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Prevalence of Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 and Co-Infection by Immunosuppressive Viruses in Fowl with Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome in Shandong Province, China

by Guanliu Yu 1,2,3,†, Yun Lin 1,2,3,†, Yanguo Dou 1,2,3, Yi Tang 1,2,3,* and Youxiang Diao 1,2,3,*
1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Road, Tai’an 271018, Shandong Province, China
2
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Road, Tai’an 271018, Shandong Province, China
3
Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Road, Tai’an 271018, Shandong Province, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060517
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the pathogenic agent of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and ducks, which has caused huge economic losses for the Chinese poultry industry since 2015. In order to objectively determine the prevalence and co-infection status of the virus in Shandong province in China, we analyzed a total of 679 clinical cases of chickens and ducks from 36 farms in the province. The results showed that the FAdV-4 infection rate was 65.2% (443/679), and the rate in breeder ducks was almost two-fold higher than that in breeder chickens (68.57% vs. 34.30%). Notably, co-infection by H9N2 avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and/or chicken infectious anemia virus was very common in the 443 FAdV-4-positive cases. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the hexon genes of four Shandong FAdV-4 isolates revealed that these strains clustered into Indian reference strains, indicating that the Shandong FAdV-4 strains might have originated in India. These findings provide the first data on the prevalence and co-infection status of FAdV-4 in Shandong province, which may serve as a foundation for the prevention of FAdV-4 in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: poultry; fowl adenovirus serotype 4; hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome; epidemiological investigation; immunosuppressive viruses poultry; fowl adenovirus serotype 4; hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome; epidemiological investigation; immunosuppressive viruses
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Yu, G.; Lin, Y.; Dou, Y.; Tang, Y.; Diao, Y. Prevalence of Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 and Co-Infection by Immunosuppressive Viruses in Fowl with Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome in Shandong Province, China. Viruses 2019, 11, 517.

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