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The Emergence of Avian Orthoavulavirus 13 in Wild Migratory Waterfowl in China Revealed the Existence of Diversified Trailer Region Sequences and HN Gene Lengths within this Serotype

1
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Xi’an Road 5333, Changchun 130062, China
2
College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Xi’an Road 5333, Changchun 130062, China
3
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Institute of Lung Biology and Disease (iLBD), Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg/Munich, Germany
5
Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, 1-Davis Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
6
National Scientific Center Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, 61023 Kharkiv, Ukraine
7
Laboratory of modeling and monitoring of infectious diseases, Department of experimental models and pathogenesis of infectious diseases, Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine (CFTM), Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
8
Center of Excellence for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
9
CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
10
National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These first authors contributed equally to this article.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070646
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
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Abstract

Avian orthoavulavirus 13 (AOAV-13), also named avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13), has been found sporadically in wild birds around the world ever since the discovery of AOAV-13 (AOAV-13/wild goose/Shimane/67/2000) in a wild goose from Japan in 2000. However, there are no reports of AOAV-13 in China. In the present study, a novel AOAV-13 virus (AOAV-13/wild goose/China/Hubei/V93-1/2015), isolated from a wild migratory waterfowl in a wetland of Hubei province of China, during active surveillance from 2013 to 2018, was biologically and genetically characterized. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a very close genetic relationship among all AOAV-13 strains, as revealed by very few genetic variations. Moreover, pathogenicity tests indicated that the V93-1 strain is a low virulent virus for chickens. However, the genome of the V93-1 virus was found to be 16,158 nucleotides (nt) in length, which is 12 nt or 162 nt longer than the other AOAV-13 strains that have been reported to date. The length difference of 12 nt in strain V93-1 is due to the existence of three repeats of the conserved sequence, “AAAAAT”, in the 5′-end trailer of the genome. Moreover, the HN gene of the V93-1 virus is 2070 nt in size, encoding 610 aa, which is the same size as the AOAV-13 strain from Japan, whereas that of two strains from Ukraine and Kazakhstan are 2080 nt in length, encoding 579 aa. We describe a novel AOAV-13 in migratory waterfowl in China, which suggests that diversified trailer region sequences and HN gene lengths exist within serotype AOAV-13, and highlight the need for its constant surveillance in poultry from live animal markets, and especially migratory birds. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian orthoavulavirus 13; migratory waterfowl; HN gene; trailer; genetic relationships avian orthoavulavirus 13; migratory waterfowl; HN gene; trailer; genetic relationships
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Fei, Y.; Liu, X.; Mu, J.; Li, J.; Yu, X.; Chang, J.; Bi, Y.; Stoeger, T.; Wajid, A.; Muzyka, D.; Sharshov, K.; Shestopalov, A.; Amonsin, A.; Chen, J.; Ding, Z.; Yin, R. The Emergence of Avian Orthoavulavirus 13 in Wild Migratory Waterfowl in China Revealed the Existence of Diversified Trailer Region Sequences and HN Gene Lengths within this Serotype. Viruses 2019, 11, 646.

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