E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jônatas Abrahão

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Website | E-Mail
Interests: giant viruses; large viruses; evolution; host–virus interactions
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luciana Barros de Arruda

Departamento de Virologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Website | E-Mail
Interests: HIV; dengue virus; vaccines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging viruses represent a major concern for public health offices. Climate changes, the international migration of people and products, deforestation, and other anthropogenic activities (and their consequences) seem to be closely related to the emerging of new viruses, triggering an increasing number of notified outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics.

In this Special Issue, we encourage colleagues to submit manuscripts related to the surveillance, detection, and evolution of emerging viruses, describing from local outbreaks to worldwide viral pandemics. We also welcome manuscripts describing new methods and technologies adapted or created for the study, prevention, and control of emerging viruses. The goal of this Special Issue of Viruses is to serve as a collection of the current knowledge on a broad range of emerging human, animal, and plant viral diseases. Both original manuscripts and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jônatas Abrahão
Prof. Dr. Luciana Barros de Arruda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging virus
  • prevention
  • evolution
  • control
  • diagnosis
  • surveillance

Published Papers (10 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle
Proteomics Computational Analyses Suggest that the Antennavirus Glycoprotein Complex Includes a Class I Viral Fusion Protein (α-Penetrene) with an Internal Zinc-Binding Domain and a Stable Signal Peptide
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080750
Received: 20 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
PDF Full-text (4881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A metatranscriptomic study of RNA viruses in cold-blooded vertebrates identified two related viruses from frogfish (Antennarius striatus) that represent a new genus Antennavirus in the family Arenaviridae (Order: Bunyavirales). Computational analyses were used to identify features common to class I [...] Read more.
A metatranscriptomic study of RNA viruses in cold-blooded vertebrates identified two related viruses from frogfish (Antennarius striatus) that represent a new genus Antennavirus in the family Arenaviridae (Order: Bunyavirales). Computational analyses were used to identify features common to class I viral fusion proteins (VFPs) in antennavirus glycoproteins, including an N-terminal fusion peptide, two extended alpha-helices, an intrahelical loop, and a carboxyl terminal transmembrane domain. Like mammarenavirus and hartmanivirus glycoproteins, the antennavirus glycoproteins have an intracellular zinc-binding domain and a long virion-associated stable signal peptide (SSP). The glycoproteins of reptarenaviruses are also class I VFPs, but do not contain zinc-binding domains nor do they encode SSPs. Divergent evolution from a common progenitor potentially explains similarities of antennavirus, mammarenavirus, and hartmanivirus glycoproteins, with an ancient recombination event resulting in a divergent reptarenavirus glycoprotein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Full-Length Sequence Analysis of a Pestivirus from Aborted Lamb Fetuses in Italy
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080744
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
PDF Full-text (1667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pestiviruses are distributed worldwide and are responsible for a variety of economically important diseases. They are not very host-specific, and thus sheep can be infected by well-known pestiviruses like bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), as well as by [...] Read more.
Pestiviruses are distributed worldwide and are responsible for a variety of economically important diseases. They are not very host-specific, and thus sheep can be infected by well-known pestiviruses like bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), as well as by other recently discovered pestivirus species. The aim of this study is to describe the isolation and characterization of four pestivirus strains detected in aborted lamb fetuses from a single farm in the Brescia province (Northern Italy). A total of twelve aborted fetuses were collected and examined. After necropsy, organs were tested for the presence of infectious agents known as potential causes of abortion (Brucella spp., Listeria spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycoplasma spp., Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii), and submitted to viral identification by isolation on Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell culture and by PCR assay for Schmallenberg virus and pan-pestivirus RT-PCR real time assay. Three viral strains (Ovine/IT/1756/2017, Ovine/IT/338710-2/2017, and Ovine/IT/338710-3/2017) were isolated in the absence of cytopathic effects (CPEs) in cell cultures and identified with RT-PCR. Another pestivirus strain (Ovine/IT/16235-2/2018) was detected by PCR, but was not successfully isolated. Complete sequence genomic data of the three isolated viruses showed that they were highly similar, differed genetically from known pestivirus species, and were closely related to classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Beyond the identification of new ovine pestiviruses, this study indicates that a systematic diagnostic approach is important to identify the presence and map the distribution of both known and emerging pestiviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Dromedary Camels in Africa and Middle East
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080717
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
PDF Full-text (1255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dromedary camels are the natural reservoirs of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Camels are mostly bred in East African countries then exported into Africa and Middle East for consumption. To understand the distribution of MERS-CoV among camels in North Africa and [...] Read more.
Dromedary camels are the natural reservoirs of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Camels are mostly bred in East African countries then exported into Africa and Middle East for consumption. To understand the distribution of MERS-CoV among camels in North Africa and the Middle East, we conducted surveillance in Egypt, Senegal, Tunisia, Uganda, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. We also performed longitudinal studies of three camel herds in Egypt and Jordan to elucidate MERS-CoV infection and transmission. Between 2016 and 2018, a total of 4027 nasal swabs and 3267 serum samples were collected from all countries. Real- time PCR revealed that MERS-CoV RNA was detected in nasal swab samples from Egypt, Senegal, Tunisia, and Saudi Arabia. Microneutralization assay showed that antibodies were detected in all countries. Positive PCR samples were partially sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was built. The tree suggested that all sequences are of clade C and sequences from camels in Egypt formed a separate group from previously published sequences. Longitudinal studies showed high seroprevalence in adult camels. These results indicate the widespread distribution of the virus in camels. A systematic active surveillance and longitudinal studies for MERS-CoV are needed to understand the epidemiology of the disease and dynamics of viral infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification, Pathogenicity of Novel Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 SDJN0105 in Shandong, China and Immunoprotective Evaluation of the Newly Developed Inactivated Oil-emulsion FAdV-4 Vaccine
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070627
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
PDF Full-text (4908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since mid-2015, numerous outbreaks of hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), which is caused by a novel fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), have been reported in chickens in parts of China, thereby causing huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Thus, an effective vaccine to control [...] Read more.
Since mid-2015, numerous outbreaks of hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), which is caused by a novel fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), have been reported in chickens in parts of China, thereby causing huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Thus, an effective vaccine to control the further spread of infections with this hyper-virulent FAdV-4 is imperative. In this study, we isolated a novel FAdV-4 strain SDJN0105 from a broiler farm with HHS disease in Shandong Province. Pathogenicity was evaluated by the observation of clinical symptoms, necropsy changes, and pathological tissue sections after oral and intramuscular (IM) infection of Specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. The chickens infected by IM injection all died within three days, and chickens infected via the oculonasal route died within five days post-infection (dpi). Histopathological examination revealed that the pathology was confined to heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and particularly the liver. Irrespective of the inoculation route, the highest viral DNA copy numbers were detected in the livers of infected chickens. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFNs, TNF-α, Mx, and OASL were significantly upregulated during the viral infection. In addition, an inactivated oil-emulsion FAdV-4 vaccine was developed. The vaccine could provide full protection for SPF chickens against a lethal dose of the FAdV-4 strain SDJN0105 and a high level of antibodies. These results improve our understanding of the innate immune responses in chickens infected with FAdV-4 and the pathogenesis of FAdV-4 caused by host factors, and the developed FAdV-4 vaccine is promising as a drug candidate for the prevention and reduction of the spread of HHS in poultry in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Different Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of Goose-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses in Chickens
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070612
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
PDF Full-text (3512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have been circulating in poultry in Asia since 2013 and producing serious diseases in chickens. Here, we analyzed the genetic properties of 10 H5N6 subtypes AIVs from geese in 2015–2016 in Guangdong province. Phylogenic analysis showed that [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have been circulating in poultry in Asia since 2013 and producing serious diseases in chickens. Here, we analyzed the genetic properties of 10 H5N6 subtypes AIVs from geese in 2015–2016 in Guangdong province. Phylogenic analysis showed that all HA genes of the 10 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.4.4, and their genes including HA, PA, PB1, M, NP, and NS all derived from Mix-like 1 (CH, VN, LS). Their PB2 genes come from Mix-like 2 (CH, VN, JP). The NA genes were classified into a Eurasian lineage. Therefore, the 10 viruses likely originate from the same ancestor and were all recombinant viruses between different genotypes. We selected A/Goose/Guangdong/GS144/2015(H5N6) (GS144) and A/Goose/Guangdong/GS148/2016(H5N6) (GS148) viruses to inoculate 5-week-old chickens intranasally with 104 EID50/0.1 mL dose intranasally to assess their pathogenicity and transmissibility. Inoculated chickens showed that the GS144 virus caused systematic infection with a lethality of 100%, but the lethality of GS148 virus was 0%. The two viruses were efficiently transmitted to contact chickens. The lethality of GS144 and GS148 virus in contact with chickens was 87.5% and 0%, respectively, which suggests that the transmissibility of GS144 virus was stronger than GS148 virus in chickens. Thus, different H5N6 viruses from the same waterfowl can show different pathogenicity and transmissibility in chickens. Continued surveillance and characteristic analysis of the H5N6 viruses will help us to keep abreast of evolution and variation in avian influenza viruses in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Nymphalid-Infecting Group I Alphabaculovirus Isolated from the Major Passion Fruit Caterpillar Pest Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070602
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
PDF Full-text (2313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Baculoviruses are capable of infecting a wide diversity of insect pests. In the 1990s, the Dione juno nucleopolyhedrovirus (DijuNPV) was isolated from larvae of the major passionfruit defoliator pest Dione juno juno (Nymphalidae) and described at ultrastructural and pathological levels. In this study, [...] Read more.
Baculoviruses are capable of infecting a wide diversity of insect pests. In the 1990s, the Dione juno nucleopolyhedrovirus (DijuNPV) was isolated from larvae of the major passionfruit defoliator pest Dione juno juno (Nymphalidae) and described at ultrastructural and pathological levels. In this study, the complete genome sequence of DijuNPV was determined and analyzed. The circular genome presents 122,075 bp with a G + C content of 50.9%. DijuNPV is the first alphabaculovirus completely sequenced that was isolated from a nymphalid host and may represent a divergent species. It appeared closely related to Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) and other Choristoneura-isolated group I alphabaculoviruses. We annotated 153 open reading frames (ORFs), including a set of 38 core genes, 26 ORFs identified as present in lepidopteran baculoviruses, 17 ORFs unique in baculovirus, and several auxiliary genes (e.g., bro, cathepsin, chitinase, iap-1, iap-2, and thymidylate kinase). The thymidylate kinase (tmk) gene was present fused to a dUTPase (dut) gene in other baculovirus genomes. DijuNPV likely lost the dut portion together with the iap-3 homolog. Overall, the genome sequencing of novel alphabaculoviruses enables a wide understanding of baculovirus evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Immunogenicity in Rabbits of Virus-Like Particles from a Contemporary Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus Type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) Isolated in The Netherlands
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060553
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
PDF Full-text (2445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) is an emerging pathogen in wild rabbits and in domestic rabbits vaccinated against RHDV (GI.1). Here we report the genome sequence of a contemporary RHDV2 isolate from the Netherlands and investigate the immunogenicity of virus-like [...] Read more.
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) type 2 (GI.2/RHDV2/b) is an emerging pathogen in wild rabbits and in domestic rabbits vaccinated against RHDV (GI.1). Here we report the genome sequence of a contemporary RHDV2 isolate from the Netherlands and investigate the immunogenicity of virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in insect cells. RHDV2 RNA was isolated from the liver of a naturally infected wild rabbit and the complete viral genome sequence was assembled from sequenced RT-PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP60 capsid gene demonstrated that the RHDV2 NL2016 isolate clustered with other contemporary RHDV2 strains. The VP60 gene was cloned in a baculovirus expression vector to produce VLPs in Sf9 insect cells. Density-gradient purified RHDV2 VLPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy as spherical particles of around 30 nm in diameter with a morphology resembling authentic RHDV. Immunization of rabbits with RHDV2 VLPs resulted in high production of serum antibodies against VP60, and the production of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) was significantly elevated in the immunized rabbits compared to the control group. The results demonstrate that the recombinant RHDV2 VLPs are highly immunogenic and may find applications in serological detection assays and might be further developed as a vaccine candidate to protect domestic rabbits against RHDV2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Genetic Characterization of a Recombinant Myxoma Virus in the Iberian Hare (Lepus granatensis)
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060530
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
PDF Full-text (9654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Myxomatosis is a lethal disease in wild European and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is caused by a Myxoma virus (MYXV) infection—a leporipoxvirus that is found naturally in some Sylvilagus rabbit species in South America and California. The introduction of MYXV [...] Read more.
Myxomatosis is a lethal disease in wild European and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is caused by a Myxoma virus (MYXV) infection—a leporipoxvirus that is found naturally in some Sylvilagus rabbit species in South America and California. The introduction of MYXV into feral European rabbit populations of Australia and Europe, in the early 1950s, demonstrated the best-documented field example of host–virus coevolution, following a cross-species transmission. Recently, a new cross-species jump of MYXV has been suggested in both Great Britain and Spain, where European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) were found dead with lesions consistent with those observed in myxomatosis. To investigate the possibility of a new cross-species transmission event by MYXV, tissue samples collected from a wild Iberian hare found dead in Spain (Toledo region) were analyzed and deep sequenced. Our results reported a new MYXV isolate (MYXV Toledo) in the tissues of this species. The genome of this new virus was found to encode three disruptive genes (M009L, M036L, and M152R) and a novel ~2.8 kb recombinant region, which resulted from an insertion of four novel poxviral genes towards the 3’ end of the negative strand of its genome. From the open reading frames inserted into the MYXV Toledo virus, a new orthologue of a poxvirus host range gene family member was identified, which was related to the MYXV gene M064R. Overall, we confirmed the identity of a new MYXV isolate in Iberian hares, which, we hypothesized, was able to more effectively counteract the host defenses in hares and start an infectious process in this new host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Prevalence of Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 and Co-Infection by Immunosuppressive Viruses in Fowl with Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome in Shandong Province, China
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060517
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
PDF Full-text (3483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the pathogenic agent of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and ducks, which has caused huge economic losses for the Chinese poultry industry since 2015. In order to objectively determine the prevalence and co-infection status of the [...] Read more.
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the pathogenic agent of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and ducks, which has caused huge economic losses for the Chinese poultry industry since 2015. In order to objectively determine the prevalence and co-infection status of the virus in Shandong province in China, we analyzed a total of 679 clinical cases of chickens and ducks from 36 farms in the province. The results showed that the FAdV-4 infection rate was 65.2% (443/679), and the rate in breeder ducks was almost two-fold higher than that in breeder chickens (68.57% vs. 34.30%). Notably, co-infection by H9N2 avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and/or chicken infectious anemia virus was very common in the 443 FAdV-4-positive cases. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the hexon genes of four Shandong FAdV-4 isolates revealed that these strains clustered into Indian reference strains, indicating that the Shandong FAdV-4 strains might have originated in India. These findings provide the first data on the prevalence and co-infection status of FAdV-4 in Shandong province, which may serve as a foundation for the prevention of FAdV-4 in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessBrief Report
The Emergence of Avian Orthoavulavirus 13 in Wild Migratory Waterfowl in China Revealed the Existence of Diversified Trailer Region Sequences and HN Gene Lengths within this Serotype
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070646
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Avian orthoavulavirus 13 (AOAV-13), also named avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13), has been found sporadically in wild birds around the world ever since the discovery of AOAV-13 (AOAV-13/wild goose/Shimane/67/2000) in a wild goose from Japan in 2000. However, there are no reports of AOAV-13 [...] Read more.
Avian orthoavulavirus 13 (AOAV-13), also named avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13), has been found sporadically in wild birds around the world ever since the discovery of AOAV-13 (AOAV-13/wild goose/Shimane/67/2000) in a wild goose from Japan in 2000. However, there are no reports of AOAV-13 in China. In the present study, a novel AOAV-13 virus (AOAV-13/wild goose/China/Hubei/V93-1/2015), isolated from a wild migratory waterfowl in a wetland of Hubei province of China, during active surveillance from 2013 to 2018, was biologically and genetically characterized. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a very close genetic relationship among all AOAV-13 strains, as revealed by very few genetic variations. Moreover, pathogenicity tests indicated that the V93-1 strain is a low virulent virus for chickens. However, the genome of the V93-1 virus was found to be 16,158 nucleotides (nt) in length, which is 12 nt or 162 nt longer than the other AOAV-13 strains that have been reported to date. The length difference of 12 nt in strain V93-1 is due to the existence of three repeats of the conserved sequence, “AAAAAT”, in the 5′-end trailer of the genome. Moreover, the HN gene of the V93-1 virus is 2070 nt in size, encoding 610 aa, which is the same size as the AOAV-13 strain from Japan, whereas that of two strains from Ukraine and Kazakhstan are 2080 nt in length, encoding 579 aa. We describe a novel AOAV-13 in migratory waterfowl in China, which suggests that diversified trailer region sequences and HN gene lengths exist within serotype AOAV-13, and highlight the need for its constant surveillance in poultry from live animal markets, and especially migratory birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top