Special Issue "Emerging Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Marceline Côté
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1H 8M5, ON, Canada
Interests: Filoviruses; RNA viruses; Emerging viruses; Viral entry
Dr. Zongdi Feng
Website
Guest Editor
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hosptial/The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Interests: hepatitis viruses; virus entry and egress; immune evasion; vaccines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging viral diseases have been increasing at a high rate and media attention has fuelled both public interest and public concern over these diseases. While technological advances in diagnostics and improved surveillance have contributed to this rise in detection of emerging infections, their surge in prevalence is also due to a combination of factors such as expanded host range, alterations in the ecology of viral vectors and reservoirs, and changes in the dynamics of virus-host interactions. In addition, epidemiological and sociological factors, including increased global travel and the rapid rise in human population density have facilitated the transmission and spread of viral infections to global proportions. Recent emergence/re-emergence of Zika, Ebola, and highly-pathogenic influenza viruses are perfect examples of the hidden dangers to mankind and the need to deepen our knowledge about emerging viruses and develop methods to prevent and treat viral diseases. It is in this context that we cordially invite you to contribute with your most recent research findings/insights into this important topic.

The goal of this Special Issue of Viruses is to serve as a collection of the current knowledge and research on a diversity of human and animal emerging viral diseases. We welcome research papers or review articles on recent advances in the field of emerging viruses. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, research on steps of the infectious cycle, pathogenesis, therapeutic approaches, viral discovery, ecology and transmission of emerging viruses. We hope that this Special Issue highlights current insights into emerging viruses and serves as a springboard of ideas for future advances in our understanding of these pathogens and how to combat their increasing risk to public health.

Dr. Marceline Côté
Dr. Zongdi Feng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • emerging viruses
  • outbreak
  • arenaviruses
  • filoviruses
  • flaviviruses
  • influenza
  • henipaviruses
  • bunyaviruses
  • hantaviruses
  • coronaviruses
  • zoonosis
  • vector transmission

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Open AccessCommunication
Mechanism of Action of Methotrexate Against Zika Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040338 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV), which is associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome, reemerged as a serious public health threat in Latin America in recent years. Previous high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns have revealed several potential hit molecules against ZIKV, including methotrexate (MTX), which [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV), which is associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome, reemerged as a serious public health threat in Latin America in recent years. Previous high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns have revealed several potential hit molecules against ZIKV, including methotrexate (MTX), which is clinically used as an anti-cancer chemotherapy and anti-rheumatoid agent. We studied the mechanism of action of MTX against ZIKV in relation to its inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in vitro using Vero and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). As expected, an antiviral effect for MTX against ZIKV was observed, showing up to 10-fold decrease in virus titer during MTX treatment. We also observed that addition of leucovorin (a downstream metabolite of DHFR pathway) rescued the ZIKV replication impaired by MTX treatment in ZIKV-infected cells, explaining the antiviral effect of MTX through inhibition of DHFR. We also found that addition of adenosine to ZIKV-infected cells was able to rescue ZIKV replication inhibited by MTX, suggesting that restriction of de novo synthesis adenosine triphosphate (ATP) pools suppresses viral replication. These results confirm that the DHFR pathway can be targeted to inhibit replication of ZIKV, similar to other published results showing this effect in related flaviviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Three Novel and Prevalent Mosquito Viruses from a Single Pool of Aedes vexans nipponii Collected in the Republic of Korea
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030222 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Arboviruses continue to be a significant global health concern. The unbiased metagenomic analyses of mosquito-borne and mosquito-specific viruses are useful to understand viral diversity and for the surveillance of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Metagenomic analysis was conducted on 6368 mosquitoes (736 [...] Read more.
Arboviruses continue to be a significant global health concern. The unbiased metagenomic analyses of mosquito-borne and mosquito-specific viruses are useful to understand viral diversity and for the surveillance of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Metagenomic analysis was conducted on 6368 mosquitoes (736 pools), covering 16 species from 18 locations throughout the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2016. In this report, we describe three viruses detected in a single pool of Aedes vexans nipponii collected at Yongsan U.S. Army Garrison, located in a densely populated district of Seoul, the ROK. The three novel viruses, designated as Yongsan bunyavirus 1 (YBV1), Yongsan picorna-like virus 3 (YPLV3) and Yongsan sobemo-like virus 1 (YSLV1), share sequence and structural characteristics with members belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, order Picornavirales, and family Solemoviridae, with shared RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) amino acid identities of 40%, 42% and 86%, respectively. The real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of 3493 Aedes vexans nipponii (257 pools) showed a high prevalence of YBV1 and YSLV1 viruses, which were present in 65% and 62% of tested pools, respectively. This study highlighted the utility of a metagenomic sequencing approach for arbovirus discovery and for a better understanding of the virome of potential medically relevant vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)-Based Vaccine Candidate for Human Norovirus
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030213 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are responsible for more than 95% of the non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis epidemics in the world. The CDC estimates that every year 21 million individuals suffer from HuNoV-induced gastroenteritis in the United States. Currently, there is no FDA-approved vaccine for HuNoVs. [...] Read more.
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are responsible for more than 95% of the non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis epidemics in the world. The CDC estimates that every year 21 million individuals suffer from HuNoV-induced gastroenteritis in the United States. Currently, there is no FDA-approved vaccine for HuNoVs. Development of an effective vaccine has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system for HuNoVs and a suitable small animal model for pathogenesis study. In this study, we developed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a vector to deliver HuNoV antigen. A LAB strain (Lactococcus lactis) carrying VP1 gene of a HuNoV GII.4 virus (LAB-VP1) was constructed. It was found that HuNoV VP1 protein was highly expressed by LAB vector and was secreted into media supernatants. To test whether LAB-based HuNoV vaccine candidate is immunogenic, 4-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were orally inoculated with various doses of LAB-VP1. It was found that LABs were persistent in the small intestine of piglets and shed in pig feces for at least 25 days post inoculation. LAB DNA and VP1 were detected in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen tissue in LAB-VP1 inoculated groups. HuNoV-specific IgG and IgA were detectable in serum and feces respectively at day 13 post-inoculation, and further increased at later time points. After being challenged with HuNoV GII.4 strain, a large amount of HuNoV antigens were observed in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum sections of the intestine in the LAB control group. In contrast, significantly less, or no, HuNoV antigens were detected in the LAB-VP1 immunized groups. Collectively, these results demonstrate that a LAB-based HuNoV vaccine induces protective immunity in gnotobiotic piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibitor, R-59-022, Blocks Filovirus Internalization in Host Cells
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030206 - 01 Mar 2019
Abstract
Filoviruses, such as Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus, are causative agents of unpredictable outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. For infection, filoviral particles need to be internalized and delivered to intracellular vesicles containing cathepsin proteases and the viral [...] Read more.
Filoviruses, such as Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus, are causative agents of unpredictable outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. For infection, filoviral particles need to be internalized and delivered to intracellular vesicles containing cathepsin proteases and the viral receptor Niemann-Pick C1. Previous studies have shown that EBOV triggers macropinocytosis of the viral particles in a glycoprotein (GP)-dependent manner, but the molecular events required for filovirus internalization remain mostly unknown. Here we report that the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R-59-022, blocks EBOV GP-mediated entry into Vero cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Investigation of the mode of action of the inhibitor revealed that it blocked an early step in entry, more specifically, the internalization of the viral particles via macropinocytosis. Finally, R-59-022 blocked viral entry mediated by a panel of pathogenic filovirus GPs and inhibited growth of replicative Ebola virus. Taken together, our studies suggest that R-59-022 could be used as a tool to investigate macropinocytic uptake of filoviruses and could be a starting point for the development of pan-filoviral therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Two Prevalent Genotypes of an Emerging Infectious Disease, Deformed Wing Virus, Cause Equally Low Pupal Mortality and Equally High Wing Deformities in Host Honey Bees
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020114 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is an emerging infectious disease of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) that is considered a major cause of elevated losses of honey bee colonies. DWV comprises two widespread genotypes: the originally described genotype A, and genotype B. [...] Read more.
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is an emerging infectious disease of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) that is considered a major cause of elevated losses of honey bee colonies. DWV comprises two widespread genotypes: the originally described genotype A, and genotype B. In adult honey bees, DWV-B has been shown to be more virulent than DWV-A. However, their comparative effects on earlier host developmental stages are unknown. Here, we experimentally inoculated honey bee pupae and tested for the relative impact of DWV-A versus DWV-B on mortality and wing deformities in eclosing adults. DWV-A and DWV-B caused similar, and only slightly elevated, pupal mortality (mean 18% greater mortality than control). Both genotypes caused similarly high wing deformities in eclosing adults (mean 60% greater wing deformities than control). Viral titer was high in all of the experimentally inoculated eclosing adults, and was independent of wing deformities, suggesting that the phenotype ‘deformed wings’ is not directly related to viral titer or viral genotype. These viral traits favor the emergence of both genotypes of DWV by not limiting the reproduction of its vector, the ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite, in infected pupae, and thereby facilitating the spread of DWV in honey bees infested by the mite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Requirement of Cellular Protein CCT7 for the Replication of Fowl Adenovirus Serotype 4 (FAdV-4) in Leghorn Male Hepatocellular Cells Via Interaction with the Viral Hexon Protein
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020107 - 27 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) causes hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), leading to severe economic losses in the poultry industry. Although the pathogenesis of FAdV-4 infection has caused much attention, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we identified chaperonin containing TCP-1 subunit eta [...] Read more.
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) causes hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), leading to severe economic losses in the poultry industry. Although the pathogenesis of FAdV-4 infection has caused much attention, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we identified chaperonin containing TCP-1 subunit eta (CCT7) as an interacting partner of the FAdV-4 capsid protein hexon. We found that ectopic expression of CCT7 in leghorn male hepatocellular (LMH) cells enhanced hexon expression in pRK5-flag-hexon transfected cells. On the contrary, knockdown of cellular CCT7 by RNAi markedly reduced hexon expression in FAdV-4-infected cells and suppressed viral replication. These data suggest that CCT7 is required for FAdV-4 replication and may serve as a potential target for controlling FAdV-4 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Orthopoxvirus Seroprevalence in Cats and Veterinary Personnel in North-Eastern Italy in 2011
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020101 - 25 Jan 2019
Abstract
Orthopoxviruses (OPV) are emerging zoonotic pathogens, and an increasing number of human infections is currently reported in Europe and in other continents, warranting heightened attention on this topic. Following two OPV infections reported in veterinarians scratched by sick cats in 2005 and 2007 [...] Read more.
Orthopoxviruses (OPV) are emerging zoonotic pathogens, and an increasing number of human infections is currently reported in Europe and in other continents, warranting heightened attention on this topic. Following two OPV infections reported in veterinarians scratched by sick cats in 2005 and 2007 in North-Eastern-Italy, involving a previously undescribed OPV, a similar strain was isolated by a sick cat from the same territory in 2011, i.e., 6 years later, raising attention on OPV circulation in this region. A surveillance program was launched to assess the OPV seroprevalence among the veterinarians working in local veterinary clinics and in the local wild and domestic cat population; seroprevalence was 33.3% in veterinarians and 19.5% in cats. Seroprevalence in cats was unevenly distributed, peaking at 40% in the area where OPV-infected cats had been observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Uncovering Flavivirus Host Dependency Factors through a Genome-Wide Gain-of-Function Screen
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010068 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Flaviviruses, such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, are mosquito-borne pathogens that present a major risk to global public health. To identify host factors that promote flavivirus replication, we performed a genome-wide gain-of-function cDNA screen for [...] Read more.
Flaviviruses, such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, are mosquito-borne pathogens that present a major risk to global public health. To identify host factors that promote flavivirus replication, we performed a genome-wide gain-of-function cDNA screen for human genes that enhance the replication of flavivirus reporter particles in human cells. The screen recovered seventeen potential host proteins that promote viral replication, including the previously known dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase non-catalytic subunit (DDOST). Using silencing approaches, we validated the role of four candidates in YFV and WNV replication: ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), DDOST and importin 9 (IPO9). Applying a panel of virological, biochemical and microscopic methods, we validated further the role of RPL19 and DDOST as host factors required for optimal replication of YFV, WNV and ZIKV. The genome-wide gain-of-function screen is thus a valid approach to advance our understanding of flavivirus replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessCommunication
An Optimized High-Throughput Neutralization Assay for Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Involving Detection of Secreted Porf2
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010064 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Current methods for evaluating the neutralizing activity of HEV-specific antibodies include immunofluorescence focus assays (IFAs) and real-time PCR, which are insensitive and operationally complicated. Here, we developed a high-throughput neutralization assay [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Current methods for evaluating the neutralizing activity of HEV-specific antibodies include immunofluorescence focus assays (IFAs) and real-time PCR, which are insensitive and operationally complicated. Here, we developed a high-throughput neutralization assay by measuring secreted pORF2 levels using an HEV antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit based on the highly replicating HEV genotype (gt) 3 strain Kernow. We evaluated the neutralizing activity of HEV-specific antibodies and the sera of vaccinated individuals (n = 15) by traditional IFA and the novel assay simultaneously. A linear regression analysis shows that there is a high degree of correlation between the two assays. Furthermore, the anti-HEV IgG levels exhibited moderate correlation with the neutralizing titers of the sera of vaccinated individuals, indicating that immunization with gt 1 can protect against gt 3 Kernow infection. We then determined specificity of the novel assay and the potential threshold of neutralizing capacity using anti-HEV IgG positive sera (n = 27) and anti-HEV IgG negative sera (n = 23). The neutralizing capacity of anti-HEV IgG positive sera was significantly stronger than that of anti-HEV IgG negative. In addition, ROC curve analysis shows that the potential threshold of neutralizing capacity of sera was 8.07, and the sensitivity and specificity of the novel assay was 88.6% and 100%, respectively. Our results suggest that the neutralization assay using the antigen ELISA kit could be a useful tool for HEV clinical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Cytokine Signature Associated with Disease Severity in Dengue
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010034 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Dengue is the most rapidly spreading viral disease transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitos. The pathogenesis of dengue is still unclear; although host immune responses and virus serotypes have been proposed to contribute to disease severity. In this study, we examined [...] Read more.
Dengue is the most rapidly spreading viral disease transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitos. The pathogenesis of dengue is still unclear; although host immune responses and virus serotypes have been proposed to contribute to disease severity. In this study, we examined the circulating dengue virus (DENV) and measured plasma levels of inflammatory mediators. Ninety-eight patients during a dengue outbreak in eastern India in 2016 were included in the study. The presence of DENV was demonstrated by detecting NS1 antigen; IgM capture ELISA and serotypes were discriminated by type-specific RT-PCR and/or sequencing. Plasma samples were assayed for 41-plex cytokine/chemokines using multiplex Luminex assay. Eighty-five (87%) samples were positive by NS1/IgM capture ELISA/RT-PCR. All four serotypes of DENV were detected in this outbreak, with DENV-2 as the predominant type, seen in 55% of cases. Mixed infections were seen in 39% of subjects. Among the host inflammatory biomarkers, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, IL-6, MIP-1β, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased in dengue with and without warning signs, in severe dengue patients in comparison to healthy controls. Four cytokines IFN-γ, GM-CSF, IL-10, and MIP-1β correlated significantly with disease severity and could serve as potential predictor for disease severity. Information on the host biomarkers and the dengue serotype may help guide in optimizing effective intervention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Existing Dengue Immunity Drives a DENV-Biased Plasmablast Response in ZIKV-Infected Patient
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010019 - 29 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the western hemisphere has most significantly affected dengue virus (DENV) endemic regions. Due to the geographical overlap between these two closely related flaviviruses, numerous individuals who suffered ZIKV infection during recent outbreaks may have also previously [...] Read more.
The re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the western hemisphere has most significantly affected dengue virus (DENV) endemic regions. Due to the geographical overlap between these two closely related flaviviruses, numerous individuals who suffered ZIKV infection during recent outbreaks may have also previously been exposed to DENV. As such, the impact of pre-existing dengue immunity on immune responses to ZIKV has been an area of focused research and interest. To understand how B cell responses to a ZIKV infection may be modulated by prior dengue exposures, we compared and contrasted plasmablast repertoire and specificity between two ZIKV-infected individuals, one dengue-naïve (ZK018) and the other dengue-experienced (ZK016). In addition to examining serological responses, we generated 59 patient plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to define the heterogeneity of the early B cell response to ZIKV. Both donors experienced robust ZIKV-induced plasmablast expansions early after infection, with comparable mutational frequencies in their antibody variable genes. However, notable differences were observed in plasmablast clonality and functional reactivity. Plasmablasts from the dengue-experienced donor ZK016 included cells with shared clonal origin, while ZK018 mAbs were entirely clonally unrelated. Both at the mAb and plasma level, ZK016 antibodies displayed extensive cross-reactivity to DENV1-4, and preferentially neutralized DENV compared to ZIKV. In contrast, the neutralization activity of ZK018 mAbs was primarily directed towards ZIKV, and fewer mAbs from this donor were cross-reactive, with the cross-reactive phenotype largely limited to fusion loop-specific mAbs. ZK016 antibodies caused greater enhancement of DENV2 infection of FcRγ-expressing cells overall compared to ZK018, with a striking difference at the plasma level. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the breadth and protective capacity of the initial antibody responses after ZIKV infection may depend on the dengue immune status of the individual. These findings have implications for vaccine design, given the likelihood that future epidemics will involve both dengue-experienced and naïve populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of Surfactant Protein D in Ebola Virus Infection Enhancement via Glycoprotein Interaction
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010015 - 26 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Since the largest 2014–2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, understanding of Ebola virus infection has improved, notably the involvement of innate immune mediators. Amongst them, collectins are important players in the antiviral innate immune defense. A screening of Ebola glycoprotein (GP)-collectins [...] Read more.
Since the largest 2014–2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, understanding of Ebola virus infection has improved, notably the involvement of innate immune mediators. Amongst them, collectins are important players in the antiviral innate immune defense. A screening of Ebola glycoprotein (GP)-collectins interactions revealed the specific interaction of human surfactant protein D (hSP-D), a lectin expressed in lung and liver, two compartments where Ebola was found in vivo. Further analyses have demonstrated an involvement of hSP-D in the enhancement of virus infection in several in vitro models. Similar effects were observed for porcine SP-D (pSP-D). In addition, both hSP-D and pSP-D interacted with Reston virus (RESTV) GP and enhanced pseudoviral infection in pulmonary cells. Thus, our study reveals a novel partner of Ebola GP that may participate to enhance viral spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Amino-Terminal Region of Hepatitis E Virus ORF1 Containing a Methyltransferase (Met) and a Papain-Like Cysteine Protease (PCP) Domain Counteracts Type I Interferon Response
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120726 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for large waterborne epidemics of hepatitis in endemic countries and is an emerging zoonotic pathogen worldwide. In endemic regions, HEV-1 or HEV-2 genotypes are frequently associated with fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, while with zoonotic HEV (HEV-3 [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for large waterborne epidemics of hepatitis in endemic countries and is an emerging zoonotic pathogen worldwide. In endemic regions, HEV-1 or HEV-2 genotypes are frequently associated with fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, while with zoonotic HEV (HEV-3 and HEV-4), chronic cases of hepatitis and severe neurological disorders are reported. Hence, it is important to characterize the interactions between HEV and its host. Here, we investigated the ability of the nonstructural polyprotein encoded by the first open reading frame (ORF1) of HEV to modulate the host early antiviral response and, in particular, the type I interferon (IFN-I) system. We found that the amino-terminal region of HEV-3 ORF1 (MetYPCP), containing a putative methyltransferase (Met) and a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) functional domain, inhibited IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activation and the expression of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in response to IFN-I. We showed that the MetYPCP domain interfered with the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of the transcription protein (STAT) signalling pathway by inhibiting STAT1 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation after IFN-I treatment. In contrast, MetYPCP had no effect on STAT2 phosphorylation and a limited impact on the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway after IFN-II stimulation. This inhibitory function seemed to be genotype-dependent, as MetYPCP from HEV-1 had no significant effect on the JAK/STAT pathway. Overall, this study provides evidence that the predicted MetYPCP domain of HEV ORF1 antagonises STAT1 activation to modulate the IFN response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Parechovirus A Detection by a Comprehensive Approach in a Clinical Laboratory
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120711 - 12 Dec 2018
Abstract
Parechovirus A (Human parechovirus, HPeV) causes symptoms ranging from severe neonatal infection to mild gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. Use of molecular approaches with RT-PCR and genotyping has improved the detection rate of HPeV. Conventional methods, such as viral culture and immunofluorescence assay, together [...] Read more.
Parechovirus A (Human parechovirus, HPeV) causes symptoms ranging from severe neonatal infection to mild gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. Use of molecular approaches with RT-PCR and genotyping has improved the detection rate of HPeV. Conventional methods, such as viral culture and immunofluorescence assay, together with molecular methods facilitate comprehensive viral diagnosis. To establish the HPeV immunofluorescence assay, an antibody against HPeV capsid protein VP0 was generated by using antigenic epitope prediction data. The specificity of the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody was demonstrated on immunofluorescence assay, showing that this antibody was specific for HPeV but not enteroviruses. A total of 74 HPeV isolates, 7 non–polio-enteroviruses and 12 HPeV negative cell culture supernatant were used for evaluating the efficiency of the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody. The sensitivity of HPeV detection by the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody was consistent with 5′untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR analysis. This study established comprehensive methods for HPeV detection that include viral culture and observation of cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence assay, RT-PCR and genotyping. The methods were incorporated into our routine clinical practice for viral diagnosis. In conclusion, this study established a protocol for enterovirus and HPeV virus identification that combines conventional and molecular methods and would be beneficial for HPeV diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Subunit Vaccine Based on E2 Protein of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus Induces Th2-type Immune Response in Mice
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120673 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
An atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causing congenital tremor type A-II in piglets was identified in China in 2016. An increased number of cases of APPV have been reported in various countries all over the world since 2015. This study aimed to develop an [...] Read more.
An atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causing congenital tremor type A-II in piglets was identified in China in 2016. An increased number of cases of APPV have been reported in various countries all over the world since 2015. This study aimed to develop an effective subunit vaccine against APPV based on the E2 protein, which is the main immunogenicity protein of APPV. In this study, E2 protein was successfully expressed by the baculovirus expression system. E2 protein was confirmed by Western blot assay, which showed that E2 protein possesses N-linked glycosylation sites. The immunogenicity of E2 subunit vaccine was evaluated in mice. The E2 protein emulsified with ISA 201VG adjuvant induced significantly higher levels of APPV-specific antibodies and elicited stronger lymphocyte proliferative responses and higher interleukin-10 secretion than those of the E2 protein emulsified with IMS 1313VG adjuvant. This observation indicates that the E2 subunit vaccine induces a Th2-type immune response. Our results showed that E2 protein can be developed as a safe and effective subunit vaccine for the control of APPV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Recombinant Lassa Virus Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein as a Tool for High-Throughput Drug Screens and Neutralizing Antibody Assays
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110655 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Lassa virus (LASV), a mammarenavirus, infects an estimated 100,000–300,000 individuals yearly in western Africa and frequently causes lethal disease. Currently, no LASV-specific antivirals or vaccines are commercially available for prevention or treatment of Lassa fever, the disease caused by LASV. The development of [...] Read more.
Lassa virus (LASV), a mammarenavirus, infects an estimated 100,000–300,000 individuals yearly in western Africa and frequently causes lethal disease. Currently, no LASV-specific antivirals or vaccines are commercially available for prevention or treatment of Lassa fever, the disease caused by LASV. The development of medical countermeasure screening platforms is a crucial step to yield licensable products. Using reverse genetics, we generated a recombinant wild-type LASV (rLASV-WT) and a modified version thereof encoding a cleavable green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter for rapid and quantitative detection of infection (rLASV-GFP). Both rLASV-WT and wild-type LASV exhibited similar growth kinetics in cultured cells, whereas growth of rLASV-GFP was slightly impaired. GFP reporter expression by rLASV-GFP remained stable over several serial passages in Vero cells. Using two well-characterized broad-spectrum antivirals known to inhibit LASV infection, favipiravir and ribavirin, we demonstrate that rLASV-GFP is a suitable screening tool for the identification of LASV infection inhibitors. Building on these findings, we established a rLASV-GFP-based high-throughput drug discovery screen and an rLASV-GFP-based antibody neutralization assay. Both platforms, now available as a standard tool at the IRF-Frederick (an international resource), will accelerate anti-LASV medical countermeasure discovery and reduce costs of antiviral screens in maximum containment laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP Modulates Ebola Virus Uptake into Vascular Endothelial Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100563 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Members of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Given their high lethality, a comprehensive understanding of filoviral pathogenesis is urgently needed. In the present studies, we revealed that the [...] Read more.
Members of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Given their high lethality, a comprehensive understanding of filoviral pathogenesis is urgently needed. In the present studies, we revealed that the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1) gene deletion protects vasculature in ex vivo explants from EBOV infection. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of EPAC1 using EPAC-specific inhibitors (ESIs) mimicked the EPAC1 knockout phenotype in the ex vivo model. ESI treatment dramatically decreased EBOV infectivity in both ex vivo vasculature and in vitro vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Furthermore, postexposure protection of ECs against EBOV infection was conferred using ESIs. Protective efficacy of ESIs in ECs was observed also in MARV infection. Additional studies using a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype that expresses EBOV glycoprotein (EGP-VSV) confirmed that ESIs reduced infection in ECs. Ultrastructural studies suggested that ESIs blocked EGP-VSV internalization via inhibition of macropinocytosis. The inactivation of EPAC1 affects the early stage of viral entry after viral binding to the cell surface, but before early endosome formation, in a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Our study delineated a new critical role of EPAC1 during EBOV uptake into ECs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
First Isolation and Characterization of a Group C Banna Virus (BAV) from Anopheles sinensis Mosquitoes in Hubei, China
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100555 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Banna virus (BAV) is considered to be an emerging human pathogen that is transmitted by blood-sucking insects. BAV was isolated from various species of mosquitoes, midges, and livestock. It is widely distributed geographically, since it was identified in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Previously [...] Read more.
Banna virus (BAV) is considered to be an emerging human pathogen that is transmitted by blood-sucking insects. BAV was isolated from various species of mosquitoes, midges, and livestock. It is widely distributed geographically, since it was identified in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Previously reported evolution studies of BAV indicated that BAV can be divided into two groups, including isolates from China and Vietnam clustered in group A, and Indonesian isolates in group B. In this study, we report the isolation of a new strain of BAV named HB14-71-01 from Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from Hubei, China. An in vitro comparison study of the HB14-71-01 isolate and the group A BAV revealed differences based on observed cytopathic effect, plaque size, and viral growth rates. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Hubei isolate belongs to a novel genotype of BAV and emerged nearly 105 years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD): 35–434), unlike the two previously reported genotypes A and B. Our findings extend the knowledge about the genomic diversity and potential vectors/hosts of BAVs and will improve understanding of the relationships between genetic variation and pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Characterization and Pathogenicity of a Novel Recombined Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 among Nadc30-Like, Jxa1-Like, and Mlv-Like Strains
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100551 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions occurring in the genome, is considered to contribute to the emergence of new variants. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of a PRRSV field strain, designated [...] Read more.
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions occurring in the genome, is considered to contribute to the emergence of new variants. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of a PRRSV field strain, designated SCN17, isolated from a RespPRRS MLV-vaccinated piglet in China in 2017. Sequence alignment revealed that SCN17 had discontinuous 131-amino acid (111 + 1 + 19-aa) deletion in the NSP2-coding region identical to that of NADC30 when compared to VR-2332. Notably, the strain, SCN17, contained an additional 1-aa deletion in NSP2, a 1-aa deletion in ORF5, and a unique 3-nt deletion in the 3′-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SCN17 clustered into NADC30-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas it belonged to an inter-lineage between the NADC30-like and VR-2332-like lineages as established based on the full-length genome. Importantly, the SCN17 was identified as a novel virus recombined between a NADC30-like (moderately pathogenic), a JXA1-like (highly pathogenic), and an attenuated vaccine strain, RespPRRS MLV (parental strain VR-2332). Furthermore, we tested its pathogenicity in piglets. SCN17 infection caused a persistent fever, moderate interstitial pneumonia, and increased the viremia and antibody levels in the inoculated piglets. Of note, all SCN17-infected piglets survived throughout the study. The new virus was showed to be a moderately virulent isolate and have lower pathogenicity than HP-PRRSV strain, SCwhn09CD. Our results provide evidence for the continuing evolution of PRRSV field strain by genetic recombination and mutation leading to outbreaks in the vaccinated pig populations in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Recombinant GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012 Was the Dominant Norovirus Identified in Australia and New Zealand in 2017
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100548 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
For the past two decades, norovirus pandemic variants have emerged every 3–5 years, and dominate until they are replaced by alternate strains. However, this scenario changed in 2016 with the co-circulation of six prevalent viruses, three of which possessed the pandemic GII.4 Sydney [...] Read more.
For the past two decades, norovirus pandemic variants have emerged every 3–5 years, and dominate until they are replaced by alternate strains. However, this scenario changed in 2016 with the co-circulation of six prevalent viruses, three of which possessed the pandemic GII.4 Sydney 2012 capsid. An increased number of institutional gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported within the Oceania region in mid-2017. This study identified emerging noroviruses circulating in Australia and New Zealand in 2017 to assess the changing dynamics of the virus infection. RT-PCR-based methods, next generation sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were used to genotype noroviruses from both clinical and wastewater samples. Antigenic changes were observed between the capsid of pandemic Sydney 2012 variant and the two new Sydney recombinant viruses. The combination of these antigenic changes and the acquisition of a new ORF1 through recombination could both facilitate their ongoing persistence in the population. Overall, an increased prevalence of GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012 viruses was observed in 2017, replacing the GII.P16/GII.2 recombinant that dominated in the region at the end of 2016. This shift in strain dominance was also observed in wastewater samples, demonstrating the reliability of wastewater as a molecular surveillance tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Whole Genome Characterization of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) Abatino, a Zoonotic Virus Representing a Putative Novel Clade of Old World Orthopoxviruses
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100546 - 06 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from [...] Read more.
Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from an infected Tonkean macaque, with zoonotic potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on 102 conserved OPV genes (core gene set) showed that OPV Abatino is most closely related to the Ectromelia virus species (ECTV), although placed on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree, bringing substantial support to the hypothesis that this strain may be part of a novel OPV clade. Extending the analysis to the entire set of genes (coding sequences, CDS) further substantiated this hypothesis. In fact the genome of OPV Abatino included more CDS than ECTV; most of the extra genes (mainly located in the terminal genome regions), showed the highest similarity with cowpox virus (CPXV); however vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV) were the closest OPV for certain CDS. These findings suggest that OPV Abatino could be the result of complex evolutionary events, diverging from any other previously described OPV, and may indicate that previously reported cases in Italy could represent the tip of the iceberg yet to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Characterization of Immunoprotection Induced by a cDNA Clone Derived from the Attenuated Taiwan Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Pintung 52 Strain
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100543 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a great threat to the global swine industries and the unreliable protection induced by the currently available vaccines remains a major challenge. We previously generated a genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDV Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain, PEDVPT-P96, [...] Read more.
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a great threat to the global swine industries and the unreliable protection induced by the currently available vaccines remains a major challenge. We previously generated a genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDV Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain, PEDVPT-P96, and determined its promising host immune response against the virulent PEDVPT-P5 strain. To study the attenuation determinants of PEDVPT-P96 and establish a PEDVPT-P96-based recombinant vector as a vaccine platform for further antigenicity modification, iPEDVPT-P96, a full-length cDNA clone of PEDVPT-P96, was established. Comparing to the parental PEDVPT-P96 virus, the iPEDVPT-P96 virus showed efficient replication kinetics with a delayed decline of viral load and similar but much more uniform plaque sizes in Vero cells. In the 5-week-old piglet model, fecal viral shedding was observed in the PEDVPT-P96-inoculated piglets, whereas those inoculated with iPEDVPT-P96 showed neither detectable fecal viral shedding nor PEDV-associated clinical signs. Moreover, inoculation with iPEDVPT-P96 elicited comparable levels of anti-PEDV specific plasma IgG and fecal/salivary IgA, neutralizing antibody titers, and similar but less effective immunoprotection against the virulent PEDVPT-P5 challenge compared to the parental PEDVPT-P96. In the present study, an infectious cDNA clone of an attenuated G2b PEDV strain was successfully generated for the first time, and the in vitro and in vivo data indicate that iPEDVPT-P96 is further attenuated but remains immunogenic compared to its parental PEDVPT-P96 viral stock. The successful development of the iPEDVPT-P96 cDNA clone could allow for the manipulation of the viral genome to study viral pathogenesis and facilitate the rapid development of effective vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Natural Large Genomic Deletion Is Unrelated to the Increased Virulence of the Novel Genotype Fowl Adenovirus 4 Recently Emerged in China
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090494 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Since 2015, severe hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), caused by a highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), emerged in China. In our previous study, the FAdV-4 has been identified as a novel genotype with a unique 1966-bp nucleotide deletion (1966Del) between open reading frame 42 [...] Read more.
Since 2015, severe hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), caused by a highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), emerged in China. In our previous study, the FAdV-4 has been identified as a novel genotype with a unique 1966-bp nucleotide deletion (1966Del) between open reading frame 42 and 43. In this study, the natural 1966Del was frequently identified among 17 clinical isolates and other reported Chinese clinical strains. To investigate the relationship between 1966Del and the increased virulence of the novel FAdV-4, a CRISPR/Cas9 operating platform for FAdV-4 was developed for the first time in this study. Based on this platform, a Re1966 strain was rescued, inserted the relative 1966Del sequence of a nonpathogenic strain KR5. In the pathogenicity study, the Re1966 strain retained high virulence for specific-pathogen-free chickens, similar to the parental wild-type HLJFAd15, although the survival time of chickens infected with Re1966 was much longer. Therefore, the natural 1966Del was identified as a non-essential site for the increased virulence of the emerged novel FAdV-4. Although further research on the virulence-determining region or point within the genome of the novel FAdV-4 is needed, the CRISPR/Cas9 operating platform for the novel FAdV-4 was developed and successfully applied to edit the genomic DNA for the first time, and it provides a novel powerful tool for both basic virology studies and vaccine vector development of FAdVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Tembusu Virus in Ducks, Chickens, Geese, Sparrows, and Mosquitoes in Northern China
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090485 - 10 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we [...] Read more.
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we isolated 11 TMUV strains from ducks, chickens, geese, sparrows, and mosquitoes (2011–2017). Phylogenetic analysis of the open-reading frames of genes revealed that these strains clustered into Chinese strains II. The nucleotide and amino acid homologies of NS1 of the strains ranged between 85.8–99.8% and 92.5–99.68%, respectively, which were lower than those of E (86.7–99.9% and 96.5–99.9%, respectively), NS3 (87.6–99.9% and 98.2–99.8%, respectively), and NS5 (86.5–99.9% and 97.8–99.9%, respectively). Predictions of the tertiary structure of the viral proteins indicated that NS1 in 4 of 11 strains had a protein structure mutation at 180TAV182 that changed a random crimp into an alpha helix. The protein of 6 of 11 strains had a glycosylation site mutation from NTTD to NITD. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggested that TMUV has been circulating in half of China’s provinces (17 of 34). Our findings, for the first time, have identified the NS1 protein as a potential hypervariable region for genetic evolution. Additionally, the territorial scope of the virus has expanded, requiring strict bio-security measures or a multivalent vaccine to control its spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Unknown Orthobunya-Like Viruses from India
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090451 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of agents causing idiopathic human diseases has been crucial in the identification of novel viruses. This study describes the isolation and characterization of two novel orthobunyaviruses obtained from a jungle myna and a paddy bird from Karnataka State, India. Using [...] Read more.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of agents causing idiopathic human diseases has been crucial in the identification of novel viruses. This study describes the isolation and characterization of two novel orthobunyaviruses obtained from a jungle myna and a paddy bird from Karnataka State, India. Using an NGS approach, these isolates were classified as Cat Que and Balagodu viruses belonging to the Manzanilla clade of the Simbu serogroup. Closely related viruses in the Manzanilla clade have been isolated from mosquitos, humans, birds, and pigs across a wide geographic region. Since Orthobunyaviruses exhibit high reassortment frequency and can cause acute, self-limiting febrile illness, these data suggest that human and livestock infections of the Oya/Cat Que/Manzanilla virus may be more widespread and/or under-reported than anticipated. It therefore becomes imperative to identify novel and unknown viruses in order to understand their role in human and animal pathogenesis. The current study is a step forward in this regard and would act as a prototype method for isolation, identification and detection of several other emerging viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
New Adenovirus Groups in Western Palaearctic Bats
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080443 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
In the context of long-term screening for viruses on Western Palaearctic bats, we tested for the presence of adenovirus 1392 oropharyngeal swabs and 325 stool samples taken from 27 bat species. Adenoviruses were detected in 12 species of the Vespertilionidae and the Rhinolophidae [...] Read more.
In the context of long-term screening for viruses on Western Palaearctic bats, we tested for the presence of adenovirus 1392 oropharyngeal swabs and 325 stool samples taken from 27 bat species. Adenoviruses were detected in 12 species of the Vespertilionidae and the Rhinolophidae families. Fifty positive respiratory and 26 positive stool samples were studied. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon protein and partial DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes indicate that all these bat adenoviruses belong to the genus Mastadenovirus but without constituting a monophyletic cluster. According to genetic identities, the new groups are distinct to the previously described Bat mastadenovirus A and B species and contribute with potentially new members. Our data support that diversity of bat mastadenovirus is host-dependent and increase the knowledge of potentially pathogenic virus from bats. Due to the active role of bats as viral reservoirs, the characterization of these viruses is relevant for Public Health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060328 - 15 Jun 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome [...] Read more.
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1), indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa) deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like), lineage 1 (NADC30-like), and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like) strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The First Isolation and Whole Genome Sequencing of Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus from Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient with Encephalitis
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060319 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus. Clinical presentation is rare but severe, with a case fatality rate of 15–30%. Here we report a case of MVEV from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient in the Northern Territory in Australia. [...] Read more.
Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus. Clinical presentation is rare but severe, with a case fatality rate of 15–30%. Here we report a case of MVEV from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient in the Northern Territory in Australia. Initial diagnosis was performed using both MVEV-specific real-time, and Pan-Flavivirus conventional, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Subsequent isolation, the first from CSF, was conducted in Vero cells and the observed cytopathic effect was confirmed by increasing viral titre in the real-time PCR. Isolation allowed for full genome sequencing using the Scriptseq V2 RNASeq library preparation kit. A consensus genome for VIDRL-MVE was generated and phylogenetic analysis identified it as Genotype 2. This is the first reported isolation, and full genome sequencing of MVEV from CSF. It is also the first time Genotype 2 has been identified in humans. As such, this case has significant implications for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and the understanding of MVEV evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessCommunication
A Novel Hepadnavirus Identified in an Immunocompromised Domestic Cat in Australia
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050269 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic [...] Read more.
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae, tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized. Phylogenetic analysis placed the domestic cat hepadnavirus as a divergent member of mammalian orthohepadnaviruses that exhibits no close relationship to any other virus. DNA extracted from whole blood from pet cats was positive for the novel hepadnavirus by PCR in 6 of 60 (10%) FIV-infected cats and 2 of 63 (3.2%) FIV-uninfected cats. The higher prevalence of hepadnavirus viraemia detected in FIV-infected cats mirrors that seen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans coinfected with hepatitis B virus. In summary, we report the first hepadnavirus infection in a carnivore and the first in a companion animal. The natural history, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of domestic cat hepadnavirus merits additional investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
The Ecology of New Constituents of the Tick Virome and Their Relevance to Public Health
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060529 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Ticks are vectors of several pathogens that can be transmitted to humans and their geographic ranges are expanding. The exposure of ticks to new hosts in a rapidly changing environment is likely to further increase the prevalence and diversity of tick-borne diseases. Although [...] Read more.
Ticks are vectors of several pathogens that can be transmitted to humans and their geographic ranges are expanding. The exposure of ticks to new hosts in a rapidly changing environment is likely to further increase the prevalence and diversity of tick-borne diseases. Although ticks are known to transmit bacteria and viruses, most studies of tick-borne disease have focused upon Lyme disease, which is caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Until recently, ticks were considered as the vectors of a few viruses that can infect humans and animals, such as Powassan, Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses. Interestingly, however, several new studies undertaken to reveal the etiology of unknown human febrile illnesses, or to describe the virome of ticks collected in different countries, have uncovered a plethora of novel viruses in ticks. Here, we compared the virome compositions of ticks from different countries and our analysis indicates that the global tick virome is dominated by RNA viruses. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of tick viruses from these different countries reveals distinct geographical clustering of the new tick viruses. Some of these new tick RNA viruses (notably severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus) were found to be associated with serious human diseases. Their relevance to public health remains unknown. It is plausible that most of these newly identified tick viruses are of endogenous origin or are restricted in their transmission potential, but the efforts to identify new tick viruses should continue. Indeed, future research aimed at defining the origin, the ecology and the spillover potential of this novel viral biodiversity will be critical to understand the relevance to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Host and Viral Proteins Modulating Ebola and Marburg Virus Egress
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010025 - 03 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The filoviruses Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus are among the deadliest viral pathogens known to infect humans, causing emerging diseases with fatality rates of up to 90% during some outbreaks. The replication cycles of these viruses are comprised of numerous complex molecular processes and interactions [...] Read more.
The filoviruses Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus are among the deadliest viral pathogens known to infect humans, causing emerging diseases with fatality rates of up to 90% during some outbreaks. The replication cycles of these viruses are comprised of numerous complex molecular processes and interactions with their human host, with one key feature being the means by which nascent virions exit host cells to spread to new cells and ultimately to a new host. This review focuses on our current knowledge of filovirus egress and the viral and host factors and processes that are involved. Within the virus, these factors consist of the major matrix protein, viral protein 40 (VP40), which is necessary and sufficient for viral particle release, and nucleocapsid and glycoprotein that interact with VP40 to promote egress. In the host cell, some proteins are hijacked by filoviruses in order to enhance virion budding capacity that include members of the family of E3 ubiquitin ligase and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, while others such as tetherin inhibit viral egress. An understanding of these molecular interactions that modulate viral particle egress provides an important opportunity to identify new targets for the development of antivirals to prevent and treat filovirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
The Main Risk Factors of Nipah Disease and Its Risk Analysis in China
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100572 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nipah disease is a highly fatal zoonosis which is caused by the Nipah virus. The Nipah virus is a BSL-4 virus with fruit bats being its natural host. It is mainly prevalent in Southeast Asia. The virus was first discovered in 1997 in [...] Read more.
Nipah disease is a highly fatal zoonosis which is caused by the Nipah virus. The Nipah virus is a BSL-4 virus with fruit bats being its natural host. It is mainly prevalent in Southeast Asia. The virus was first discovered in 1997 in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Currently, it is mainly harmful to pigs and humans with a high mortality rate. This study describes the route of transmission of the Nipah virus in different countries and analyzes the possibility of the primary disease being in China and the method of its transmission to China. The risk factors are analyzed for different susceptible populations to Nipah disease. The aim is to improve people’s risk awareness and prevention and control of the disease and reduce its risk of occurring and spreading in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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