Emerging Viruses 2024: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 June 2024 | Viewed by 6000

Special Issue Editors


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Virology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600, Prédio UFRGS nº 21116 - Sala 523, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Interests: bovine herpesvirus; bubaline herpesvirus
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Guest Editor
Department of Virology, Institute of Microbiology Paulo de Goes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, RJ, Brazil
Interests: molecular aspects of plant virus interaction; plant virology; molecular virology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ongoing challenges posed by emerging viruses continue to be a significant concern for global public health. Factors such as climate change, international travel and trade, deforestation, and other human activities have been closely linked to the emergence of new viruses, leading to a growing number of reported outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. As we navigate these complex circumstances, it is crucial to enhance our understanding of the surveillance, detection, and evolution of emerging viruses on both local and global scales.

In this Special Issue, we invite our colleagues to contribute manuscripts that shed light on various aspects of emerging viruses. We encourage submissions related to the development and utilization of new methods and technologies for the study, prevention, and control of emerging viruses. This collection aims to serve as a comprehensive resource encompassing the latest knowledge on a wide range of emerging viral diseases affecting humans, animals, and plants.

Original research articles and reviews are equally welcomed, providing a platform to share cutting-edge insights and advancements in the field. It is our collective goal to promote interdisciplinary collaboration, ensuring a holistic approach to effectively combat emerging viral threats.

As we strive to anticipate and respond to future epidemics, we acknowledge that the foundation for success lies in robust scientific research and vigilant monitoring. By fostering the exchange of knowledge through high-quality contributions, we can strengthen our epidemiological surveillance and develop cost-effective diagnostic methods, therapeutics, and prevention strategies. Together, we can address the coevolution and intricate host–pathogen interactions that drive the emergence and re-emergence of novel pathogens, safeguarding public health and agricultural systems.

We look forward to receiving your valuable contributions to this Special Issue on Emerging Viruses 2023. Together, let us advance our understanding and mitigation strategies in the face of emerging viral threats. Your research has the potential to make a lasting impact and shape the future of public health. Thank you for your dedication and commitment to this vital field of study.

Dr. Fabrício S. Campos
Dr. Luciana Barros de Arruda
Dr. Maite F.S. Vaslin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging virus
  • prevention
  • evolution
  • control
  • diagnosis
  • surveillance
  • metagenomics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 7704 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence of Hantavirus among Manual Cane Cutters and Epidemiological Aspects of HPS in Central Brazil
by Renata Malachini Maia, Jorlan Fernandes, Luciana Helena Bassan Vicente de Mattos, Luiz Antonio Bastos Camacho, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos Carneiro, Fernando de Oliveira Santos, Sheila Araujo Teles, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos and Renata Carvalho de Oliveira
Viruses 2023, 15(11), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15112238 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rodent-borne zoonotic disease that is endemic throughout the Americas. Agricultural activities increase exposure to wild rodents, especially for sugarcane cutters. We carried out a survey of the epidemiological aspects of HPS and investigated the prevalence of hantavirus [...] Read more.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rodent-borne zoonotic disease that is endemic throughout the Americas. Agricultural activities increase exposure to wild rodents, especially for sugarcane cutters. We carried out a survey of the epidemiological aspects of HPS and investigated the prevalence of hantavirus infection in the sugarcane cutter population from different localities in the Brazilian Midwest region. We conducted a retrospective study of all confirmed HPS cases in the state of Goiás reported to the National HPS surveillance system between 2007 and 2017, along with a seroepidemiological study in a population of sugarcane cutters working in Goiás state in 2016, using the anti-hantavirus (Andes) ELISA IgG. A total of 634 serum samples from cane cutters were tested for hantavirus antibodies, with 44 (6.9%) being IgG-reactive according to ELISA. The destination of garbage was the only statistically significant variable (p = 0.03) related to the detection of hantavirus IgG (p < 0.05). We described the epidemiological profile of reported hantavirus cases in Goiás—a highly endemic area for HPS, and where the seroepidemiological study was conducted. Our results increase our knowledge about hantavirus infections in Brazil and highlight the vulnerability of sugarcane cutters to a highly lethal disease that, to date, has no specific treatment or vaccination. Full article
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18 pages, 3836 KiB  
Article
Circulation of Dengue Virus Serotype 1 Genotype V and Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Genotype III in Tocantins State, Northern Brazil, 2021–2022
by Ueric José Borges de Souza, Ygor da Silva Miranda Macedo, Raíssa Nunes dos Santos, Franciano Dias Pereira Cardoso, Jucimária Dantas Galvão, Evgeni Evgeniev Gabev, Ana Cláudia Franco, Paulo Michel Roehe, Fernando Rosado Spilki and Fabrício Souza Campos
Viruses 2023, 15(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15112136 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
In Brazil, the state of Tocantins, located in north-central Brazil, has experienced a significant number of cases of arboviral disease, particularly Dengue virus (DENV). This study aimed to deepen the knowledge on DENV circulation within that state by conducting full genome sequencing of [...] Read more.
In Brazil, the state of Tocantins, located in north-central Brazil, has experienced a significant number of cases of arboviral disease, particularly Dengue virus (DENV). This study aimed to deepen the knowledge on DENV circulation within that state by conducting full genome sequencing of viral genomes recovered from 61 patients between June 2021 and July 2022. There were a total of 8807 and 20,692 cases in 2021 and 2022, respectively, as reported by the state’s Secretary of Health. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed the circulation of DENV serotype 1, genotype V and DENV serotype 2, genotype III in the State. Younger age groups (4 to 43 years old) were mostly affected; however, no significant differences were detected regarding the gender distribution of cases in humans. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating viruses belong to DENV-1 genotype V American and DENV-2 genotype III Southeast Asian/American. The Bayesian analysis of DENV-1 genotype V genomes sequenced here are closely related to genomes previously sequenced in the state of São Paulo. Regarding the DENV-2 genotype III genomes, these clustered in a distinct, well-supported subclade, along with previously reported isolates from the states of Goiás and São Paulo. The findings reported here suggest that multiple introductions of these genotypes occurred in the Tocantins state. This observation highlights the importance of major population centers in Brazil on virus dispersion, such as those observed in other Latin American and North American countries. In the SNP analysis, DENV-1 displayed 122 distinct missense mutations, while DENV-2 had 44, with significant mutations predominantly occurring in the envelope and NS5 proteins. The analyses performed here highlight the concomitant circulation of distinct DENV-1 and -2 genotypes in some Brazilian states, underscoring the dynamic evolution of DENV and the relevance of surveillance efforts in supporting public health policies. Full article
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9 pages, 617 KiB  
Communication
Recurring Trans-Atlantic Incursion of Clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 Viruses by Long Distance Migratory Birds from Northern Europe to Canada in 2022/2023
by Tamiru N. Alkie, Alexander M. P. Byrne, Megan E. B. Jones, Benjamin C. Mollett, Laura Bourque, Oliver Lung, Joe James, Carmencita Yason, Ashley C. Banyard, Daniel Sullivan, Anthony V. Signore, Andrew S. Lang, Meghan Baker, Beverly Dawe, Ian H. Brown and Yohannes Berhane
Viruses 2023, 15(9), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15091836 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
In December 2022 and January 2023, we isolated clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses from six American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) from Prince Edward Island and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Newfoundland, Canada. Using full-genome sequencing and [...] Read more.
In December 2022 and January 2023, we isolated clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses from six American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) from Prince Edward Island and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Newfoundland, Canada. Using full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, these viruses were found to fall into two distinct phylogenetic clusters: one group containing H5N1 viruses that had been circulating in North and South America since late 2021, and the other one containing European H5N1 viruses reported in late 2022. The transatlantic re-introduction for the second time by pelagic/Icelandic bird migration via the same route used during the 2021 incursion of Eurasian origin H5N1 viruses into North America demonstrates that migratory birds continue to be the driving force for transcontinental dissemination of the virus. This new detection further demonstrates the continual long-term threat of H5N1 viruses for poultry and mammals and the subsequent impact on various wild bird populations wherever these viruses emerge. The continual emergence of clade 2.3.4.4b H5Nx viruses requires vigilant surveillance in wild birds, particularly in areas of the Americas, which lie within the migratory corridors for long-distance migratory birds originating from Europe and Asia. Although H5Nx viruses have been detected at higher rates in North America since 2021, a bidirectional flow of H5Nx genes of American origin viruses to Europe has never been reported. In the future, coordinated and systematic surveillance programs for HPAI viruses need to be launched between European and North American agencies. Full article
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