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Article

Spirulina maxima Derived Pectin Nanoparticles Enhance the Immunomodulation, Stress Tolerance, and Wound Healing in Zebrafish

1
College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2
Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
3
Jeju Marine Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Jeju Special Self-Governing Province 63349, Korea
4
Department of Ocean Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Jeju Special Self-Governing Province 63349, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110556
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 7 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Microalgal Active Biomolecules)
In this study, Spirulina maxima derived pectin nanoparticles (SmPNPs) were synthesized and multiple biological effects were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. SmPNPs were not toxic to Raw 264.7 cells and zebrafish embryos up to 1 mg/mL and 200 µg/mL, respectively. SmPNPs upregulated Il 10, Cat, Sod 2, Def 1, Def 2, and Muc 1 in Raw 264.7 cells and tlr2, tlr4b, tlr5b, il1β, tnfα, cxcl8a, cxcl18b, ccl34a.4, ccl34b.4, muc5.1, muc5.2, muc5.3, hamp, cstd, hsp70, cat, and sod1 in the larvae and adult zebrafish, suggesting immunomodulatory activity. Exposure of larvae to SmPNPs followed by challenge with pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila resulted a two-fold reduction of reactive oxygen species, indicating reduced oxidative stress compared to that in the control group. The cumulative percent survival of larvae exposed to SmPNPs (50 µg/mL) and adults fed diet supplemented with SmPNPs (4%) was 53.3% and 76.7%, respectively. Topical application of SmPNPs on adult zebrafish showed a higher wound healing percentage (48.9%) compared to that in the vehicle treated group (38.8%). Upregulated wound healing markers (tgfβ1, timp2b, mmp9, tnfα, il1β,ccl34a.4, and ccl34b.4), enhanced wound closure, and restored pigmentation indicated wound healing properties of SmPNPs. Overall, results uncover the multiple bioactivities of SmPNPs, which could be a promising biocompatible candidate for broad range of aquatic and human therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila; immunomodulation; pectin nanoparticles; Spirulina maxima; stress tolerance; wound healing; zebrafish Aeromonas hydrophila; immunomodulation; pectin nanoparticles; Spirulina maxima; stress tolerance; wound healing; zebrafish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajapaksha, D.C.; Edirisinghe, S.L.; Nikapitiya, C.; Dananjaya, S.; Kwun, H.-J.; Kim, C.-H.; Oh, C.; Kang, D.-H.; De Zoysa, M. Spirulina maxima Derived Pectin Nanoparticles Enhance the Immunomodulation, Stress Tolerance, and Wound Healing in Zebrafish. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110556

AMA Style

Rajapaksha DC, Edirisinghe SL, Nikapitiya C, Dananjaya S, Kwun H-J, Kim C-H, Oh C, Kang D-H, De Zoysa M. Spirulina maxima Derived Pectin Nanoparticles Enhance the Immunomodulation, Stress Tolerance, and Wound Healing in Zebrafish. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(11):556. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rajapaksha, Dinusha C., Shan L. Edirisinghe, Chamilani Nikapitiya, SHS Dananjaya, Hyo-Jung Kwun, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chulhong Oh, Do-Hyung Kang, and Mahanama De Zoysa. 2020. "Spirulina maxima Derived Pectin Nanoparticles Enhance the Immunomodulation, Stress Tolerance, and Wound Healing in Zebrafish" Marine Drugs 18, no. 11: 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110556

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