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Special Issue "Emerging Viruses 2021: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Fabrício S. Campos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bioprocess and Biotechnology Engineering Course at the Gurupi Campus of the Federal University of Tocantins, in Tocantins, Brazil
Interests: bioinformatics and Virology; next generation sequencing; genome assembly and phylogenetic analyzes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Luciana Barros de Arruda
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Virologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Interests: HIV; dengue virus; vaccines
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Maite F.S. Vaslin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Virology, Institute of Microbiology Paulo de Goes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, RJ, Brazil
Interests: molecular aspects of plant virus interaction; plant virology; molecular virology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Virus replication frequently results in the accumulation, re-assortment, and recombination of mutations, which contributes to their rapid adaptation to environmental changes and often advances the emergence of new virus variants or species. These features, in addition to globally distributed anthropogenic activities and human dispersal, have resulted in an increased frequency of outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. The emergence and re-emergence of novel pathogens presumes complex and changeable host–pathogen interactions and co-evolution, challenging public health and agricultural systems for the development of cost-effective diagnostic methods, and therapeutic and prevention strategies, besides maintaining efficient epidemiological surveillance.

Conceding the relevance of the anticipation of future epidemics, and knowing that this goal can only be achieved by accumulating knowledge through high-quality science and appropriate monitoring, we encourage our colleagues to submit articles to this Special Issue titled Emerging Viruses 2021: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control. We welcome original research and reviews related to virus surveillance and evolution, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, treatment and prevention, and metagenomics studies. Relevant findings from human, animal, plant, and invertebrate viruses will be appreciated.

Dr. Fabrício S. Campos
Prof. Dr. Luciana Barros de Arruda
Prof. Dr. Maite F.S. Vaslin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metagenomics
  • emerging virus
  • prevention
  • evolution
  • control
  • diagnosis
  • surveillance

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Epidemic Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage B.1.1.7 in Brazil
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060984 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The emergence of diverse lineages harboring mutations with functional significance and potentially enhanced transmissibility imposes an increased difficulty on the containment of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic [...] Full article
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Research

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Article
Genetic Characterization and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza Virus H7N3 Isolated from Spot-Billed Ducks in South Korea, Early 2019
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050856 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian [...] Read more.
Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian influenza virus—A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3)—was isolated from spot-billed ducks in South Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the phylogenetic and mutational analysis of this isolate. Molecular analysis revealed that the genes for HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase) of this strain belonged to the Central Asian lineage, whereas genes for other internal proteins such as polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), PB2, nucleoprotein, polymerase acidic protein, matrix protein, and non-structural protein belonged to that of the Korean lineage. In addition, a monobasic amino acid (PQIEPR/GLF) at the HA cleavage site, and the non-deletion of the stalk region in the NA gene indicated that this isolate was a typical LPAIV. Nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (99.51%) of this isolate is to that of A/common teal/Shanghai/CM1216/2017 (H7N7), and amino acid sequence of NA (99.48%) was closely related to that of A/teal/Egypt/MB-D-487OP/2016 (H7N3). An in vitro propagation of the A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3) virus showed highest (7.38 Log10 TCID50/mL) virus titer at 60 h post-infection, and in experimental mouse lungs, the virus was detected at six days’ post-infection. Our study characterizes genetic mutations, as well as pathogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo model of a new Korea H7N3 viruses in 2019, carrying multiple potential mutations to become highly pathogenic and develop an ability to infect humans; thus, emphasizing the need for routine surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds. Full article
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Other

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Brief Report
Global Discrepancies between Numbers of Available SARS-CoV-2 Genomes and Human Development Indexes at Country Scales
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050775 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
It has now been over a year since SARS-CoV-2 first emerged in China, in December 2019, and it has spread rapidly around the world. Some variants are currently considered of great concern. We aimed to analyze the numbers of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences obtained [...] Read more.
It has now been over a year since SARS-CoV-2 first emerged in China, in December 2019, and it has spread rapidly around the world. Some variants are currently considered of great concern. We aimed to analyze the numbers of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences obtained in different countries worldwide until January 2021. On 28 January 2021, we downloaded the deposited genome sequence origin from the GISAID database, and from the “Our world in data” website we downloaded numbers of SARS-CoV-2-diagnosed cases, numbers of SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths, population size, life expectancy, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and human development index per country. Files were merged and data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel software. A total of 450,968 SARS-CoV-2 genomes originating from 135 countries on the 5 continents were available. When considering the 19 countries for which the number of genomes per 100 deaths was >100, six were in Europe, while eight were in Asia, three were in Oceania and two were in Africa. Six (30%) of these countries are beyond rank 75, regarding the human development index and four (20%) are beyond rank 80 regarding GDP per capita. Moreover, the comparisons of the number of genomes sequenced per 100 deaths to the human development index by country show that some Western European countries have released similar or lower numbers of genomes than many African or Asian countries with a lower human development index. Previous data highlight great discrepancies between the numbers of available SARS-CoV-2 genomes per 100 cases and deaths and the ranking of countries regarding wealth and development. Full article
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Opinion
Within-Host and Between-Host Evolution in SARS-CoV-2—New Variant’s Source
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050751 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Some of the newly emerging corona viral variants show high numbers of mutations. This is unexpected for a virus with a low mutation rate due to an inherent proof-reading system. Could such a variant arise under very special conditions occurring in a host [...] Read more.
Some of the newly emerging corona viral variants show high numbers of mutations. This is unexpected for a virus with a low mutation rate due to an inherent proof-reading system. Could such a variant arise under very special conditions occurring in a host where the virus replicates and mutates in a rather unlimited fashion, such as in immune compromised patients? The virus was shown to replicate in an immunosuppressed cancer patient for more than 105 days and might be a source of new variants. These patients are asymptomatic and the virus may therefore escape detection and attention and be high-risk. Similarly, HIV-infected individuals may be immunocompromised and support coronavirus replication with increased mutation rates. The patients may promote “within-host evolution”. Some of the viruses present in such a highly mutagenic swarm or quasispecies within one patient may become founders and cause a pandemic by further “between-host evolution”. B.1.1.7 with 23 mutations may be such a case. Immunosuppressed patients can be identified and treated by the synthetic antibody cocktails as passive immunization and kept under control. Immunosuppressed patients can be easily identified and supervised by healthcare workers—once they become aware of the risk—to avoid new variants with pandemic potential. Full article
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Conference Report
31st Brazilian Online Society for Virology (SBV) 2020 Annual Meeting
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030414 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The year 2020 was profoundly marked by the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, causing COVID-19, which represents the greatest pandemic of the 21st century until now, and a major challenge for virologists in the scientific and medical communities. Increased numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infection [...] Read more.
The year 2020 was profoundly marked by the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, causing COVID-19, which represents the greatest pandemic of the 21st century until now, and a major challenge for virologists in the scientific and medical communities. Increased numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infection all over the world imposed social and travel restrictions, including avoidance of face-to-face scientific meetings. Therefore, for the first time in history, the 2020 edition of the Brazilian Society of Virology (SBV) congress was totally online. Despite the challenge of the new format, the Brazilian society board and collaborators were successful in virtually congregating more than 921 attendees, which was the greatest SBV participant number ever reached. Seminal talks from prominent national and international researchers were presented every night, during a week, and included discussions about environmental, basic, animal, human, plant and invertebrate virology. A special roundtable debated exclusively new data and perspectives regarding COVID-19 by some of the greatest Brazilian virologists. Women scientists were very well represented in another special roundtable called “Young Women Inspiring Research”, which was one of the most viewed and commented section during the meeting, given the extraordinary quality of the presented work. Finally, SBV offered the Helio Gelli Pereira award for one graduate and one undergraduate student, which has also been a fruitful collaboration between the society and Viruses journal. The annual SBV meeting has, therefore, reached its goals to inspire young scientists, stimulate high-quality scientific discussion and to encourage global collaboration between virologists. Full article
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