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Review

On a Beam of Light: Photoprotective Activities of the Marine Carotenoids Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin in Suppression of Inflammation and Cancer

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum—Università di Bologna, corso d’Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton, FL 34211, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(11), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110544
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 25 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids in Inflammation and Cancer)
Every day, we come into contact with ultraviolet radiation (UVR). If under medical supervision, small amounts of UVR could be beneficial, the detrimental and hazardous effects of UVR exposure dictate an unbalance towards the risks on the risk-benefit ratio. Acute and chronic effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B involve mainly the skin, the immune system, and the eyes. Photodamage is an umbrella term that includes general phototoxicity, photoaging, and cancer caused by UVR. All these phenomena are mediated by direct or indirect oxidative stress and inflammation and are strictly connected one to the other. Astaxanthin (ASX) and fucoxanthin (FX) are peculiar marine carotenoids characterized by outstanding antioxidant properties. In particular, ASX showed exceptional efficacy in counteracting all categories of photodamages, in vitro and in vivo, thanks to both antioxidant potential and activation of alternative pathways. Less evidence has been produced about FX, but it still represents an interesting promise to prevent the detrimental effect of UVR. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of digging into the marine ecosystem to look for new compounds that could be beneficial for human health and confirm that the marine environment is as much as full of active compounds as the terrestrial one, it just needs to be more explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodamage; skin cancer; photoaging; marine carotenoids; astaxanthin; fucoxanthin photodamage; skin cancer; photoaging; marine carotenoids; astaxanthin; fucoxanthin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Catanzaro, E.; Bishayee, A.; Fimognari, C. On a Beam of Light: Photoprotective Activities of the Marine Carotenoids Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin in Suppression of Inflammation and Cancer. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 544. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110544

AMA Style

Catanzaro E, Bishayee A, Fimognari C. On a Beam of Light: Photoprotective Activities of the Marine Carotenoids Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin in Suppression of Inflammation and Cancer. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(11):544. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110544

Chicago/Turabian Style

Catanzaro, Elena, Anupam Bishayee, and Carmela Fimognari. 2020. "On a Beam of Light: Photoprotective Activities of the Marine Carotenoids Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin in Suppression of Inflammation and Cancer" Marine Drugs 18, no. 11: 544. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18110544

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