Next Article in Journal
HIV-1 Transcription Inhibitor 1E7-03 Restores LPS-Induced Alteration of Lung Leukocytes’ Infiltration Dynamics and Resolves Inflammation in HIV Transgenic Mice
Next Article in Special Issue
Late-Relapsing Hepatitis after Yellow Fever
Previous Article in Journal
Reconstruction and Characterization of Full-Length Begomovirus and Alphasatellite Genomes Infecting Pepper through Metagenomics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Changes in the Transmission Dynamic of Chikungunya Virus in Southeastern Senegal
Open AccessArticle

High Genomic Variability in Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Obtained from Naturally Infected Horses in Pantanal, Brazil: An Endemic Region Case

1
Institute for Biotechnology, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Botucatu 18607-440, Brazil
2
Agrarian Sciences Institute (ICA), Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri Federal University (UFVJM), Unaí 39803-371, Brazil
3
Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua 67030-000, Brazil
4
Virology Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
5
Virology and Rickettsiosis Laboratory, Mato Grosso Federal University, Cuiabá 78060-900, Brazil
6
EMBRAPA Pantanal, Corumbá 79320-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020207
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 February 2020 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a persistent lentivirus that causes equine infectious anemia (EIA). In Brazil, EIAV is endemic in the Pantanal region, and euthanasia is not mandatory in this area. All of the complete genomic sequences from field viruses are from North America, Asia, and Europe, and only proviral genomic sequences are available. Sequences from Brazilian EIAV are currently available only for gag and LTR regions. Thus, the present study aimed for the first time to sequence the entire EIAV genomic RNA in naturally infected horses from an endemic area in Brazil. RNA in plasma from naturally infected horses was used for next-generation sequencing (NGS), and gaps were filled using Sanger sequencing methodology. Complete viral genomes of EIAV from two horses were obtained and annotated (Access Number: MN560970 and MN560971). Putative genes were analyzed and compared with previously described genes, showing conservation in gag and pol genes and high variations in LTR and env sequences. Amino acid changes were identified in the p26 protein, one of the most common targets used for diagnosis, and p26 molecular modelling showed surface amino acid alterations in some epitopes. Brazilian genome sequences presented 88.6% nucleotide identity with one another and 75.8 to 77.3% with main field strains, such as EIAV Liaoning, Wyoming, Ireland, and Italy isolates. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that this Brazilian strain comprises a separate monophyletic group. These results may help to better characterize EIAV and to overcome the challenges of diagnosing and controlling EIA in endemic regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: equine infectious anemia virus; molecular characterization; endemic region; RNA genome; equine equine infectious anemia virus; molecular characterization; endemic region; RNA genome; equine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Malossi, C.D.; Fioratti, E.G.; Cardoso, J.F.; Magro, A.J.; Kroon, E.G.; Aguiar, D.M.; Borges, A.M.C.M.; Nogueira, M.F.; Ullmann, L.S.; Araujo, J.P., Jr. High Genomic Variability in Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Obtained from Naturally Infected Horses in Pantanal, Brazil: An Endemic Region Case. Viruses 2020, 12, 207.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop