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Special Issue "Emerging Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Marceline Côté

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: viral entry; host-pathogen interactions; emerging viruses; filoviruses
Guest Editor
Dr. Zongdi Feng

The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hosptial/The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hepatitis viruses; virus entry and egress; immune evasion; vaccines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging viral diseases have been increasing at a high rate and media attention has fuelled both public interest and public concern over these diseases. While technological advances in diagnostics and improved surveillance have contributed to this rise in detection of emerging infections, their surge in prevalence is also due to a combination of factors such as expanded host range, alterations in the ecology of viral vectors and reservoirs, and changes in the dynamics of virus-host interactions. In addition, epidemiological and sociological factors, including increased global travel and the rapid rise in human population density have facilitated the transmission and spread of viral infections to global proportions. Recent emergence/re-emergence of Zika, Ebola, and highly-pathogenic influenza viruses are perfect examples of the hidden dangers to mankind and the need to deepen our knowledge about emerging viruses and develop methods to prevent and treat viral diseases. It is in this context that we cordially invite you to contribute with your most recent research findings/insights into this important topic.

The goal of this Special Issue of Viruses is to serve as a collection of the current knowledge and research on a diversity of human and animal emerging viral diseases. We welcome research papers or review articles on recent advances in the field of emerging viruses. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, research on steps of the infectious cycle, pathogenesis, therapeutic approaches, viral discovery, ecology and transmission of emerging viruses. We hope that this Special Issue highlights current insights into emerging viruses and serves as a springboard of ideas for future advances in our understanding of these pathogens and how to combat their increasing risk to public health.

Dr. Marceline Côté
Dr. Zongdi Feng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging viruses
  • outbreak
  • arenaviruses
  • filoviruses
  • flaviriruses
  • influenza
  • henipaviruses
  • bunyaviruses
  • hantaviruses
  • coronaviruses
  • zoonosis
  • vector transmission

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP Modulates Ebola Virus Uptake into Vascular Endothelial Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100563 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Members of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Given their high lethality, a comprehensive understanding of filoviral pathogenesis is urgently needed. In the present studies, we revealed that the
[...] Read more.
Members of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Given their high lethality, a comprehensive understanding of filoviral pathogenesis is urgently needed. In the present studies, we revealed that the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1) gene deletion protects vasculature in ex vivo explants from EBOV infection. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of EPAC1 using EPAC-specific inhibitors (ESIs) mimicked the EPAC1 knockout phenotype in the ex vivo model. ESI treatment dramatically decreased EBOV infectivity in both ex vivo vasculature and in vitro vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Furthermore, postexposure protection of ECs against EBOV infection was conferred using ESIs. Protective efficacy of ESIs in ECs was observed also in MARV infection. Additional studies using a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype that expresses EBOV glycoprotein (EGP-VSV) confirmed that ESIs reduced infection in ECs. Ultrastructural studies suggested that ESIs blocked EGP-VSV internalization via inhibition of macropinocytosis. The inactivation of EPAC1 affects the early stage of viral entry after viral binding to the cell surface, but before early endosome formation, in a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Our study delineated a new critical role of EPAC1 during EBOV uptake into ECs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle First Isolation and Characterization of a Group C Banna Virus (BAV) from Anopheles sinensis Mosquitoes in Hubei, China
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100555
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Banna virus (BAV) is considered to be an emerging human pathogen that is transmitted by blood-sucking insects. BAV was isolated from various species of mosquitoes, midges, and livestock. It is widely distributed geographically, since it was identified in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Previously
[...] Read more.
Banna virus (BAV) is considered to be an emerging human pathogen that is transmitted by blood-sucking insects. BAV was isolated from various species of mosquitoes, midges, and livestock. It is widely distributed geographically, since it was identified in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Previously reported evolution studies of BAV indicated that BAV can be divided into two groups, including isolates from China and Vietnam clustered in group A, and Indonesian isolates in group B. In this study, we report the isolation of a new strain of BAV named HB14-71-01 from Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from Hubei, China. An in vitro comparison study of the HB14-71-01 isolate and the group A BAV revealed differences based on observed cytopathic effect, plaque size, and viral growth rates. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Hubei isolate belongs to a novel genotype of BAV and emerged nearly 105 years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD): 35–434), unlike the two previously reported genotypes A and B. Our findings extend the knowledge about the genomic diversity and potential vectors/hosts of BAVs and will improve understanding of the relationships between genetic variation and pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Characterization and Pathogenicity of a Novel Recombined Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 among Nadc30-Like, Jxa1-Like, and Mlv-Like Strains
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100551
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions occurring in the genome, is considered to contribute to the emergence of new variants. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of a PRRSV field strain, designated
[...] Read more.
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions occurring in the genome, is considered to contribute to the emergence of new variants. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of a PRRSV field strain, designated SCN17, isolated from a RespPRRS MLV-vaccinated piglet in China in 2017. Sequence alignment revealed that SCN17 had discontinuous 131-amino acid (111 + 1 + 19-aa) deletion in the NSP2-coding region identical to that of NADC30 when compared to VR-2332. Notably, the strain, SCN17, contained an additional 1-aa deletion in NSP2, a 1-aa deletion in ORF5, and a unique 3-nt deletion in the 3′-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SCN17 clustered into NADC30-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas it belonged to an inter-lineage between the NADC30-like and VR-2332-like lineages as established based on the full-length genome. Importantly, the SCN17 was identified as a novel virus recombined between a NADC30-like (moderately pathogenic), a JXA1-like (highly pathogenic), and an attenuated vaccine strain, RespPRRS MLV (parental strain VR-2332). Furthermore, we tested its pathogenicity in piglets. SCN17 infection caused a persistent fever, moderate interstitial pneumonia, and increased the viremia and antibody levels in the inoculated piglets. Of note, all SCN17-infected piglets survived throughout the study. The new virus was showed to be a moderately virulent isolate and have lower pathogenicity than HP-PRRSV strain, SCwhn09CD. Our results provide evidence for the continuing evolution of PRRSV field strain by genetic recombination and mutation leading to outbreaks in the vaccinated pig populations in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Recombinant GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012 Was the Dominant Norovirus Identified in Australia and New Zealand in 2017
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100548
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
For the past two decades, norovirus pandemic variants have emerged every 3–5 years, and dominate until they are replaced by alternate strains. However, this scenario changed in 2016 with the co-circulation of six prevalent viruses, three of which possessed the pandemic GII.4 Sydney
[...] Read more.
For the past two decades, norovirus pandemic variants have emerged every 3–5 years, and dominate until they are replaced by alternate strains. However, this scenario changed in 2016 with the co-circulation of six prevalent viruses, three of which possessed the pandemic GII.4 Sydney 2012 capsid. An increased number of institutional gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported within the Oceania region in mid-2017. This study identified emerging noroviruses circulating in Australia and New Zealand in 2017 to assess the changing dynamics of the virus infection. RT-PCR-based methods, next generation sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were used to genotype noroviruses from both clinical and wastewater samples. Antigenic changes were observed between the capsid of pandemic Sydney 2012 variant and the two new Sydney recombinant viruses. The combination of these antigenic changes and the acquisition of a new ORF1 through recombination could both facilitate their ongoing persistence in the population. Overall, an increased prevalence of GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012 viruses was observed in 2017, replacing the GII.P16/GII.2 recombinant that dominated in the region at the end of 2016. This shift in strain dominance was also observed in wastewater samples, demonstrating the reliability of wastewater as a molecular surveillance tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Whole Genome Characterization of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) Abatino, a Zoonotic Virus Representing a Putative Novel Clade of Old World Orthopoxviruses
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100546
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from
[...] Read more.
Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from an infected Tonkean macaque, with zoonotic potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on 102 conserved OPV genes (core gene set) showed that OPV Abatino is most closely related to the Ectromelia virus species (ECTV), although placed on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree, bringing substantial support to the hypothesis that this strain may be part of a novel OPV clade. Extending the analysis to the entire set of genes (coding sequences, CDS) further substantiated this hypothesis. In fact the genome of OPV Abatino included more CDS than ECTV; most of the extra genes (mainly located in the terminal genome regions), showed the highest similarity with cowpox virus (CPXV); however vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV) were the closest OPV for certain CDS. These findings suggest that OPV Abatino could be the result of complex evolutionary events, diverging from any other previously described OPV, and may indicate that previously reported cases in Italy could represent the tip of the iceberg yet to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle The Characterization of Immunoprotection Induced by a cDNA Clone Derived from the Attenuated Taiwan Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Pintung 52 Strain
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100543
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a great threat to the global swine industries and the unreliable protection induced by the currently available vaccines remains a major challenge. We previously generated a genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDV Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain, PEDVPT-P96,
[...] Read more.
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a great threat to the global swine industries and the unreliable protection induced by the currently available vaccines remains a major challenge. We previously generated a genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDV Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain, PEDVPT-P96, and determined its promising host immune response against the virulent PEDVPT-P5 strain. To study the attenuation determinants of PEDVPT-P96 and establish a PEDVPT-P96-based recombinant vector as a vaccine platform for further antigenicity modification, iPEDVPT-P96, a full-length cDNA clone of PEDVPT-P96, was established. Comparing to the parental PEDVPT-P96 virus, the iPEDVPT-P96 virus showed efficient replication kinetics with a delayed decline of viral load and similar but much more uniform plaque sizes in Vero cells. In the 5-week-old piglet model, fecal viral shedding was observed in the PEDVPT-P96-inoculated piglets, whereas those inoculated with iPEDVPT-P96 showed neither detectable fecal viral shedding nor PEDV-associated clinical signs. Moreover, inoculation with iPEDVPT-P96 elicited comparable levels of anti-PEDV specific plasma IgG and fecal/salivary IgA, neutralizing antibody titers, and similar but less effective immunoprotection against the virulent PEDVPT-P5 challenge compared to the parental PEDVPT-P96. In the present study, an infectious cDNA clone of an attenuated G2b PEDV strain was successfully generated for the first time, and the in vitro and in vivo data indicate that iPEDVPT-P96 is further attenuated but remains immunogenic compared to its parental PEDVPT-P96 viral stock. The successful development of the iPEDVPT-P96 cDNA clone could allow for the manipulation of the viral genome to study viral pathogenesis and facilitate the rapid development of effective vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle The Natural Large Genomic Deletion Is Unrelated to the Increased Virulence of the Novel Genotype Fowl Adenovirus 4 Recently Emerged in China
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090494
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Since 2015, severe hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), caused by a highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), emerged in China. In our previous study, the FAdV-4 has been identified as a novel genotype with a unique 1966-bp nucleotide deletion (1966Del) between open reading frame 42
[...] Read more.
Since 2015, severe hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), caused by a highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), emerged in China. In our previous study, the FAdV-4 has been identified as a novel genotype with a unique 1966-bp nucleotide deletion (1966Del) between open reading frame 42 and 43. In this study, the natural 1966Del was frequently identified among 17 clinical isolates and other reported Chinese clinical strains. To investigate the relationship between 1966Del and the increased virulence of the novel FAdV-4, a CRISPR/Cas9 operating platform for FAdV-4 was developed for the first time in this study. Based on this platform, a Re1966 strain was rescued, inserted the relative 1966Del sequence of a nonpathogenic strain KR5. In the pathogenicity study, the Re1966 strain retained high virulence for specific-pathogen-free chickens, similar to the parental wild-type HLJFAd15, although the survival time of chickens infected with Re1966 was much longer. Therefore, the natural 1966Del was identified as a non-essential site for the increased virulence of the emerged novel FAdV-4. Although further research on the virulence-determining region or point within the genome of the novel FAdV-4 is needed, the CRISPR/Cas9 operating platform for the novel FAdV-4 was developed and successfully applied to edit the genomic DNA for the first time, and it provides a novel powerful tool for both basic virology studies and vaccine vector development of FAdVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Tembusu Virus in Ducks, Chickens, Geese, Sparrows, and Mosquitoes in Northern China
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090485
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we
[...] Read more.
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we isolated 11 TMUV strains from ducks, chickens, geese, sparrows, and mosquitoes (2011–2017). Phylogenetic analysis of the open-reading frames of genes revealed that these strains clustered into Chinese strains II. The nucleotide and amino acid homologies of NS1 of the strains ranged between 85.8–99.8% and 92.5–99.68%, respectively, which were lower than those of E (86.7–99.9% and 96.5–99.9%, respectively), NS3 (87.6–99.9% and 98.2–99.8%, respectively), and NS5 (86.5–99.9% and 97.8–99.9%, respectively). Predictions of the tertiary structure of the viral proteins indicated that NS1 in 4 of 11 strains had a protein structure mutation at 180TAV182 that changed a random crimp into an alpha helix. The protein of 6 of 11 strains had a glycosylation site mutation from NTTD to NITD. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggested that TMUV has been circulating in half of China’s provinces (17 of 34). Our findings, for the first time, have identified the NS1 protein as a potential hypervariable region for genetic evolution. Additionally, the territorial scope of the virus has expanded, requiring strict bio-security measures or a multivalent vaccine to control its spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Unknown Orthobunya-Like Viruses from India
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090451
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of agents causing idiopathic human diseases has been crucial in the identification of novel viruses. This study describes the isolation and characterization of two novel orthobunyaviruses obtained from a jungle myna and a paddy bird from Karnataka State, India. Using
[...] Read more.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of agents causing idiopathic human diseases has been crucial in the identification of novel viruses. This study describes the isolation and characterization of two novel orthobunyaviruses obtained from a jungle myna and a paddy bird from Karnataka State, India. Using an NGS approach, these isolates were classified as Cat Que and Balagodu viruses belonging to the Manzanilla clade of the Simbu serogroup. Closely related viruses in the Manzanilla clade have been isolated from mosquitos, humans, birds, and pigs across a wide geographic region. Since Orthobunyaviruses exhibit high reassortment frequency and can cause acute, self-limiting febrile illness, these data suggest that human and livestock infections of the Oya/Cat Que/Manzanilla virus may be more widespread and/or under-reported than anticipated. It therefore becomes imperative to identify novel and unknown viruses in order to understand their role in human and animal pathogenesis. The current study is a step forward in this regard and would act as a prototype method for isolation, identification and detection of several other emerging viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle New Adenovirus Groups in Western Palaearctic Bats
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080443
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
In the context of long-term screening for viruses on Western Palaearctic bats, we tested for the presence of adenovirus 1392 oropharyngeal swabs and 325 stool samples taken from 27 bat species. Adenoviruses were detected in 12 species of the Vespertilionidae and the Rhinolophidae
[...] Read more.
In the context of long-term screening for viruses on Western Palaearctic bats, we tested for the presence of adenovirus 1392 oropharyngeal swabs and 325 stool samples taken from 27 bat species. Adenoviruses were detected in 12 species of the Vespertilionidae and the Rhinolophidae families. Fifty positive respiratory and 26 positive stool samples were studied. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon protein and partial DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes indicate that all these bat adenoviruses belong to the genus Mastadenovirus but without constituting a monophyletic cluster. According to genetic identities, the new groups are distinct to the previously described Bat mastadenovirus A and B species and contribute with potentially new members. Our data support that diversity of bat mastadenovirus is host-dependent and increase the knowledge of potentially pathogenic virus from bats. Due to the active role of bats as viral reservoirs, the characterization of these viruses is relevant for Public Health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060328
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (41413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome
[...] Read more.
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1), indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa) deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like), lineage 1 (NADC30-like), and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like) strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle The First Isolation and Whole Genome Sequencing of Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus from Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient with Encephalitis
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060319
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus. Clinical presentation is rare but severe, with a case fatality rate of 15–30%. Here we report a case of MVEV from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient in the Northern Territory in Australia.
[...] Read more.
Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus. Clinical presentation is rare but severe, with a case fatality rate of 15–30%. Here we report a case of MVEV from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient in the Northern Territory in Australia. Initial diagnosis was performed using both MVEV-specific real-time, and Pan-Flavivirus conventional, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Subsequent isolation, the first from CSF, was conducted in Vero cells and the observed cytopathic effect was confirmed by increasing viral titre in the real-time PCR. Isolation allowed for full genome sequencing using the Scriptseq V2 RNASeq library preparation kit. A consensus genome for VIDRL-MVE was generated and phylogenetic analysis identified it as Genotype 2. This is the first reported isolation, and full genome sequencing of MVEV from CSF. It is also the first time Genotype 2 has been identified in humans. As such, this case has significant implications for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and the understanding of MVEV evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessCommunication A Novel Hepadnavirus Identified in an Immunocompromised Domestic Cat in Australia
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050269
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic
[...] Read more.
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae, tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized. Phylogenetic analysis placed the domestic cat hepadnavirus as a divergent member of mammalian orthohepadnaviruses that exhibits no close relationship to any other virus. DNA extracted from whole blood from pet cats was positive for the novel hepadnavirus by PCR in 6 of 60 (10%) FIV-infected cats and 2 of 63 (3.2%) FIV-uninfected cats. The higher prevalence of hepadnavirus viraemia detected in FIV-infected cats mirrors that seen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans coinfected with hepatitis B virus. In summary, we report the first hepadnavirus infection in a carnivore and the first in a companion animal. The natural history, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of domestic cat hepadnavirus merits additional investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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