7. Notably, oxalicine C (1) represents the first example of an oxalicine alkaloid with a cleaved α-pyrone ring, whereas penicierythritols A (6) and B (7) are the first reported from the Penicillium species. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 17 were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 6 exhibited moderate antibacterial effects against the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 8 and 4 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 6 also possesses moderate antifungal properties against the plant pathogen Alternaria alternata with a MIC value of 8 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products in Crop Protection)
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Article
Astaxanthin Reduces Stemness Markers in BT20 and T47D Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Inhibiting Expression of Pontin and Mutant p53
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110577 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Astaxanthin (AST) is a product made from marine organisms that has been used as an anti-cancer supplement. It reduces pontin expression and induces apoptosis in SKBR3, a breast cancer cell line. Using Western blotting and qRT-PCR analyses, this study revealed that in the [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin (AST) is a product made from marine organisms that has been used as an anti-cancer supplement. It reduces pontin expression and induces apoptosis in SKBR3, a breast cancer cell line. Using Western blotting and qRT-PCR analyses, this study revealed that in the T47D and BT20 breast cancer cell lines, AST inhibits expression of pontin and mutp53, as well as the Oct4 and Nanog cancer stem cell (CSC) stemness genes. In addition, we explored the mechanism by which AST eradicates breast cancer cells using pontin siRNAs. Pontin knockdown by pontin siRNA reduced proliferation, Oct4 and Nanog expression, colony and spheroid formation, and migration and invasion abilities in breast cancer cells. In addition, reductions in Oct4, Nanog, and mutp53 expression following rottlerin treatment confirmed the role of pontin in these cells. Therefore, pontin may play a central role in the regulation of CSC properties and in cell proliferation following AST treatment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that AST can repress CSC stemness genes in breast cancer cells, which implies that AST therapy could be used to improve the efficacy of other anti-cancer therapies against breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products as Anticancer Agents)
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Article
Acylated Aminooligosaccharides from the Yellow Sea Streptomyces sp. HO1518 as Both α-Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitors
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110576 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Three new acylated aminooligosaccharide (13), along with five known congeners (48), were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. HO1518. Their structures were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, mainly based on 1D-selective and 2D TOCSY, [...] Read more.
Three new acylated aminooligosaccharide (13), along with five known congeners (48), were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. HO1518. Their structures were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, mainly based on 1D-selective and 2D TOCSY, HSQC-TOCSY, and HRESIMS spectrometry measurements, and by chemical transformations. All of the compounds were evaluated for their α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Among the isolates, D6-O-isobutyryl-acarviostatin II03 (3) and D6-O-acetyl-acarviostatin II03 (8), sharing acarviostatin II03-type structure, showed the most potent α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects, far stronger than the antidiabetic acarbose towards α-glucosidase and almost equal to the anti-obesity orlistat towards lipase in vitro. This is the first report on inhibitory activities against the two major digestive enzymes for acylated aminooligosaccharides. The results from our investigation highlight the potential of acylated aminooligosaccharides for the future development of multi-target anti-diabetic drug. Full article
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Article
New Ophiobolins from the Deep-Sea Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. WHU0154 and Their Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110575 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
Deep-sea fungi have become a new arsenal for the discovery of leading compounds. Here five new ophiobolins 15, together with six known analogues 611, obtained from a deep-sea derived fungus WHU0154. Their structures were determined by analyses [...] Read more.
Deep-sea fungi have become a new arsenal for the discovery of leading compounds. Here five new ophiobolins 15, together with six known analogues 611, obtained from a deep-sea derived fungus WHU0154. Their structures were determined by analyses of IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectra, along with experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analysis. Pharmacological studies showed that compounds 4 and 6 exhibited obvious inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Mechanical study revealed that compound 6 could inhibit the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, compounds 6, 9, and 10 could significantly inhibit the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses revealed that the aldehyde group at C-21 and the α, β-unsaturated ketone functionality at A ring in ophiobolins were vital for their anti-inflammatory effects. Together, the results demonstrated that ophiobolins, especially for compound 6, exhibited strong anti-inflammatory effects and shed light on the discovery of ophiobolins as new anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
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Article
Utilization of Seafood Processing By-Products for Production of Proteases by Paenibacillus sp. TKU052 and Their Application in Biopeptides’ Preparation
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110574 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Microbial fermentation of by-products is a renewable and efficient technique in the development of a range of useful products. In this study, protease synthesis by Paenibacillus sp. TKU052 was carried out on culture media containing some common seafood processing by-products (SPBPs) as the [...] Read more.
Microbial fermentation of by-products is a renewable and efficient technique in the development of a range of useful products. In this study, protease synthesis by Paenibacillus sp. TKU052 was carried out on culture media containing some common seafood processing by-products (SPBPs) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen (C/N). The most suitable C/N nutrition source for the production of proteases was found to be 3.0% (w/v) demineralized crab shells powder (deCSP) and maximal enzyme activity of 4.41 ± 0.16 U/mL was detected on the third day of the culture. Two proteases (P1 and P2) with a similar molecular weight of 31 kDa were successfully isolated and purified from the 3-day deCSP-containing medium. Both P1 and P2 exhibited the highest activity of gelatin hydrolysis at pH 6 and 60 °C. The gelatin hydrolysates catalyzed by Paenibacillus TKU052 proteases were evaluated for biological activities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, and prebiotic activities. The gelatin hydrolysates expressed 31.76–43.95% DPPH radical scavenging activity and 31.58–36.84% ACE inhibitory activity, which was higher than those from gelatin. Gelatin hydrolysates also showed the growth-enhancing effect on Bifidobacterium bifidum BCRC 14615 with an increase to 135.70–147.81%. In short, Paenibacillus sp. TKU052 could be a potential strain to utilize crab shell wastes to produce proteases for bio-active peptides’ preparation. Full article
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Cembranoids from a Formosa Soft Coral Sarcophyton cherbonnieri
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110573 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The present investigation on chemical constituents of the soft coral Sarcophyton cherbonnieri resulted in the isolation of seven new cembranoids, cherbonolides F–L (17). The chemical structures of 17 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including infrared, one- and [...] Read more.
The present investigation on chemical constituents of the soft coral Sarcophyton cherbonnieri resulted in the isolation of seven new cembranoids, cherbonolides F–L (17). The chemical structures of 17 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including infrared, one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), MS experiments, and a chemical reduction of hydroperoxide by triphenylphosphine. The anti-inflammatory activities of 17 against neutrophil proinflammatory responses were evaluated by measuring their inhibitory ability toward N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLF/CB)-induced superoxide anion generation and elastase release in primary human neutrophils. The results showed that all isolates exhibited moderate activities, while cherbonolide G (2) and cherbonolide H (3) displayed a more active effect than others on the inhibition of elastase release (48.2% ± 6.2%) and superoxide anion generation (44.5% ± 4.6%) at 30 µM, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from XVI MaNaPro and XI ECMNP)
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Article
Toward the Identification of Novel Antimicrobial Agents: One-Pot Synthesis of Lipophilic Conjugates of N-Alkyl d- and l-Iminosugars
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110572 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
In the effort to improve the antimicrobial activity of iminosugars, we report the synthesis of lipophilic iminosugars 10ab and 11ab based on the one-pot conjugation of both enantiomeric forms of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NBDNJ) and N-nonyloxypentyldeoxynojirimycin (NPDNJ) with cholesterol [...] Read more.
In the effort to improve the antimicrobial activity of iminosugars, we report the synthesis of lipophilic iminosugars 10ab and 11ab based on the one-pot conjugation of both enantiomeric forms of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NBDNJ) and N-nonyloxypentyldeoxynojirimycin (NPDNJ) with cholesterol and a succinic acid model linker. The conjugation reaction was tuned using the established PS-TPP/I2/ImH activating system, which provided the desired compounds in high yields (94–96%) by a one-pot procedure. The substantial increase in the lipophilicity of 10ab and 11ab is supposed to improve internalization within the bacterial cell, thereby potentially leading to enhanced antimicrobial properties. However, assays are currently hampered by solubility problems; therefore, alternative administration strategies will need to be devised. Full article
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Review
Fucoidan Characterization: Determination of Purity and Physicochemical and Chemical Properties
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110571 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Fucoidans are marine sulfated biopolysaccharides that have heterogenous and complicated chemical structures. Various sugar monomers, glycosidic linkages, molecular masses, branching sites, and sulfate ester pattern and content are involved within their backbones. Additionally, sources, downstream processes, and geographical and seasonal factors show potential [...] Read more.
Fucoidans are marine sulfated biopolysaccharides that have heterogenous and complicated chemical structures. Various sugar monomers, glycosidic linkages, molecular masses, branching sites, and sulfate ester pattern and content are involved within their backbones. Additionally, sources, downstream processes, and geographical and seasonal factors show potential effects on fucoidan structural characteristics. These characteristics are documented to be highly related to fucoidan potential activities. Therefore, numerous chemical qualitative and quantitative determinations and structural elucidation methods are conducted to characterize fucoidans regarding their physicochemical and chemical features. Characterization of fucoidan polymers is considered a bottleneck for further biological and industrial applications. Consequently, the obtained results may be related to different activities, which could be improved afterward by further functional modifications. The current article highlights the different spectrometric and nonspectrometric methods applied for the characterization of native fucoidans, including degree of purity, sugar monomeric composition, sulfation pattern and content, molecular mass, and glycosidic linkages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
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Review
Molluscan Compounds Provide Drug Leads for the Treatment and Prevention of Respiratory Disease
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110570 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Respiratory diseases place an immense burden on global health and there is a compelling need for the discovery of new compounds for therapeutic development. Here, we identify research priorities by critically reviewing pre-clinical and clinical studies using extracts and compounds derived from molluscs, [...] Read more.
Respiratory diseases place an immense burden on global health and there is a compelling need for the discovery of new compounds for therapeutic development. Here, we identify research priorities by critically reviewing pre-clinical and clinical studies using extracts and compounds derived from molluscs, as well as traditional molluscan medicines, used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. We reviewed 97 biomedical articles demonstrating the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties of >320 molluscan extracts/compounds with direct relevance to respiratory disease, in addition to others with promising bioactivities yet to be tested in the respiratory context. Of pertinent interest are compounds demonstrating biofilm inhibition/disruption and antiviral activity, as well as synergism with approved antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic agents. At least 100 traditional medicines, incorporating over 300 different mollusc species, have been used to treat respiratory-related illness in cultures worldwide for thousands of years. These medicines provide useful clues for the discovery of bioactive components that likely underpin their continued use. There is particular incentive for investigations into anti-inflammatory compounds, given the extensive application of molluscan traditional medicines for symptoms of inflammation, and shells, which are the principal molluscan product used in these preparations. Overall, there is a need to target research toward specific respiratory disease-related hypotheses, purify bioactive compounds and elucidate their chemical structures, and develop an evidence base for the integration of quality-controlled traditional medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Review
Natural Polypropionates in 1999–2020: An Overview of Chemical and Biological Diversity
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110569 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Natural polypropionates (PPs) are a large subgroup of polyketides with diverse structural features and bioactivities. Most of the PPs are discovered from marine organisms including mollusks, fungi and actinomycetes, while some of them are also isolated from terrestrial resources. An increasing number of [...] Read more.
Natural polypropionates (PPs) are a large subgroup of polyketides with diverse structural features and bioactivities. Most of the PPs are discovered from marine organisms including mollusks, fungi and actinomycetes, while some of them are also isolated from terrestrial resources. An increasing number of studies about PPs have been carried out in the past two decades and an updated review is needed. In this current review, we summarize the chemical structures and biological activities of 164 natural PPs reported in 67 research papers from 1999 to 2020. The isolation, structural features and bioactivities of these PPs are discussed in detail. The chemical diversity, bioactive diversity, biodiversity and the relationship between chemical classes and the bioactivities are also concluded. Full article
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Review
Properties of Carotenoids in Fish Fitness: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110568 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Carotenoids, one of the most common types of natural pigments, can influence the colors of living organisms. More than 750 kinds of carotenoids have been identified. Generally, carotenoids occur in organisms at low levels. However, the total amount of carotenoids in nature has [...] Read more.
Carotenoids, one of the most common types of natural pigments, can influence the colors of living organisms. More than 750 kinds of carotenoids have been identified. Generally, carotenoids occur in organisms at low levels. However, the total amount of carotenoids in nature has been estimated to be more than 100 million tons. There are two major types of carotenoids: carotene (solely hydrocarbons that contain no oxygen) and xanthophyll (contains oxygen). Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments with conjugated double bonds that exhibit robust antioxidant activity. Many carotenoids, particularly astaxanthin (ASX), are known to improve the antioxidative state and immune system, resulting in providing disease resistance, growth performance, survival, and improved egg quality in farmed fish without exhibiting any cytotoxicity or side effects. ASX cooperatively and synergistically interacts with other antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione located in the lipophilic hydrophobic compartments of fish tissue. Moreover, ASX can modulate gene expression accompanying alterations in signal transduction by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Hence, carotenoids could be used as chemotherapeutic supplements for farmed fish. Carotenoids are regarded as ecologically friendly functional feed additives in the aquaculture industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Article
Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Activities of Monoterpene Hydroxy Lactones Isolated from the Marine Microalga Tisochrysis Lutea
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110567 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Tisochrysis lutea is a marine haptophyte rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and carotenoids (e.g., fucoxanthin). Because of the nutraceutical applications of these compounds, this microalga is being used in aquaculture to feed oyster and shrimp larvae. In our [...] Read more.
Tisochrysis lutea is a marine haptophyte rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and carotenoids (e.g., fucoxanthin). Because of the nutraceutical applications of these compounds, this microalga is being used in aquaculture to feed oyster and shrimp larvae. In our earlier report, T. lutea organic crude extracts exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activity against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. However, so far, the compound(s) accountable for the observed bioactivity have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and identify the chemical component(s) responsible for the bioactivity observed. Bioassay-guided fractionation through a combination of silica-gel column chromatography, followed by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC), led to the isolation of two diastereomers of a monoterpenoid lactone, namely, loliolide (1) and epi-loliolide (2), isolated for the first time in this species. The structural elucidation of both compounds was carried out by GC-MS and 1D (1H and 13C APT) and 2D (COSY, HMBC, HSQC-ed, and NOESY) NMR analysis. Both compounds significantly reduced the viability of HepG2 cells and were considerably less toxic towards a non-tumoral murine stromal (S17) cell line, although epi-loliolide was found to be more active than loliolide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Microalgae 2.0)
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Article
Interaction of Thalassia testudinum Metabolites with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Its Effects on Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Mutagenicity
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110566 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of Thalassia testudinum hydroethanolic extract, its polyphenolic fraction and thalassiolin B on the activity of phase I metabolizing enzymes as well as their antimutagenic effects. Spectrofluorometric techniques were used to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of Thalassia testudinum hydroethanolic extract, its polyphenolic fraction and thalassiolin B on the activity of phase I metabolizing enzymes as well as their antimutagenic effects. Spectrofluorometric techniques were used to evaluate the effect of tested products on rat and human CYP1A and CYP2B activity. The antimutagenic effect of tested products was evaluated in benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced mutagenicity assay by an Ames test. Finally, the antimutagenic effect of Thalassia testudinum (100 mg/kg) was assessed in BP-induced mutagenesis in mice. The tested products significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit rat CYP1A1 activity, acting as mixed-type inhibitors of rat CYP1A1 (Ki = 54.16 ± 9.09 μg/mL, 5.96 ± 1.55 μg/mL and 3.05 ± 0.89 μg/mL, respectively). Inhibition of human CYP1A1 was also observed (Ki = 197.1 ± 63.40 μg/mL and 203.10 ± 17.29 μg/mL for the polyphenolic fraction and for thalassiolin B, respectively). In addition, the evaluated products significantly inhibit (p < 0.05) BP-induced mutagenicity in vitro. Furthermore, oral doses of Thalassia testudinum (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the BP-induced micronuclei and oxidative damage, together with an increase of reduced glutathione, in mice. In summary, Thalassia testudinum metabolites exhibit antigenotoxic activity mediated, at least, by the inhibition of CYP1A1-mediated BP biotransformation, arresting the oxidative and mutagenic damage. Thus, the metabolites of T. testudinum may represent a potential source of chemopreventive compounds for the adjuvant therapy of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
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Article
Exploiting Mannuronan C-5 Epimerases in Commercial Alginate Production
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110565 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Alginates are one of the major polysaccharide constituents of marine brown algae in commercial manufacturing. However, the content and composition of alginates differ according to the distinct parts of these macroalgae and have a direct impact on the concentration of guluronate and subsequent [...] Read more.
Alginates are one of the major polysaccharide constituents of marine brown algae in commercial manufacturing. However, the content and composition of alginates differ according to the distinct parts of these macroalgae and have a direct impact on the concentration of guluronate and subsequent commercial value of the final product. The Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C-5 epimerases AlgE1 and AlgE4 were used to determine their potential value in tailoring the production of high guluronate low-molecular-weight alginates from two sources of high mannuronic acid alginates, the naturally occurring harvested brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Durvillea potatorum, Laminaria hyperborea and Lessonia nigrescens) and a pure mannuronic acid alginate derived from fermented production of the mutant strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 10,525. The mannuronan C-5 epimerases used in this study increased the content of guluronate from 32% up to 81% in both the harvested seaweed and bacterial fermented alginate sources. The guluronate-rich alginate oligomers subsequently derived from these two different sources showed structural identity as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and size-exclusion chromatography with online multi-angle static laser light scattering (SEC-MALS). Functional identity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays with selected bacteria and antibiotics using the previously documented low-molecular-weight guluronate enriched alginate OligoG CF-5/20 as a comparator. The alginates produced using either source showed similar antibiotic potentiation effects to the drug candidate OligoG CF-5/20 currently in development as a mucolytic and anti-biofilm agent. These findings clearly illustrate the value of using epimerases to provide an alternative production route for novel low-molecular-weight alginates. Full article
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Review
Potential Anti-Aging Substances Derived from Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110564 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Aging is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The exact mechanisms underlying the aging process are not fully elucidated. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that several pathways, such as sirtuin, AMP-activated protein [...] Read more.
Aging is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The exact mechanisms underlying the aging process are not fully elucidated. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that several pathways, such as sirtuin, AMP-activated protein kinase, insulin-like growth factor, autophagy, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 play critical roles in regulating aging. Furthermore, genetic or dietary interventions of these pathways can extend lifespan by delaying the aging process. Seaweeds are a food source rich in many nutrients, including fibers, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive compounds. The health benefits of seaweeds include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obese activities. Interestingly, a body of studies shows that some seaweed-derived extracts or isolated compounds, can modulate these aging-regulating pathways or even extend lifespans of various animal models. However, few such studies have been conducted on higher animals or even humans. In this review, we focused on potential anti-aging bioactive substances in seaweeds that have been studied in cells and animals mainly based on their anti-aging cellular and molecular mechanisms. Full article
Article
Temperature Differentially Affects Gene Expression in Antarctic Thraustochytrid Oblongichytrium sp. RT2316-13
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110563 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Oblongichytrium RT2316-13 synthesizes lipids rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The content of these fatty acids in the total lipids depended on growth temperature. Sequencing technology was used in this work to examine the thraustochytrid’s response to a decrease in [...] Read more.
Oblongichytrium RT2316-13 synthesizes lipids rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The content of these fatty acids in the total lipids depended on growth temperature. Sequencing technology was used in this work to examine the thraustochytrid’s response to a decrease in growth temperature from 15 °C to 5 °C. Around 4% (2944) of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) and only a few of the DE genes (533 upregulated; 206 downregulated) had significant matches to those in the SwissProt database. Most of the annotated DE genes were related to cell membrane composition (fatty acids, sterols, phosphatidylinositol), the membrane enzymes linked to cell energetics, and membrane structure (cytoskeletal proteins and enzymes). In RT2316-13, the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred through ω3- and ω6-pathways. Enzymes of the alternative pathways (Δ8-desaturase and Δ9-elongase) were also expressed. The upregulation of the genes coding for a Δ5-desaturase and a Δ5-elongase involved in the synthesis of EPA and DHA, explained the enrichment of total lipid with these two long-chain fatty acids at the low temperature. This molecular response has the potential to be used for producing microbial lipids with a fatty acids profile similar to that of fish oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources and Bioactivities of Marine Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Article
Functional Characterization of a New GH107 Endo-α-(1,4)-Fucoidanase from the Marine Bacterium Formosa haliotis
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110562 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Fucoidans from brown macroalgae are sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, that have several beneficial biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Controlled enzymatic depolymerization of the fucoidan backbone can help produce homogeneous, defined fucoidan products for structure-function research and pharmaceutical uses. However, only a few [...] Read more.
Fucoidans from brown macroalgae are sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, that have several beneficial biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Controlled enzymatic depolymerization of the fucoidan backbone can help produce homogeneous, defined fucoidan products for structure-function research and pharmaceutical uses. However, only a few endo-fucoidanases have been described. This article reports the genome-based discovery, recombinant expression in Escherichia coli, stabilization, and functional characterization of a new bacterial endo-α-(1,4)-fucoidanase, Fhf1, from Formosa haliotis. Fhf1 catalyzes the cleavage of α-(1,4)-glycosidic linkages in fucoidans built of alternating α-(1,3)-/α-(1,4)-linked l-fucopyranosyl sulfated at C2. The native Fhf1 is 1120 amino acids long and belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 107. Deletion of the signal peptide and a 470 amino acid long C-terminal stretch led to the recombinant expression of a robust, minimized enzyme, Fhf1Δ470 (71 kDa). Fhf1Δ470 has optimal activity at pH 8, 37–40 °C, can tolerate up to 500 mM NaCl, and requires the presence of divalent cations, either Ca2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ or Ni2+, for maximal activity. This new enzyme has the potential to serve the need for controlled enzymatic fucoidan depolymerization to produce bioactive sulfated fucoidan oligomers. Full article
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Article
New Monoterpenoids and Polyketides from the Deep-Sea Sediment-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sydowii MCCC 3A00324
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110561 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Chemical study of the secondary metabolites of a deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus sydowii MCCC 3A00324 led to the isolation of eleven compounds (111), including one novel (1) and one new (2) osmane-related monoterpenoids and two undescribed [...] Read more.
Chemical study of the secondary metabolites of a deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus sydowii MCCC 3A00324 led to the isolation of eleven compounds (111), including one novel (1) and one new (2) osmane-related monoterpenoids and two undescribed polyketides (3 and 4). The structures of the metabolites were determined by comprehensive analyses of the NMR and HRESIMS spectra, in association with quantum chemical calculations of the 13C NMR, ECD, and specific rotation data for the configurational assignment. Compound 1 possessed a novel monoterpenoid skeleton, biogenetically probably derived from the osmane-type monoperpenoid after the cyclopentane ring cleavage and oxidation reactions. Additionally, compound 3 was the first example of the α-pyrone derivatives bearing two phenyl units at C-3 and C-5, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities of 111 were tested. As a result, compound 6 showed potent inhibitory nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglia cells with an inhibition rate of 94.4% at the concentration of 10 µM. In addition, a plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was also proposed. Full article
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Review
Invasive Seaweeds in the Iberian Peninsula: A Contribution for Food Supply
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110560 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
The introduction of exotic organisms in marine ecosystems can lead to economic and ecological losses. Globally, seaweeds represent a significant part of these non-indigenous species (NIS), with 407 introduced algal species. Furthermore, the presence of NIS seaweeds has been reported as a major [...] Read more.
The introduction of exotic organisms in marine ecosystems can lead to economic and ecological losses. Globally, seaweeds represent a significant part of these non-indigenous species (NIS), with 407 introduced algal species. Furthermore, the presence of NIS seaweeds has been reported as a major concern worldwide since the patterns of their potential invasion mechanisms and vectors are not yet fully understood. Currently, in the Iberian Peninsula, around 50 NIS seaweeds have been recorded. Some of these are also considered invasive due to their overgrowth characteristic and competition with other species. However, invasive seaweeds are suitable for industrial applications due to their high feedstock. Hence, seaweeds’ historical use in daily food diet, allied to research findings, showed that macroalgae are a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds with nutraceutical properties. The main goal of this review is to evaluate the records of NIS seaweeds in the Iberian Peninsula and critically analyze the potential of invasive seaweeds application in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae Ⅱ)
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Article
Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phlorotannins from Fucus vesiculosus
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110559 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was carried out to maximize the extraction of phlorotannins from Fucus vesiculosus using a hydroethanolic mixture as a solvent, as an alternative to the conventional method with a hydroacetonic mixture. Optimal MAE conditions were set as ethanol concentration of 57% [...] Read more.
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was carried out to maximize the extraction of phlorotannins from Fucus vesiculosus using a hydroethanolic mixture as a solvent, as an alternative to the conventional method with a hydroacetonic mixture. Optimal MAE conditions were set as ethanol concentration of 57% (v/v), temperature of 75 °C, and time of 5 min, which allowed a similar recovery of phlorotannins from the macroalgae compared to the conventional extraction. While the phlorotannins richness of the conventional extract was slightly superior to that of MAE (11.1 ± 1.3 vs. 9.8 ± 1.8 mg PGE/g DWextract), both extracts presented identical phlorotannins constituents, which included, among others, tetrafucol, pentafucol, hexafucol, and heptafucol structures. In addition, MAE showed a moderate capacity to scavenge ABTS•+ (IC50 of 96.0 ± 3.4 µg/mL) and to inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (IC50 of 23.1 ± 3.4 µg/mL) and a superior ability to control the activity of the key metabolic enzyme α-glucosidase compared to the pharmaceutical drug acarbose. Full article
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Article
Microbial Diversity and Phage–Host Interactions in the Georgian Coastal Area of the Black Sea Revealed by Whole Genome Metagenomic Sequencing
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110558 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Viruses have the greatest abundance and highest genetic diversity in marine ecosystems. The interactions between viruses and their hosts is one of the hot spots of marine ecology. Besides their important role in various ecosystems, viruses, especially bacteriophages and their gene pool, are [...] Read more.
Viruses have the greatest abundance and highest genetic diversity in marine ecosystems. The interactions between viruses and their hosts is one of the hot spots of marine ecology. Besides their important role in various ecosystems, viruses, especially bacteriophages and their gene pool, are of enormous interest for the development of new gene products with high innovation value. Various studies have been conducted in diverse ecosystems to understand microbial diversity and phage–host interactions; however, the Black Sea, especially the Eastern coastal area, remains among the least studied ecosystems in this regard. This study was aimed at to fill this gap by analyzing microbial diversity and bacteriophage–host interactions in the waters of Eastern Black Sea using a metagenomic approach. To this end, prokaryotic and viral metagenomic DNA from two sampling sites, Poti and Gonio, were sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform and taxonomic and functional profiles of the metagenomes were obtained using various bioinformatics tools. Our metagenomics analyses allowed us to identify the microbial communities, with Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinibacteria, and Firmicutes found to be the most dominant bacterial phyla and Synechococcus and Candidatus Pelagibacter phages found to be the most dominant viral groups in the Black Sea. As minor groups, putative phages specific to human pathogens were identified in the metagenomes. We also characterized interactions between the phages and prokaryotic communities by determining clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), prophage-like sequences, and integrase/excisionase sequences in the metagenomes, along with identification of putative horizontally transferred genes in the viral contigs. In addition, in the viral contig sequences related to peptidoglycan lytic activity were identified as well. This is the first study on phage and prokaryote diversity and their interactions in the Eastern coastal area of the Black Sea using a metagenomic approach. Full article
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Review
Pharmacokinetics of Marine-Derived Drugs
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110557 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
Marine organisms represent an excellent source of innovative compounds that have the potential for the development of new drugs. The pharmacokinetics of marine drugs has attracted increasing interest in recent decades due to its effective and potential contribution to the selection of rational [...] Read more.
Marine organisms represent an excellent source of innovative compounds that have the potential for the development of new drugs. The pharmacokinetics of marine drugs has attracted increasing interest in recent decades due to its effective and potential contribution to the selection of rational dosage recommendations and the optimal use of the therapeutic arsenal. In general, pharmacokinetics studies how drugs change after administration via the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetics studies of marine-derived active compounds, with a particular focus on their ADME. The pharmacokinetics of compounds derived from algae, crustaceans, sea cucumber, fungus, sea urchins, sponges, mollusks, tunicate, and bryozoan is discussed, and the pharmacokinetics data in human experiments are analyzed. In-depth characterization using pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining information for understanding the molecular basis of pharmacological activity, for correct doses and treatment schemes selection, and for more effective drug application. Thus, an increase in pharmacokinetic research on marine-derived compounds is expected in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetic Research of Marine Drugs)
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Article
Spirulina maxima Derived Pectin Nanoparticles Enhance the Immunomodulation, Stress Tolerance, and Wound Healing in Zebrafish
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110556 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
In this study, Spirulina maxima derived pectin nanoparticles (SmPNPs) were synthesized and multiple biological effects were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. SmPNPs were not toxic to Raw 264.7 cells and zebrafish embryos up to 1 mg/mL and 200 µg/mL, respectively. [...] Read more.
In this study, Spirulina maxima derived pectin nanoparticles (SmPNPs) were synthesized and multiple biological effects were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. SmPNPs were not toxic to Raw 264.7 cells and zebrafish embryos up to 1 mg/mL and 200 µg/mL, respectively. SmPNPs upregulated Il 10, Cat, Sod 2, Def 1, Def 2, and Muc 1 in Raw 264.7 cells and tlr2, tlr4b, tlr5b, il1β, tnfα, cxcl8a, cxcl18b, ccl34a.4, ccl34b.4, muc5.1, muc5.2, muc5.3, hamp, cstd, hsp70, cat, and sod1 in the larvae and adult zebrafish, suggesting immunomodulatory activity. Exposure of larvae to SmPNPs followed by challenge with pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila resulted a two-fold reduction of reactive oxygen species, indicating reduced oxidative stress compared to that in the control group. The cumulative percent survival of larvae exposed to SmPNPs (50 µg/mL) and adults fed diet supplemented with SmPNPs (4%) was 53.3% and 76.7%, respectively. Topical application of SmPNPs on adult zebrafish showed a higher wound healing percentage (48.9%) compared to that in the vehicle treated group (38.8%). Upregulated wound healing markers (tgfβ1, timp2b, mmp9, tnfα, il1β,ccl34a.4, and ccl34b.4), enhanced wound closure, and restored pigmentation indicated wound healing properties of SmPNPs. Overall, results uncover the multiple bioactivities of SmPNPs, which could be a promising biocompatible candidate for broad range of aquatic and human therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Microalgal Active Biomolecules)
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Article
Mitochondrial Targeting in an Anti-Austerity Approach Involving Bioactive Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110555 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The tumor microenvironment is a nutrient-deficient region that alters the cancer cell phenotype to aggravate cancer pathology. The ability of cancer cells to tolerate nutrient starvation is referred to as austerity. Compounds that preferentially target cancer cells growing under nutrient-deficient conditions are being [...] Read more.
The tumor microenvironment is a nutrient-deficient region that alters the cancer cell phenotype to aggravate cancer pathology. The ability of cancer cells to tolerate nutrient starvation is referred to as austerity. Compounds that preferentially target cancer cells growing under nutrient-deficient conditions are being employed in anti-austerity approaches in anticancer drug discovery. Therefore, in this study, we investigated physcion (1) and 2-(2′,3-epoxy-1′,3′,5′-heptatrienyl)-6-hydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) benzaldehyde (2) obtained from a culture extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus species (sp.), which were isolated from an unidentified marine sponge, as anti-austerity agents. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were determined via spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells cultured under glucose-deficient conditions, with IC50 values of 6.0 and 1.7 µM, respectively. Compound 2 showed higher selective growth-inhibitory activity (505-fold higher) under glucose-deficient conditions than under general culture conditions. Further analysis of the mechanism underlying the anti-austerity activity of compounds 1 and 2 against glucose-starved PANC-1 cells suggested that they inhibited the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Full article
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Article
Novel Caryophyllane-Related Sesquiterpenoids with Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Rumphella antipathes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110554 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Two previously undescribed caryophyllane-related sesquiterpenoids, antipacids A (1) and B (2), with a novel bicyclo[5.2.0] core skeleton, and known compound clovane-2β,9α-diol (3), along with rumphellolide L (4), an esterified product of 1 and 3, [...] Read more.
Two previously undescribed caryophyllane-related sesquiterpenoids, antipacids A (1) and B (2), with a novel bicyclo[5.2.0] core skeleton, and known compound clovane-2β,9α-diol (3), along with rumphellolide L (4), an esterified product of 1 and 3, were isolated from the organic extract of octocoral Rumphella antipathes. Their structures, including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical experiments. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity analysis indicated that antipacid B (2) inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils, with IC50 values of 11.22 and 23.53 μM, respectively, while rumphellolide L (4) suppressed the release of elastase with an IC50 value of 7.63 μM. Full article
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