Emerging Viruses 2020: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2020) | Viewed by 128246

Special Issue Editors


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Virology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600, Prédio UFRGS nº 21116 - Sala 523, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Interests: bovine herpesvirus; bubaline herpesvirus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Vaccine Development Center, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
Interests: viral vaccines; viral diagnostics; nanomaterials applied to viral biotechnologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging viruses represent a major concern for public health. Climate change, the international migration of people and products, deforestation, and other anthropogenic activities (and their consequences) seem to be closely related to the emergence of new viruses, triggering an increasing number of notified outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics.

In this Special Issue, we encourage colleagues to submit manuscripts related to the surveillance, detection, and evolution of emerging viruses—from local outbreaks to worldwide viral pandemics. We also welcome manuscripts describing new methods and the adaption or creation of technologies for the study, prevention, and control of emerging viruses. The goal of this Special Issue of Viruses is to serve as a collection of the current knowledge on a broad range of emerging human, animal, and plant viral diseases. Both original manuscripts and reviews are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Luciana Barros de Arruda
Dr. Fabrício S. Campos
Dr. Flavio Guimaraes da Fonseca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging virus
  • prevention
  • evolution
  • control
  • diagnosis
  • surveillance

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Published Papers (24 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 224 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Emerging Viruses 2020: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control”
by Fabrício Souza Campos, Luciana Barros de Arruda and Flávio Guimaraes da Fonseca
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020251 - 6 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
This Special Issue of Viruses is a collection of the current knowledge on a broad range of emerging human, animal, and plant viral diseases [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

15 pages, 2830 KiB  
Article
Inactivation of Human Coronavirus by Titania Nanoparticle Coatings and UVC Radiation: Throwing Light on SARS-CoV-2
by Svetlana Khaiboullina, Timsy Uppal, Nikhil Dhabarde, Vaidyanathan Ravi Subramanian and Subhash C. Verma
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010019 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 80 | Viewed by 8808
Abstract
The newly identified pathogenic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, led to an atypical pneumonia-like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak called coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated as COVID-19). Currently, nearly 77 million cases have been confirmed worldwide with the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases in the [...] Read more.
The newly identified pathogenic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, led to an atypical pneumonia-like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak called coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated as COVID-19). Currently, nearly 77 million cases have been confirmed worldwide with the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases in the United States. Individuals are getting vaccinated with recently approved vaccines, which are highly protective in suppressing COVID-19 symptoms but there will be a long way before the majority of individuals get vaccinated. In the meantime, safety precautions and effective disease control strategies appear to be vital for preventing the virus spread in public places. Due to the longevity of the virus on smooth surfaces, photocatalytic properties of “self-disinfecting/cleaning” surfaces appear to be a promising tool to help guide disinfection policies for controlling SARS-CoV-2 spread in high-traffic areas such as hospitals, grocery stores, airports, schools, and stadiums. Here, we explored the photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 (TNPs) as induced by the UV radiation, towards virus deactivation. Our preliminary results using a close genetic relative of SAR-CoV-2, HCoV-NL63, showed the virucidal efficacy of photoactive TNPs deposited on glass coverslips, as examined by quantitative RT-qPCR and virus infectivity assays. Efforts to extrapolate the underlying concepts described in this study to SARS-CoV-2 are currently underway. Full article
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13 pages, 1046 KiB  
Article
Understanding Pediatric Norovirus Epidemiology: A Decade of Study among Ghanaian Children
by Belinda L. Lartey, Osbourne Quaye, Susan A. Damanka, Chantal A. Agbemabiese, Joseph Armachie, Francis E. Dennis, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea and George E. Armah
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111321 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
Understanding the epidemiology of human norovirus infection in children within Ghana and the entire sub-Saharan African region, where future norovirus vaccines would have the greatest impact, is essential. We analyzed 1337 diarrheic stool samples collected from children <5 years from January 2008 to [...] Read more.
Understanding the epidemiology of human norovirus infection in children within Ghana and the entire sub-Saharan African region, where future norovirus vaccines would have the greatest impact, is essential. We analyzed 1337 diarrheic stool samples collected from children <5 years from January 2008 to December 2017 and found 485 (36.2%) shedding the virus. GII.4 (54.1%), GII.3 (7.7%), GII.6 (5.3%), GII.17 (4.7%), and GII.5 (4.7%) were the most common norovirus genotypes. Although norovirus GII.4 remained the predominant capsid genotype throughout the study period, an increase in GII.6 and GII.3 capsid genotypes was observed in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The severity of clinical illness in children infected with GII.4 norovirus strains was similar to illness caused by non-GII.4 strains. Since the epidemiology of norovirus changes rapidly, establishment of systematic surveillance within sentinel sites across the country would enhance the monitoring of circulating norovirus strains and allow continuous understanding of norovirus infection in Ghana. Full article
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12 pages, 4044 KiB  
Article
Detection of Recombinant Hare Myxoma Virus in Wild Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus)
by Fábio A. Abade dos Santos, Carina L. Carvalho, Andreia Pinto, Ranjit Rai, Madalena Monteiro, Paulo Carvalho, Paula Mendonça, Maria C. Peleteiro, Francisco Parra and Margarida D. Duarte
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101127 - 5 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3096
Abstract
In late 2018, an epidemic myxomatosis outbreak emerged on the Iberian Peninsula leading to high mortality in Iberian hare populations. A recombinant Myxoma virus (strains MYXV-Tol and ha-MYXV) was rapidly identified, harbouring a 2.8 kbp insertion containing evolved duplicates of M060L, M061L, M064L, [...] Read more.
In late 2018, an epidemic myxomatosis outbreak emerged on the Iberian Peninsula leading to high mortality in Iberian hare populations. A recombinant Myxoma virus (strains MYXV-Tol and ha-MYXV) was rapidly identified, harbouring a 2.8 kbp insertion containing evolved duplicates of M060L, M061L, M064L, and M065L genes from myxoma virus (MYXV) or other Poxviruses. Since 2017, 1616 rabbits and 125 hares were tested by a qPCR directed to M000.5L/R gene, conserved in MYXV and MYXV-Tol/ha-MYXV strains. A subset of the positive samples (20%) from both species was tested for the insert with MYXV being detected in rabbits and the recombinant MYXV in hares. Recently, three wild rabbits were found dead South of mainland Portugal, showing skin oedema and pulmonary lesions that tested positive for the 2.8 kbp insert. Sequencing analysis showed 100% similarity with the insert sequences described in Iberian hares from Spain. Viral particles were observed in the lungs and eyelids of rabbits by electron microscopy, and isolation in RK13 cells attested virus infectivity. Despite that the analysis of complete genomes may predict the recombinant MYXV strains’ ability to infect rabbit, routine analyses showed species segregation for the circulation of MYXV and recombinant MYXV in wild rabbit and in Iberian hares, respectively. This study demonstrates, however, that recombinant MYXV can effectively infect and cause myxomatosis in wild rabbits and domestic rabbits, raising serious concerns for the future of the Iberian wild leporids while emphasises the need for the continuous monitoring of MYXV and recombinant MYXV in both species. Full article
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18 pages, 701 KiB  
Article
A Novel RNA Virus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Golda Virus (MrGV), Linked to Mass Mortalities of the Larval Giant Freshwater Prawn in Bangladesh
by Chantelle Hooper, Partho P. Debnath, Sukumar Biswas, Ronny van Aerle, Kelly S. Bateman, Siddhawartha K. Basak, Muhammad M. Rahman, Chadag V. Mohan, H. M. Rakibul Islam, Stuart Ross, Grant D. Stentiford, David Currie and David Bass
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101120 - 2 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3546
Abstract
Mass mortalities of the larval stage of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have been occurring in Bangladesh since 2011. Mortalities can reach 100% and have resulted in an 80% decline in the number of hatcheries actively producing M. rosenbergii. To [...] Read more.
Mass mortalities of the larval stage of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have been occurring in Bangladesh since 2011. Mortalities can reach 100% and have resulted in an 80% decline in the number of hatcheries actively producing M. rosenbergii. To investigate a causative agent for the mortalities, a disease challenge was carried out using infected material from a hatchery experiencing mortalities. Moribund larvae from the challenge were prepared for metatranscriptomic sequencing. De novo virus assembly revealed a 29 kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with similarities in key protein motif sequences to yellow head virus (YHV), an RNA virus that causes mass mortalities in marine shrimp aquaculture, and other viruses in the Nidovirales order. Primers were designed against the novel virus and used to screen cDNA from larvae sampled from hatcheries in the South of Bangladesh from two consecutive years. Larvae from all hatcheries screened from both years were positive by PCR for the novel virus, including larvae from a hatchery that at the point of sampling appeared healthy, but later experienced mortalities. These screens suggest that the virus is widespread in M. rosenbergii hatchery culture in southern Bangladesh, and that early detection of the virus can be achieved by PCR. The hypothesised protein motifs of Macrobrachium rosenbergii golda virus (MrGV) suggest that it is likely to be a new species within the Nidovirales order. Biosecurity measures should be taken in order to mitigate global spread through the movement of post-larvae within and between countries, which has previously been linked to other virus outbreaks in crustacean aquaculture. Full article
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14 pages, 4313 KiB  
Article
The Husavirus Posa-Like Viruses in China, and a New Group of Picornavirales
by Zhenzhi Han, Jinbo Xiao, Yang Song, Mei Hong, Guolong Dai, Huanhuan Lu, Man Zhang, Yueling Liang, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Wenbo Xu and Yong Zhang
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090995 - 7 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
Novel posa-like viral genomes were first identified in swine fecal samples using metagenomics and were designated as unclassified viruses in the order Picornavirales. In the present study, nine husavirus strains were identified in China. Their genomes share 94.1–99.9% similarity, and alignment of [...] Read more.
Novel posa-like viral genomes were first identified in swine fecal samples using metagenomics and were designated as unclassified viruses in the order Picornavirales. In the present study, nine husavirus strains were identified in China. Their genomes share 94.1–99.9% similarity, and alignment of these nine husavirus strains identified 697 nucleotide polymorphism sites across their full-length genomes. These nine strains were directly clustered with the Husavirus 1 lineage, and their genomic arrangement showed similar characteristics. These posa-like viruses have undergone a complex evolutionary process, and have a wide geographic distribution, complex host spectrum, deep phylogenetic divergence, and diverse genomic organizations. The clade of posa-like viruses forms a single group, which is evolutionarily distinct from other known families and could represent a distinct family within the Picornavirales. The genomic arrangement of Picornavirales and the new posa-like viruses are different, whereas the posa-like viruses have genomic modules similar to the families Dicistroviridae and Marnaviridae. The present study provides valuable genetic evidence of husaviruses in China, and clarifies the phylogenetic dynamics and the evolutionary characteristics of Picornavirales. Full article
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17 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
Study of a SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak in a Belgian Military Education and Training Center in Maradi, Niger
by Jean-Paul Pirnay, Philippe Selhorst, Christel Cochez, Mauro Petrillo, Vincent Claes, Yolien Van der Beken, Gilbert Verbeken, Julie Degueldre, France T’Sas, Guy Van den Eede, Wouter Weuts, Cedric Smets, Jan Mertens, Philippe Geeraerts, Kevin K. Ariën, Pierre Neirinckx and Patrick Soentjens
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090949 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compromises the ability of military forces to fulfill missions. At the beginning of May 2020, 22 out of 70 Belgian soldiers deployed to a military education and training center in [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compromises the ability of military forces to fulfill missions. At the beginning of May 2020, 22 out of 70 Belgian soldiers deployed to a military education and training center in Maradi, Niger, developed mild COVID-19 compatible symptoms. Immediately upon their return to Belgium, and two weeks later, all seventy soldiers were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (RT-qPCR) and antibodies (two immunoassays). Nine soldiers had at least one positive COVID-19 diagnostic test result. Five of them exhibited COVID-19 symptoms (mainly anosmia, ageusia, and fever), while four were asymptomatic. In four soldiers, SARS-CoV-2 viral load was detected and the genomes were sequenced. Conventional and genomic epidemiological data suggest that these genomes have an African most recent common ancestor and that the Belgian military service men were infected through contact with locals. The medical military command implemented testing of all Belgian soldiers for SARS-CoV-2 viral load and antibodies, two to three days before their departure on a mission abroad or on the high seas, and for specific missions immediately upon their return in Belgium. Some military operational settings (e.g., training camps in austere environments and ships) were also equipped with mobile infectious disease (COVID-19) testing capacity. Full article
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34 pages, 28225 KiB  
Article
Optimization Rules for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro Antivirals: Ensemble Docking and Exploration of the Coronavirus Protease Active Site
by Shana V. Stoddard, Serena D. Stoddard, Benjamin K. Oelkers, Kennedi Fitts, Kellen Whalum, Kaylah Whalum, Alexander D. Hemphill, Jithin Manikonda, Linda Michelle Martinez, Elizabeth G. Riley, Caroline M. Roof, Nowreen Sarwar, Doni M. Thomas, Emily Ulmer, Felissa E. Wallace, Pankaj Pandey and Sudeshna Roy
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090942 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6436
Abstract
Coronaviruses are viral infections that have a significant ability to impact human health. Coronaviruses have produced two pandemics and one epidemic in the last two decades. The current pandemic has created a worldwide catastrophe threatening the lives of over 15 million as of [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses are viral infections that have a significant ability to impact human health. Coronaviruses have produced two pandemics and one epidemic in the last two decades. The current pandemic has created a worldwide catastrophe threatening the lives of over 15 million as of July 2020. Current research efforts have been focused on producing a vaccine or repurposing current drug compounds to develop a therapeutic. There is, however, a need to study the active site preferences of relevant targets, such as the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), to determine ways to optimize these drug compounds. The ensemble docking and characterization work described in this article demonstrates the multifaceted features of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site, molecular guidelines to improving binding affinity, and ultimately the optimization of drug candidates. A total of 220 compounds were docked into both the 5R7Z and 6LU7 SARS-CoV-2 Mpro crystal structures. Several key preferences for strong binding to the four subsites (S1, S1′, S2, and S4) were identified, such as accessing hydrogen binding hotspots, hydrophobic patches, and utilization of primarily aliphatic instead of aromatic substituents. After optimization efforts using the design guidelines developed from the molecular docking studies, the average docking score of the parent compounds was improved by 6.59 −log10(Kd) in binding affinity which represents an increase of greater than six orders of magnitude. Using the optimization guidelines, the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor cinanserin was optimized resulting in an increase in binding affinity of 4.59 −log10(Kd) and increased protease inhibitor bioactivity. The results of molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of cinanserin-optimized compounds CM02, CM06, and CM07 revealed that CM02 and CM06 fit well into the active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro [Protein Data Bank (PDB) accession number 6LU7] and formed strong and stable interactions with the key residues, Ser-144, His-163, and Glu-166. The enhanced binding affinity produced demonstrates the utility of the design guidelines described. The work described herein will assist scientists in developing potent COVID-19 antivirals. Full article
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12 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Chikungunya E2 Protein Produced in E. coli and HEK293-T Cells—Comparison of Their Performances in ELISA
by Flávia Fonseca Bagno, Lara Carvalho Godói, Maria Marta Figueiredo, Sarah Aparecida Rodrigues Sérgio, Thaís de Fátima Silva Moraes, Natália de Castro Salazar, Young Chan Kim, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval and Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090939 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4037
Abstract
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes a disease characterized by the acute onset of fever accompanied by arthralgia and intense joint pain. Clinical similarities and cocirculation of this and other arboviruses in many tropical countries highlight the necessity for efficient [...] Read more.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes a disease characterized by the acute onset of fever accompanied by arthralgia and intense joint pain. Clinical similarities and cocirculation of this and other arboviruses in many tropical countries highlight the necessity for efficient and accessible diagnostic tools. CHIKV envelope proteins are highly conserved among alphaviruses and, particularly, the envelope 2 glycoprotein (CHIKV-E2) appears to be immunodominant and has a considerable serodiagnosis potential. Here, we investigate how glycosylation of CHIKV-E2 affects antigen/antibody interaction and how this affects the performance of CHIKV-E2-based Indirect ELISA tests. We compare two CHIKV-E2 recombinant antigens produced in different expression systems: prokaryotic-versus eukaryotic-made recombinant proteins. CHIKV-E2 antigens are expressed either in E. coli BL21(DE3)—a prokaryotic system unable to produce post-translational modifications—or in HEK-293T mammalian cells—a eukaryotic system able to add post-translational modifications, including glycosylation sites. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic recombinant CHIKV-E2 react strongly to anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies, showing accuracy levels that are higher than 90%. However, the glycan-added viral antigen presents better sensitivity and specificity (85 and 98%) than the non-glycosylated antigen (81 and 71%, respectively) in anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA assays. Full article
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14 pages, 2500 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 RNA Extraction Using Magnetic Beads for Rapid Large-Scale Testing by RT-qPCR and RT-LAMP
by Steffen Klein, Thorsten G. Müller, Dina Khalid, Vera Sonntag-Buck, Anke-Mareil Heuser, Bärbel Glass, Matthias Meurer, Ivonne Morales, Angelika Schillak, Andrew Freistaedter, Ina Ambiel, Sophie L. Winter, Liv Zimmermann, Tamara Naumoska, Felix Bubeck, Daniel Kirrmaier, Stephanie Ullrich, Isabel Barreto Miranda, Simon Anders, Dirk Grimm, Paul Schnitzler, Michael Knop, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, Viet Loan Dao Thi, Kathleen Börner and Petr Chlandaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080863 - 7 Aug 2020
Cited by 81 | Viewed by 14214
Abstract
Rapid large-scale testing is essential for controlling the ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The standard diagnostic pipeline for testing SARS-CoV-2 presence in patients with an ongoing infection is predominantly based on pharyngeal swabs, from which the viral RNA [...] Read more.
Rapid large-scale testing is essential for controlling the ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The standard diagnostic pipeline for testing SARS-CoV-2 presence in patients with an ongoing infection is predominantly based on pharyngeal swabs, from which the viral RNA is extracted using commercial kits, followed by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR detection. As a result of the large demand for testing, commercial RNA extraction kits may be limited and, alternatively, non-commercial protocols are needed. Here, we provide a magnetic bead RNA extraction protocol that is predominantly based on in-house made reagents and is performed in 96-well plates supporting large-scale testing. Magnetic bead RNA extraction was benchmarked against the commercial QIAcube extraction platform. Comparable viral RNA detection sensitivity and specificity were obtained by fluorescent and colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) using a primer set targeting the N gene, as well as RT-qPCR using a primer set targeting the E gene, showing that the RNA extraction protocol presented here can be combined with a variety of detection methods at high throughput. Importantly, the presented diagnostic workflow can be quickly set up in a laboratory without access to an automated pipetting robot. Full article
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7 pages, 1004 KiB  
Communication
RT-dPCR in Mosquito Samples for ZIKV Detection: Effects of RNA Extraction and Reverse Transcription in Target Concentration
by Paula Rodrigues de Almeida, Ana Karolina Antunes Eisen, Meriane Demoliner and Fernando Rosado Spilki
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080827 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important arbovirus, responsible for recent outbreaks of Guillain Barré Syndrome and Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). After thousands of CZS cases, ZIKV is under constant surveillance in Brazil. Reliable and robust detection techniques are required to minimize the influence [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important arbovirus, responsible for recent outbreaks of Guillain Barré Syndrome and Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). After thousands of CZS cases, ZIKV is under constant surveillance in Brazil. Reliable and robust detection techniques are required to minimize the influence of host inhibitors from clinical samples and mosquito pool samples. Reverse transcription Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-dPCR) is a technique that allows the accurate quantification of DNA targets with high sensitivity, and it is usually less affected by inhibitors than RT-qPCR. This study aimed to assess the influence of mosquito tissue, RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis in ZIKV PCR detection. Samples containing 0, 3 and 10 mosquitoes were spiked with ZIKV MR766 and serially diluted prior to RNA extraction and RT-dPCR for ZIKV. Two reverse transcription protocols were tested. Assay sensitivity allowed the detection of 1.197 copies/µL. A higher correlation between dilution factor and target quantification was observed in 10 mosquito pool samples. The lower quantification in samples diluted without mosquitoes highlights the critical role of the reverse transcription step in RNA detection, since it could be attributed to reverse transcriptase variable performance in samples with low overall RNA concentration. The results in mosquito pools indicate that mosquito tissues do not inhibit ZIKV RT-dPCR, and the RT-dPCR technique has good sensitivity and robustness for ZIKV detection in mosquito pool samples regardless of mosquito tissue concentration. Full article
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18 pages, 3312 KiB  
Article
Oropouche Virus Infects, Persists and Induces IFN Response in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells as Identified by RNA PrimeFlow™ and qRT-PCR Assays
by Mariene Ribeiro Amorim, Marjorie Cornejo Pontelli, Gabriela Fabiano de Souza, Stéfanie Primon Muraro, Daniel A. Toledo-Teixeira, Julia Forato, Karina Bispo-dos-Santos, Natália S. Barbosa, Matheus Cavalheiro Martini, Pierina Lorencini Parise, Aline Vieira, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Luis Lamberti Pinto daSilva, Pritesh Jaychand Lalwani, Alessandro Santos Farias, Marco Aurélio Ramirez Vinolo, Renata Sesti-Costa, Eurico Arruda and Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070785 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4500
Abstract
Oropouche orthobunyavirus (OROV) is an emerging arbovirus with a high potential of dissemination in America. Little is known about the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) response during OROV infection in humans. Thus, to evaluate human leukocytes susceptibility, permissiveness and immune response [...] Read more.
Oropouche orthobunyavirus (OROV) is an emerging arbovirus with a high potential of dissemination in America. Little is known about the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) response during OROV infection in humans. Thus, to evaluate human leukocytes susceptibility, permissiveness and immune response during OROV infection, we applied RNA hybridization, qRT-PCR and cell-based assays to quantify viral antigens, genome, antigenome and gene expression in different cells. First, we observed OROV replication in human leukocytes lineages as THP-1 monocytes, Jeko-1 B cells and Jurkat T cells. Interestingly, cell viability and viral particle detection are maintained in these cells, even after successive passages. PBMCs from healthy donors were susceptible but the infection was not productive, since neither antigenome nor infectious particle was found in the supernatant of infected PBMCs. In fact, only viral antigens and small quantities of OROV genome were detected at 24 hpi in lymphocytes, monocytes and CD11c+ cells. Finally, activation of the Interferon (IFN) response was essential to restrict OROV replication in human PBMCs. Increased expression of type I/III IFNs, ISGs and inflammatory cytokines was detected in the first 24 hpi and viral replication was re-established after blocking IFNAR or treating cells with glucocorticoid. Thus, in short, our results show OROV is able to infect and remain in low titers in human T cells, monocytes, DCs and B cells as a consequence of an effective IFN response after infection, indicating the possibility of leukocytes serving as a trojan horse in specific microenvironments during immunosuppression. Full article
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18 pages, 3969 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characterization of a Novel North American-Origin Avian Influenza A (H6N5) Virus Isolated from Bean Goose of South Korea in 2018
by Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Haan Woo Sung, Ki-Jung Yun, Hyun Park and Seon-Ju Yeo
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070774 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3472
Abstract
The complex overlap in waterfowl migratory pathways across the world has established numerous occurrences of genetic reassortment and intercontinental spread of avian influenza virus (AIV) over long distances, thereby calling for huge efforts and targeted surveillance for infection control. During annual surveillance in [...] Read more.
The complex overlap in waterfowl migratory pathways across the world has established numerous occurrences of genetic reassortment and intercontinental spread of avian influenza virus (AIV) over long distances, thereby calling for huge efforts and targeted surveillance for infection control. During annual surveillance in South Korea in 2018, a novel avian influenza H6N5 (K6) subtype was isolated from the fecal sample of wild bird. Genomic characterization using a phylogenetic tree indicated the K6 virus to be of North American-origin, with partial homology to an H6N5 strain, A/Aix galericulata/South Korea/K17-1638-5/2017 (K17). A monobasic residue at the HA cleavage site and absence of a notable mutation at the HA receptor-binding site suggested the isolate to be of low pathogenicity. However, molecular analysis revealed the E119V mutation in the NA gene and a human host marker mutation E382D in the polymerase acidic (PA) gene, implying their susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors and potential infectivity in humans, respectively. For comparison, K6 and K17 were found to be dissimilar for various mutations, such as A274T of PB2, S375N/T of PB1, or V105M of NP, each concerning the increased virulence of K6 in mammalian system. Moreover, kinetic data presented the highest viral titer of this H6N5 isolate at 106.37 log10TCID50 after 48 h of infection, thus proving efficient adaptability for replication in a mammalian system in vitro. The mouse virus challenge study showed insignificant influence on the total body weight, while viral load shedding in lungs peaked at 1.88 ± 0.21 log10 TICD50/mL, six days post infection. The intercontinental transmission of viruses from North America may continuously be present in Korea, thereby providing constant opportunities for virus reassortment with local resident AIVs; these results hint at the increased potential risk of host jumping capabilities of the new isolates. Our findings reinforce the demand for regular surveillance, not only in Korea but also along the flyways in Alaska. Full article
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9 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Genotypic Characterization of Epstein Barr Virus in Blood of Patients with Suspected Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Ghana
by Richmond Ayee, Maame Ekua Oforiwaa Ofori, Emmanuel Ayitey Tagoe, Sylvester Languon, Kafui Searyoh, Louis Armooh, Estella Bilson-Amoah, Kenneth Baidoo, Emmanuel Kitcher, Edward Wright and Osbourne Quaye
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070766 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. However different viral strains have been implicated in NPC worldwide. This study aimed to detect and characterize EBV in patients diagnosed with NPC in Ghana. A total of 55 patients diagnosed with [...] Read more.
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. However different viral strains have been implicated in NPC worldwide. This study aimed to detect and characterize EBV in patients diagnosed with NPC in Ghana. A total of 55 patients diagnosed with NPC by CT scan and endoscopy were age-matched with 53 controls without a known oncological disease. Venous blood was collected from the study participants and DNA extracted from the blood samples. Detection of EBV and genotyping were done by amplifying Epstein Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and Epstein Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2), respectively, using specific primers. Viral load in patients and controls was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBV positivity in controls (92%) was significantly greater than that of NPC patients (67%) (χ2 = 19.17, p < 0.0001), and viral infection was independent of gender (χ2 = 1.770, p = 0.1834). The predominant EBV genotypes in patients and controls were genotype 2 (52%) and genotype 1 (62%), respectively. Median EBV load was significantly higher in NPC patients than the control group (p < 0.01). In summary, prevalence of EBV genotype 2 infection was higher in NPC patients than the control group. Assessment of EBV load may be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of NPC. Full article
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21 pages, 14952 KiB  
Article
Isolation of a Chinook Salmon Bafinivirus (CSBV) in Imported Goldfish Carassius auratus L. in the United Kingdom and Evaluation of Its Virulence in Resident Fish Species
by Irene Cano, David Stone, Jacqueline Savage, Gareth Wood, Brian Mulhearn, Joshua Gray, Nick Stinton, Stuart Ross, Michaela Bonar, Nick G. H. Taylor, Kelly S. Bateman and Stephen W. Feist
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050578 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4107
Abstract
This is the first record of a fish nidovirus isolated from a consignment of goldfish at the United Kingdom (UK) border. The full-length viral genome was 25,985 nt, sharing a 97.9% nucleotide identity with the Chinook salmon bafinivirus (CSBV) NIDO with two deletions [...] Read more.
This is the first record of a fish nidovirus isolated from a consignment of goldfish at the United Kingdom (UK) border. The full-length viral genome was 25,985 nt, sharing a 97.9% nucleotide identity with the Chinook salmon bafinivirus (CSBV) NIDO with two deletions of 537 and 480 nt on the ORF Ia protein. To assess the potential impact on UK fish species, Atlantic salmon, common carp and goldfish were exposed to the virus via an intraperitoneal (IP) injection and bath challenge. Moribundity was recorded in only 8% of IP-injected goldfish. A high viral load, ≈107 of the CSBV PpIa gene, was measured in the kidney of moribund goldfish. Mild histopathological changes were observed in the kidneys of challenged carps. Ultrastructural observations in renal tubule epithelial cells of goldfish showed cylindrical tubes (≈15 nm in diameter) and tubular structures budding spherical virions (≈200 nm in diameter) with external spike-like structures. Negative staining showed both circular and bacilliform virions. Seroconversion was measured in common carp and goldfish but not in Atlantic salmon. This study reinforces the potential risk of novel and emerging pathogens being introduced to recipient countries via the international ornamental fish trade and the importance of regular full health screens at the border inspection posts to reduce this risk. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

18 pages, 1411 KiB  
Review
Markers Associated with COVID-19 Susceptibility, Resistance, and Severity
by Aisha D. Fakhroo, Asmaa A. Al Thani and Hadi M. Yassine
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010045 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6388
Abstract
In December 2019, the latest member of the coronavirus family, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan, China, leading to the outbreak of an unusual viral pneumonia known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 was then declared as a pandemic [...] Read more.
In December 2019, the latest member of the coronavirus family, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan, China, leading to the outbreak of an unusual viral pneumonia known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 was then declared as a pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). The initial mortality rate of COVID-19 declared by WHO was 2%; however, this rate has increased to 3.4% as of 3 March 2020. People of all ages can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, but those aged 60 or above and those with underlying medical conditions are more prone to develop severe symptoms that may lead to death. Patients with severe infection usually experience a hyper pro-inflammatory immune reaction (i.e., cytokine storm) causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which has been shown to be the leading cause of death in COVID-19 patients. However, the factors associated with COVID-19 susceptibility, resistance and severity remain poorly understood. In this review, we thoroughly explore the correlation between various host, viral and environmental markers, and SARS-CoV-2 in terms of susceptibility and severity. Full article
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15 pages, 1554 KiB  
Review
Re-Emergence of Yellow Fever in Brazil during 2016–2019: Challenges, Lessons Learned, and Perspectives
by Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo, Ana Gabriella Stoffella-Dutra, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Carolina Dourado Amaral, Juliane Duarte Santos, Kamila Lorene Soares Rocha, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Magno Augusto Zazá Borges, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Erna Geessien Kroon, Danilo Bretas de Oliveira, Betânia Paiva Drumond and Giliane de Souza Trindade
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111233 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5832
Abstract
Yellow fever (YF) is a re-emerging viral zoonosis caused by the Yellow Fever virus (YFV), affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP). YF is endemic in South America and Africa, being considered a burden for public health worldwide despite the availability of an effective [...] Read more.
Yellow fever (YF) is a re-emerging viral zoonosis caused by the Yellow Fever virus (YFV), affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP). YF is endemic in South America and Africa, being considered a burden for public health worldwide despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Acute infectious disease can progress to severe hemorrhagic conditions and has high rates of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In 2016, Brazil started experiencing one of the most significant YF epidemics in its history, with lots of deaths being reported in regions that were previously considered free of the disease. Here, we reviewed the historical aspects of YF in Brazil, the epidemiology of the disease, the challenges that remain in Brazil’s public health context, the main lessons learned from the recent outbreaks, and our perspective for facing future YF epidemics. Full article
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19 pages, 1184 KiB  
Review
Induction of the Antiviral Immune Response and Its Circumvention by Coronaviruses
by Ping Liu, Yan Hong, Bincai Yang, Prasha Shrestha, Nelam Sajjad and Ji-Long Chen
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091039 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4553
Abstract
Some coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses of human and veterinary medical importance. The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory symptoms coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the current global pandemic, is characterized by pneumonia, lymphopenia, and a cytokine storm in humans that has caused catastrophic impacts [...] Read more.
Some coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses of human and veterinary medical importance. The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory symptoms coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the current global pandemic, is characterized by pneumonia, lymphopenia, and a cytokine storm in humans that has caused catastrophic impacts on public health worldwide. Coronaviruses are known for their ability to evade innate immune surveillance exerted by the host during the early phase of infection. It is important to comprehensively investigate the interaction between highly pathogenic coronaviruses and their hosts. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about coronaviruses with a focus on antiviral immune responses in the respiratory and intestinal tracts to infection with severe coronaviruses that have caused epidemic diseases in humans and domestic animals. We emphasize, in particular, the strategies used by these coronaviruses to circumvent host immune surveillance, mainly including the hijack of antigen-presenting cells, shielding RNA intermediates in replication organelles, 2′-O-methylation modification for the evasion of RNA sensors, and blocking of interferon signaling cascades. We also provide information about the potential development of coronavirus vaccines and antiviral drugs. Full article
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16 pages, 355 KiB  
Review
Putative Role of Arthropod Vectors in African Swine Fever Virus Transmission in Relation to Their Bio-Ecological Properties
by Sarah I. Bonnet, Emilie Bouhsira, Nick De Regge, Johanna Fite, Florence Etoré, Mutien-Marie Garigliany, Ferran Jori, Laetitia Lempereur, Marie-Frédérique Le Potier, Elsa Quillery, Claude Saegerman, Timothée Vergne and Laurence Vial
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070778 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4863
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important diseases in Suidae due to its significant health and socioeconomic consequences and represents a major threat to the European pig industry, especially in the absence of any available treatment or vaccine. In fact, [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important diseases in Suidae due to its significant health and socioeconomic consequences and represents a major threat to the European pig industry, especially in the absence of any available treatment or vaccine. In fact, with its high mortality rate and the subsequent trade restrictions imposed on affected countries, ASF can dramatically disrupt the pig industry in afflicted countries. In September 2018, ASF was unexpectedly identified in wild boars from southern Belgium in the province of Luxembourg, not far from the Franco-Belgian border. The French authorities rapidly commissioned an expert opinion on the risk of ASF introduction and dissemination into metropolitan France. In Europe, the main transmission routes of the virus comprise direct contact between infected and susceptible animals and indirect transmission through contaminated material or feed. However, the seasonality of the disease in some pig farms in Baltic countries, including outbreaks in farms with high biosecurity levels, have led to questions on the possible involvement of arthropods in the transmission of the virus. This review explores the current body of knowledge on the most common arthropod families present in metropolitan France. We examine their potential role in spreading ASF—by active biological or mechanical transmission or by passive transport or ingestion—in relation to their bio-ecological properties. It also highlights the existence of significant gaps in our knowledge on vector ecology in domestic and wild boar environments and in vector competence for ASFV transmission. Filling these gaps is essential to further understanding ASF transmission in order to thus implement appropriate management measures. Full article
17 pages, 1756 KiB  
Review
Role of MicroRNAs in Host Defense against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) Infection: A Hidden Front Line
by Jiaxin Li and Shijun J. Zheng
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050543 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4026
Abstract
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of IBDV infection and the host response, including apoptosis, [...] Read more.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of IBDV infection and the host response, including apoptosis, autophagy and the inhibition of innate immunity. Not only a number of host proteins interacting with or targeted by viral proteins participate in these processes, but microRNAs (miRNAs) are also involved in the host response to IBDV infection. If an IBDV–host interaction at the protein level is taken imaginatively as the front line of the battle between invaders (pathogens) and defenders (host cells), their fight at the RNA level resembles the hidden front line. miRNAs are a class of non-coding single-stranded endogenous RNA molecules with a length of approximately 22 nucleotides (nt) that play important roles in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Insights into the roles of viral proteins and miRNAs in host response will add to the understanding of the pathogenesis of IBDV infection. The interaction of viral proteins with cellular targets during IBDV infection were previously well-reviewed. This review focuses mainly on the current knowledge of the host response to IBDV infection at the RNA level, in particular, of the nine well-characterized miRNAs that affect cell apoptosis, the innate immune response and viral replication. Full article
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15 pages, 2034 KiB  
Review
Nipah Virus: Past Outbreaks and Future Containment
by Vinod Soman Pillai, Gayathri Krishna and Mohanan Valiya Veettil
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040465 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 19667
Abstract
Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history. Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks [...] Read more.
Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history. Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks of zoonotic origin including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Nipah virus. Nipah is considered one of the world’s deadliest viruses with the heaviest mortality rates in some instances. It is known to cause encephalitis, with cases of acute respiratory distress turning fatal. Various factors contribute to the onset and spread of the virus. All through the infected zone, various strategies to tackle and enhance the surveillance and awareness with greater emphasis on personal hygiene has been formulated. This review discusses the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India, the routes of transmission, prevention and control measures employed along with possible reasons behind the outbreaks, and the precautionary measures to be ensured by private–public undertakings to contain and ensure a lower incidence in the future. Full article
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Other

6 pages, 234 KiB  
Case Report
Six Cases of Zika/Dengue Coinfection in a Brazilian Cohort, 2015–2019
by Claudio Siqueira, Valéria Féres, Livia Coutinho, Isabela Junqueira, Luziane Bento, Larissa Montes and João Bosco Siqueira, Jr.
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101201 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Brazil is one of the countries which has been most affected by dengue epidemics. This scenario became more challenging with the emergence of Zika virus after 2014. The cocirculation of dengue and Zika viruses makes their diagnosis and treatment a challenge for health [...] Read more.
Brazil is one of the countries which has been most affected by dengue epidemics. This scenario became more challenging with the emergence of Zika virus after 2014. The cocirculation of dengue and Zika viruses makes their diagnosis and treatment a challenge for health professionals, especially due to their similar clinical outcomes. From 2015 to 2019, we followed a cohort of 2017 participants in Goiania, Goias, Central Brazil. Febrile cases were monitored weekly, and after identification of fever, the physician performed a home visit for clinical evaluation and collection of blood/urine for diagnosis of acute dengue/Zika infection in suspected cases. Dengue acute infection was investigated by NS1 antigen and real time RT-PCR and seroconversion of anti-dengue IgM. ZIKV infection was confirmed by real time RT-PCR. Six cases of Zika/dengue coinfection among participants were reported. The clinical outcomes were suggestive for both DENV and ZIKV infection. No coinfected patient had neurological clinical manifestation, warning signs or need for hospitalization. A continuous specific laboratory confirmation for both dengue and Zika viruses should be enforced as part of the surveillance systems even in the presence of very suggestive cases of dengue fever, minimizing the risk of a late detection of ZIKV circulation. Full article
11 pages, 1252 KiB  
Brief Report
Identification of Circovirus Genome in a Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) on the Antarctic Peninsula
by Hila Levy, Steven R. Fiddaman, Anni Djurhuus, Caitlin E. Black, Simona Kraberger, Adrian L. Smith, Tom Hart and Arvind Varsani
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080858 - 6 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5623
Abstract
Circoviruses infect a variety of animal species and have small (~1.8–2.2 kb) circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Recently a penguin circovirus (PenCV) was identified associated with an Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) with feather disorder and in the cloacal swabs of three asymptomatic [...] Read more.
Circoviruses infect a variety of animal species and have small (~1.8–2.2 kb) circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Recently a penguin circovirus (PenCV) was identified associated with an Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) with feather disorder and in the cloacal swabs of three asymptomatic Adélie Penguins at Cape Crozier, Antarctica. A total of 75 cloacal swab samples obtained from adults and chicks of three species of penguin (genus: Pygoscelis) from seven Antarctic breeding colonies (South Shetland Islands and Western Antarctic Peninsula) in the 2015−2016 breeding season were screened for PenCV. We identified new variants of PenCV in one Adélie Penguin and one Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) from Port Charcot, Booth Island, Western Antarctic Peninsula, a site home to all three species of Pygoscelid penguins. These two PenCV genomes (length of 1986 nucleotides) share > 99% genome-wide nucleotide identity with each other and share ~87% genome-wide nucleotide identity with the PenCV sequences described from Adélie Penguins at Cape Crozier ~4400 km away in East Antarctica. We did not find any evidence of recombination among PenCV sequences. This is the first report of PenCV in Chinstrap Penguins and the first detection outside of Ross Island, East Antarctica. Given the limited knowledge on Antarctic animal viral diversity, future samples from Antarctic wildlife should be screened for these and other viruses to determine the prevalence and potential impact of viral infections. Full article
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9 pages, 433 KiB  
Conference Report
30th Brazilian Society for Virology 2019 Annual Meeting—Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
by Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos Santos, Michele Lunardi, Bruno Moreira Carneiro, Juliana Helena Chavez-Pavoni, Daniel Moura de Aguiar, Ana Claudia Pereira Terças Trettel, Carla Regina Andrighetti, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, João Pessoa Araújo Junior, Fabrício Souza Campos, Luciana Barros de Arruda, Jônatas Santos Abrahão and Fernando Rosado Spilki
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050494 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2882
Abstract
The 30th meeting of the Brazilian Society for Virology (SBV) was held, for the first time in its 30 years of existence, in Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil, a tropical region between the three richest biomes in the [...] Read more.
The 30th meeting of the Brazilian Society for Virology (SBV) was held, for the first time in its 30 years of existence, in Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil, a tropical region between the three richest biomes in the world: Amazon Florest, Cerrado and Pantanal. In recent years, the field of virology has been built in the State. The aim of this report is to support participants and virologists to receive the most up-to-date information about the meeting, which occurred from 16 to 19 October 2019. National and international speakers gave SBV the opportunity to learn about their experience on their virology fields, sharing recent scientific findings, compiling conferences, round table presentations and work presentations in oral and poster sessions. The meeting held over 300 attendants, who were also involved on oral and poster presentations, showing a great variety of recent unpublished studies on environmental, basic, animal, human, plant and invertebrate virology. In addition, SBV offered the Helio Gelli Pereira award for the best research studies in each field presented during the meeting. The 30th meeting of SBV was very productive and has also encouraged scientific partnership and collaboration among virologists worldwide. Full article
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