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Topical Collection "Positioning and Navigation"

Editors

Dr. Kourosh Khoshelham
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Interests: mobile mapping; positioning and navigation; indoor modelling; building information modelling; machine learning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Sisi Zlatanova
Website
Collection Editor
Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: geospatial information systems; data structures; database management; photogrammetry and remote sensing; surveying conceptual modelling mobile technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Chris Rizos
Website
Collection Editor
School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: GPS; GNSS; precise positioning; multi-sensor navigation; geodesy; surveying
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Location information is a fundamental human need in the modern world, with many of our decisions in daily life influenced by knowledge of our location. We frequently ask questions about where. Consequently, positioning and navigation systems have become invaluable tools in our lives. While Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the primary technology for positioning, it does not provide a ubiquitous solution due to signal attenuation in closed environments, such as indoors, tunnels, and urban canyons. Today, a great deal of research is focused on improving the accuracy, reliability and coverage of GNSS by combining sensors and existing spatial information. At the same time, a wide range of technologies is being leveraged to provide an effective positioning and navigation solution in GNSS-deprived environments.

The aim of this collection is to collect new research and developments in positioning and navigation. We invite original contributions on topics related to sensor technology, methodology and applications of positioning and navigation, including, but not limited to:

  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
  • Inertial navigation
  • Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR)
  • Visual Odometry
  • Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM)
  • Wireless positioning technologies
  • Wi-Fi networks
  • Bluetooth Low Energy
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
  • Ultrasound positioning
  • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) positioning
  • Near Field Communication (NFC)
  • Magnetic sensors
  • Sensor integration and hybrid methods
  • Path planning
  • Navigation guidance
  • Wayfinding
  • Location-Based Services (LBS)
  • Space modelling

Dr. Kourosh Khoshelham
Prof. Dr. Sisi Zlatanova
Prof. Dr. Chris Rizos
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Localization
  • Positioning
  • Navigation
  • Routing
  • Wayfinding
  • Location sensing
  • Autonomous navigation
  • Assisted navigation

Published Papers (88 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019, 2018

Open AccessArticle
Lane-Level Map-Matching Method for Vehicle Localization Using GPS and Camera on a High-Definition Map
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082166 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
Accurate vehicle localization is important for autonomous driving and advanced driver assistance systems. Existing precise localization systems based on the global navigation satellite system cannot always provide lane-level accuracy even in open-sky environments. Map-based localization using high-definition (HD) maps is an interesting method [...] Read more.
Accurate vehicle localization is important for autonomous driving and advanced driver assistance systems. Existing precise localization systems based on the global navigation satellite system cannot always provide lane-level accuracy even in open-sky environments. Map-based localization using high-definition (HD) maps is an interesting method for achieving greater accuracy. We propose a map-based localization method using a single camera. Our method relies on road link information in the HD map to achieve lane-level accuracy. Initially, we process the image—acquired using the camera of a mobile device—via inverse perspective mapping, which shows the entire road at a glance in the driving image. Subsequently, we use the Hough transform to detect the vehicle lines and acquire driving link information regarding the lane on which the vehicle is moving. The vehicle position is estimated by matching the global positioning system (GPS) and reference HD map. We employ iterative closest point-based map-matching to determine and eliminate the disparity between the GPS trajectories and reference map. Finally, we perform experiments by considering the data of a sophisticated GPS/inertial navigation system as the ground truth and demonstrate that the proposed method provides lane-level position accuracy for vehicle localization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Precision and Reliability of Tightly Coupled PPP GNSS and Landmark Monocular Vision Positioning
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051537 - 10 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper presents an approach to analyse the quality, in terms of precision and reliability, of a system which integrates—at the observation-level—landmark positions and GNSS measurements, obtained with a single camera and a digital map, and a single frequency GNSS receiver respectively. We [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach to analyse the quality, in terms of precision and reliability, of a system which integrates—at the observation-level—landmark positions and GNSS measurements, obtained with a single camera and a digital map, and a single frequency GNSS receiver respectively. We illustrate the analysis by means of design computations, and we present the actual performance by means of a small experiment in practice. It is shown that the integration model is able to produce a position solution even when both sensors individually fail to do so. With realistic assumptions on measurement noise, the proposed integrated, low-cost system can deliver a horizontal position with a precision of better than half a meter. The external reliability of the integrated system is at the few decimetre-level, showing that the impact of undetected faults in the measurements, for instance incorrectly identified landmarks in the image, on the horizontal position is limited and acceptable, thereby confirming the fault-robustness of the system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perception in the Dark; Development of a ToF Visual Inertial Odometry System
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051263 - 26 Feb 2020
Abstract
Visual inertial odometry (VIO) is the front-end of visual simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) methods and has been actively studied in recent years. In this context, a time-of-flight (ToF) camera, with its high accuracy of depth measurement and strong resilience to ambient light [...] Read more.
Visual inertial odometry (VIO) is the front-end of visual simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) methods and has been actively studied in recent years. In this context, a time-of-flight (ToF) camera, with its high accuracy of depth measurement and strong resilience to ambient light of variable intensity, draws our interest. Thus, in this paper, we present a realtime visual inertial system based on a low cost ToF camera. The iterative closest point (ICP) methodology is adopted, incorporating salient point-selection criteria and a robustness-weighting function. In addition, an error-state Kalman filter is used and fused with inertial measurement unit (IMU) data. To test its capability, the ToF–VIO system is mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform and operated in a variable light environment. The estimated flight trajectory is compared with the ground truth data captured by a motion capture system. Real flight experiments are also conducted in a dark indoor environment, demonstrating good agreement with estimated performance. The current system is thus shown to be accurate and efficient for use in UAV applications in dark and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Distributed Multi-Antenna Positioning for Automatic-Guided Vehicle
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041155 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Radio-based positioning systems are typically utilized to provide high-precision position information for automatic-guided vehicles (AGVs). However, the presence of obstacles in harsh environments, as well as carried cargoes on the AGV, will degrade the localization performance, since they block the propagation of radio [...] Read more.
Radio-based positioning systems are typically utilized to provide high-precision position information for automatic-guided vehicles (AGVs). However, the presence of obstacles in harsh environments, as well as carried cargoes on the AGV, will degrade the localization performance, since they block the propagation of radio signals. In this paper, a distributed multi-antenna positioning system is proposed, where multiple synchronous antennas are equipped on corners of an AGV to improve the availability and accuracy of positioning. An estimator based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is introduced to solve the nonlinear pseudo-range equations. To obtain the global optimal solutions, we propose a coarse estimator that utilizes the displacement knowledge of the antennas to provide a rough initial guess. Simulation results show a better availability of our system compared with the single antenna positioning system. Decimeter accuracy can be obtained under a Gaussian measurement noise with a standard deviation of 0.2 m. The results also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve positioning accuracy close to the theoretical Cramer–Rao lower bound. Furthermore, given prior information of the yaw angle, the same level of accuracy can be obtained by the proposed algorithm without the coarse estimation step. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Definition 3D Map Creation Using GNSS/IMU/LiDAR Sensor Integration to Support Autonomous Vehicle Navigation
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030899 - 07 Feb 2020
Abstract
Recent developments in sensor technologies such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), radar, and camera have led to emerging state-of-the-art autonomous systems, such as driverless vehicles or UAS (Unmanned Airborne Systems) swarms. These technologies [...] Read more.
Recent developments in sensor technologies such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), radar, and camera have led to emerging state-of-the-art autonomous systems, such as driverless vehicles or UAS (Unmanned Airborne Systems) swarms. These technologies necessitate the use of accurate object space information about the physical environment around the platform. This information can be generally provided by the suitable selection of the sensors, including sensor types and capabilities, the number of sensors, and their spatial arrangement. Since all these sensor technologies have different error sources and characteristics, rigorous sensor modeling is needed to eliminate/mitigate errors to obtain an accurate, reliable, and robust integrated solution. Mobile mapping systems are very similar to autonomous vehicles in terms of being able to reconstruct the environment around the platforms. However, they differ a lot in operations and objectives. Mobile mapping vehicles use professional grade sensors, such as geodetic grade GNSS, tactical grade IMU, mobile LiDAR, and metric cameras, and the solution is created in post-processing. In contrast, autonomous vehicles use simple/inexpensive sensors, require real-time operations, and are primarily interested in identifying and tracking moving objects. In this study, the main objective was to assess the performance potential of autonomous vehicle sensor systems to obtain high-definition maps based on only using Velodyne sensor data for creating accurate point clouds. In other words, no other sensor data were considered in this investigation. The results have confirmed that cm-level accuracy can be achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geo-Social Top-k and Skyline Keyword Queries on Road Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030798 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
The rapid growth of GPS-enabled mobile devices has popularized many location-based applications. Spatial keyword search which finds objects of interest by considering both spatial locations and textual descriptions has become very useful in these applications. The recent integration of social data with spatial [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of GPS-enabled mobile devices has popularized many location-based applications. Spatial keyword search which finds objects of interest by considering both spatial locations and textual descriptions has become very useful in these applications. The recent integration of social data with spatial keyword search opens a new service horizon for users. Few previous studies have proposed methods to combine spatial keyword queries with social data in Euclidean space. However, most real-world applications constrain the distance between query location and data objects by a road network, where distance between two points is defined by the shortest connecting path. This paper proposes geo-social top-k keyword queries and geo-social skyline keyword queries on road networks. Both queries enrich traditional spatial keyword query semantics by incorporating social relevance component. We formalize the proposed query types and appropriate indexing frameworks and algorithms to efficiently process them. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approaches are evaluated using real datasets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fusion of GNSS and Speedometer Based on VMD and Its Application in Bridge Deformation Monitoring
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030694 - 27 Jan 2020
Abstract
Real-time dynamic displacement and spectral response on the midspan of Jiangyin Bridge were calculated using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and a speedometer for the purpose of understanding the dynamic behavior and the temporal evolution of the bridge structure. Considering that the GNSS [...] Read more.
Real-time dynamic displacement and spectral response on the midspan of Jiangyin Bridge were calculated using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and a speedometer for the purpose of understanding the dynamic behavior and the temporal evolution of the bridge structure. Considering that the GNSS measurement noise is large and the velocity/acceleration sensors cannot measure the low-frequency displacement, the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) algorithm was used to extract the low-frequency displacement of GNSS. Then, the low-frequency displacement extracted from the GNSS time series and the high-frequency vibration calculated by speedometer were combined in this paper in order to obtain the high precision three-dimensional dynamic displacement of the bridge in real time. Simulation experiment and measured data show that the VMD algorithm could effectively resist the modal aliasing caused by noise and discontinuous signals compared with the commonly used Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) algorithm, which is guaranteed to get high-precision fusion data. Finally, the fused displacement results can identify high-frequency vibrations and low-frequency displacements of a mm level, which can be used to calculate the spectral characteristics of the bridge and provide reference to evaluate the dynamic and static loads, and the health status of the bridge in the full frequency domain and the full time domain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Timekeeping of Navigation Satellite Constellation with Inter-Satellite Links
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030670 - 25 Jan 2020
Abstract
As a system of ranging and positioning based on time transfer, the timekeeping ability of a navigation satellite constellation is a key factor for accurate positioning and timing services. As the timekeeping performances depend on the frequency stability and predictability of satellite clocks, [...] Read more.
As a system of ranging and positioning based on time transfer, the timekeeping ability of a navigation satellite constellation is a key factor for accurate positioning and timing services. As the timekeeping performances depend on the frequency stability and predictability of satellite clocks, we propose a method to establish a more stable and predictable space time reference, i.e., inter-satellite link time (ISLT), uniting the satellite clocks through inter-satellite links (ISLs). The joint timekeeping framework is introduced first. Based on the weighted average timescale algorithm, the optimal weights that minimize the increment of the ISLT timescale are determined and allocated to the clock ensemble to improve the frequency stability and predictability in both the long and short term. The time deviations with respect to the system time of nine BeiDou-3 satellites through multi-satellite precise orbit determination (MPOD) are used for joint timekeeping evaluation. According to the Allan deviation, the frequency of the ISLT is more stable than the nine satellite clocks in the short term (averaging time smaller than 7000 s), and its daily stability can reach 6 × 10−15. Meanwhile, the short-term (two hours) and long-term (10 h) prediction accuracy of the ISLT is 0.18 and 1.05 ns, respectively, also better than each satellite clock. Furthermore, the joint timekeeping is verified to be robust against single-satellite malfunction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Absolute Positioning and Orientation of MLSS in a Subway Tunnel Based on Sparse Point-Assisted DR
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030645 - 23 Jan 2020
Abstract
When performing the inspection of subway tunnels, there is an immense amount of data to be collected and the time available for inspection is short; however, the requirement for inspection accuracy is high. In this study, a mobile laser scanning system (MLSS) was [...] Read more.
When performing the inspection of subway tunnels, there is an immense amount of data to be collected and the time available for inspection is short; however, the requirement for inspection accuracy is high. In this study, a mobile laser scanning system (MLSS) was used for the inspection of subway tunnels, and the key technology of the positioning and orientation system (POS) was investigated. We utilized the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the odometer as the core sensors of the POS. The initial attitude of the MLSS was obtained by using a static initial alignment method. Considering that there is no global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal in a subway, the forward and backward dead reckoning (DR) algorithm was used to calculate the positions and attitudes of the MLSS from any starting point in two directions. While the MLSS passed by the control points distributed on both sides of the track, the local coordinates of the control points were transmitted to the center of the MLSS by using the ranging information of the laser scanner. Then, a four-parameter transformation method was used to correct the error of the POS and transform the 3-D state information of the MLSS from a navigation coordinate system (NCS) to a local coordinate system (LCS). This method can completely eliminate a MLSS’s dependence on GNSS signals, and the obtained positioning and attitude information can be used for point cloud data fusion to directly obtain the coordinates in the LCS. In a tunnel of the Beijing–Zhangjiakou high-speed railway, when the distance interval of the control points used for correction was 120 m, the accuracy of the 3-D coordinates of the point clouds was 8 mm, and the experiment also showed that it takes less than 4 h to complete all the inspection work for a 5–6 km long tunnel. Further, the results from the inspection work of Wuhan subway lines showed that when the distance intervals of the control points used for correction were 60 m, 120 m, 240 m, and 480 m, the accuracies of the 3-D coordinates of the point clouds in the local coordinate system were 4 mm, 6 mm, 7 mm, and 8 mm, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomous Exploration and Map Construction of a Mobile Robot Based on the TGHM Algorithm
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020490 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
An a priori map is often unavailable for a mobile robot in a new environment. In a large-scale environment, relying on manual guidance to construct an environment map will result in a huge workload. Hence, an autonomous exploration algorithm is necessary for the [...] Read more.
An a priori map is often unavailable for a mobile robot in a new environment. In a large-scale environment, relying on manual guidance to construct an environment map will result in a huge workload. Hence, an autonomous exploration algorithm is necessary for the mobile robot to complete the exploration actively. This study proposes an autonomous exploration and mapping method based on an incremental caching topology–grid hybrid map (TGHM). Such an algorithm can accomplish the exploration task with high efficiency and high coverage of the established map. The TGHM is a fusion of a topology map, containing the information gain and motion cost for exploration, and a grid map, representing the established map for navigation and localization. At the beginning of one exploration round, the method of candidate target point generation based on geometry rules are applied to extract the candidates quickly. Then, a TGHM is established, and the information gain is evaluated for each candidate topology node on it. Finally, the node with the best evaluation value is selected as the next target point and the topology map is updated after each motion towards it as the end of this round. Simulations and experiments were performed to benchmark the proposed algorithm in robot autonomous exploration and map construction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
City-Wide Traffic Flow Forecasting Using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020421 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
City-wide traffic flow forecasting is a significant function of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS), which plays an important role in city traffic management and public travel safety. However, this remains a very challenging task that is affected by many complex factors, such as [...] Read more.
City-wide traffic flow forecasting is a significant function of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS), which plays an important role in city traffic management and public travel safety. However, this remains a very challenging task that is affected by many complex factors, such as road network distribution and external factors (e.g., weather, accidents, and holidays). In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-based multi-branch model called TFFNet (Traffic Flow Forecasting Network) to forecast the short-term traffic status (flow) throughout a city. The model uses spatiotemporal traffic flow matrices and external factors as its input and then infers and outputs the future short-term traffic status (flow) of the whole road network. For modelling the spatial correlations of the traffic flows between current and adjacent road segments, we employ a multi-layer fully convolutional framework to perform cross-correlation calculation and extract the hierarchical spatial dependencies from local to global scales. Also, we extract the temporal closeness and periodicity of traffic flow from historical observations by constructing a high-dimensional tensor comprised of traffic flow matrices from three fragments of the time axis: recent time, near history, and distant history. External factors are also considered and trained with a fully connected neural network and then fused with the output of the main component of TFFNet. The multi-branch model is automatically trained to fit complex patterns hidden in the traffic flow matrices until reaching pre-defined convergent criteria via the back-propagation method. By constructing a rational model input and network architecture, TFFNet can capture spatial and temporal dependencies simultaneously from traffic flow matrices during model training and outperforms other typical traffic flow forecasting methods in the experimental dataset. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cycle Slip Detection Framework for Reliable Single Frequency RTK Positioning
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010304 - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
Single frequency real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is expected to be the leading implementation platform for a variety of emerging GNSS mass-market applications. During RTK positioning, the most common source of measurement errors is carrier-phase cycle slips (CS). The presence of CS in carrier-phase [...] Read more.
Single frequency real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is expected to be the leading implementation platform for a variety of emerging GNSS mass-market applications. During RTK positioning, the most common source of measurement errors is carrier-phase cycle slips (CS). The presence of CS in carrier-phase measurements is tested by a CS detection technique and correspondingly taken care of. While using CS prone measurement data, positioning reliability is an area of concern for RTK users. Reliability can be linked with the CS detection scheme through a least squares (LS) adjustment process. This paper proposes a CS detection framework for reliable RTK positioning using single-frequency GNSS receivers. The scheme uses double differenced measurements for CS detection via LS adjustment using a detection, identification, and adaptation approach. For reliable positioning, the procedure to link the detection and identification stages is described. Through tests conducted on kinematic data, internal and external reliability are theoretically determined by calculating minimal detectable bias (MDB) and marginally detectable errors, respectively. After introducing CS, the actual values of MDB are found to be four cycles, which are higher than the theoretically obtained values of one and two cycles. Although CS detection for reliable positioning is implemented for single-frequency RTK users, the proposed procedure is generic and can be used whenever CS are detected through statistical tests during LS adjustment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
EGNOS 1046 Maritime Service Assessment
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010276 - 03 Jan 2020
Abstract
The present contribution evaluates how the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS) meets the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements established in its Resolution A.1046 for navigation in harbor entrances, harbor approaches, and coastal waters: 99.8% of signal availability, 99.8% of service availability, 99.97% [...] Read more.
The present contribution evaluates how the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS) meets the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements established in its Resolution A.1046 for navigation in harbor entrances, harbor approaches, and coastal waters: 99.8% of signal availability, 99.8% of service availability, 99.97% of service continuity and 10 m of horizontal accuracy. The data campaign comprises two years of data, from 1 May 2016 to 30 April 2018 (i.e., 730 days), involving 108 permanent stations located within 20 km of the coast or in islands across the EGNOS coverage area, EGNOS corrections, and cleansed GPS broadcast navigation data files. We used the GNSS Laboratory Tool Suite (gLAB) to compute the reference coordinates of the stations, the EGNOS solution, as well as the EGNOS service maps. Our results show a signal availability of 99.999%, a horizontal accuracy of 0.91 m at the 95th percentile, and the regions where the IMO requirements on service availability and service continuity are met. In light of the results presented in the paper, the authors suggest the revision of the assumptions made in the EGNOS Maritime Service against those made in EGNOS for civil aviation; in particular, the use of the EGNOS Message Type 10. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Methods of Utilizing Multi-SBAS Corrections in Multi-GNSS Positioning
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010256 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Various combining methods have been proposed to utilize multi-satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) correction to provide accurate position in the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver. However, the proposed methods have not been objectively compared and analyzed, making it difficult to know which ones [...] Read more.
Various combining methods have been proposed to utilize multi-satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) correction to provide accurate position in the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver. However, the proposed methods have not been objectively compared and analyzed, making it difficult to know which ones are effective for multi-GNSS positioning. This paper presents efficient methods of combining multi-SBAS corrections in multi-GNSS positioning by comparing three methods: correction domain integration, measurement domain integration, and position domain integration. The performance of the three methods were analyzed through a covariance analysis that was expanded to multi-GNSS and multi-SBAS. Then, the results were verified by experiments using real measurements and corrections. Furthermore, implementation issues, such as computational complexity, availability, and flexibility, are analyzed. As a result, three methods had the same precision, but different complexity, availability, and flexibility. These results will be important guidelines to design, implement, and analyze navigation systems based on multi-GNSS with multi-SBAS corrections. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020, 2018

Open AccessArticle
Integration of Computer Vision and Wireless Networks to Provide Indoor Positioning
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5495; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245495 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
This work presents an integrated Indoor Positioning System which makes use of WiFi signals and RGB cameras, such as surveillance cameras, to track and identify people navigating in complex indoor environments. Previous works have often been based on WiFi, but accuracy is limited. [...] Read more.
This work presents an integrated Indoor Positioning System which makes use of WiFi signals and RGB cameras, such as surveillance cameras, to track and identify people navigating in complex indoor environments. Previous works have often been based on WiFi, but accuracy is limited. Other works use computer vision, but the problem of identifying concrete persons relies on such techniques as face recognition, which are not useful if there are many unknown people, or where the robustness decreases when individuals are seen from different points of view. The solution presented in this paper is based on an accurate combination of smartphones along with RGB cameras, such as those used in surveillance infrastructures. WiFi signals from smartphones allow the persons present in the environment to be identified uniquely, while the data coming from the cameras allow the precision of location to be improved. The system is nonintrusive, and biometric data about subjects is not required. In this paper, the proposed method is fully described and experiments performed to test the system are detailed along with the results obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cooperative Localization Improvement Using Distance Information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5231; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235231 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANets), a precise localization system is a crucial factor for several critical safety applications. The global positioning system (GPS) is commonly used to determine the vehicles’ position estimation. However, it has unwanted errors yet that can be worse [...] Read more.
In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANets), a precise localization system is a crucial factor for several critical safety applications. The global positioning system (GPS) is commonly used to determine the vehicles’ position estimation. However, it has unwanted errors yet that can be worse in some areas, such as urban street canyons and indoor parking lots, making it inaccurate for most critical safety applications. In this work, we present a new position estimation method called cooperative vehicle localization improvement using distance information (CoVaLID), which improves GPS positions of nearby vehicles and minimize their errors through an extended Kalman filter to execute Data Fusion using GPS and distance information. Our solution also uses distance information to assess the position accuracy related to three different aspects: the number of vehicles, vehicle trajectory, and distance information error. For that purpose, we use a weighted average method to put more confidence in distance information given by neighbors closer to the target. We implement and evaluate the performance of CoVaLID using real-world data, as well as discuss the impact of different distance sensors in our proposed solution. Our results clearly show that CoVaLID is capable of reducing the GPS error by 63%, and 53% when compared to the state-of-the-art VANet location improve (VLOCI) algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In-Depth Analysis of Unmodulated Visible Light Positioning Using the Iterated Extended Kalman Filter
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5198; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235198 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Indoor positioning with visible light has become increasingly important in recent years. Usually, light sources are modulated at high speeds in order to wirelessly transmit data from the fixtures to a receiver. The accuracy of such systems can range from a few decimeters [...] Read more.
Indoor positioning with visible light has become increasingly important in recent years. Usually, light sources are modulated at high speeds in order to wirelessly transmit data from the fixtures to a receiver. The accuracy of such systems can range from a few decimeters to a few centimeters. However, additional modulation hardware is required for every light source, thereby increasing cost and system complexity. This paper investigates the use of unmodulated light for indoor positioning. Contrary to previous work, a Kalman filter is used instead of a particle filter to decrease the computational load. As a result, the update rate of position estimation can be higher. Additionally, more resources could be made available for other tasks (e.g., path planning for autonomous robots). We evaluated the performance of our proposed approach through simulations and experiments. The accuracy depends on a number of parameters, but is generally lower than 0.5 m. Moreover, temporary occlusion of the receiver can be compensated in most cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SNR-Dependent Environmental Model: Application in Real-Time GNSS Landslide Monitoring
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 5017; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19225017 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is currently one of the important tools for landslide monitoring and early warning. However, the majority of GNSS devices are installed in mountainous areas and a variety of vegetation. These harsh environments lead to defective signals at [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is currently one of the important tools for landslide monitoring and early warning. However, the majority of GNSS devices are installed in mountainous areas and a variety of vegetation. These harsh environments lead to defective signals at high elevation angles, rendering real-time successive and reliable positioning results for monitoring difficult. In this study, an environmental model derived from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is proposed to enhance the precision and convergence time of positioning in harsh environments. A series of experiments are conducted on weighting and ambiguity-fixed models to evaluate performance. The results indicate that the proposed SNR-dependent environment model could lead to a significant improvement in precision and convergence time; with an obtained root mean squared result on the millimeter level, a convergence time of a few seconds, and utilization which could reach 100%, for continuous and reliable positioning results. These results indicate that the proposed SNR-dependent environment model enhances the performance of GNSS monitoring and early warning to provide continuous and reliable positioning results in real-time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ACK-MSCKF: Tightly-Coupled Ackermann Multi-State Constraint Kalman Filter for Autonomous Vehicle Localization
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214816 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO) is subjected to additional unobservable directions under the special motions of ground vehicles, resulting in larger pose estimation errors. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled Ackermann visual-inertial odometry (ACK-MSCKF) is proposed to fuse Ackermann error state measurements and the Stereo [...] Read more.
Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO) is subjected to additional unobservable directions under the special motions of ground vehicles, resulting in larger pose estimation errors. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled Ackermann visual-inertial odometry (ACK-MSCKF) is proposed to fuse Ackermann error state measurements and the Stereo Multi-State Constraint Kalman Filter (S-MSCKF) with a tightly-coupled filter-based mechanism. In contrast with S-MSCKF, in which the inertial measurement unit (IMU) propagates the vehicle motion and then the propagation is corrected by stereo visual measurements, we successively update the propagation with Ackermann error state measurements and visual measurements after the process model and state augmentation. This way, additional constraints from the Ackermann measurements are exploited to improve the pose estimation accuracy. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results evaluated under real-world datasets from an Ackermann steering vehicle lead to the following demonstration: ACK-MSCKF can significantly improve the pose estimation accuracy of S-MSCKF under the special motions of autonomous vehicles, and keep accurate and robust pose estimation available under different vehicle driving cycles and environmental conditions. This paper accompanies the source code for the robotics community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Simulated Fukushima Daichii Fuel Debris Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle at the Naraha Test Facility
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4602; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204602 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
The use of robotics in harsh environments, such as nuclear decommissioning, has increased in recent years. Environments such as the Fukushima Daiichi accident site from 2011 and the Sellafield legacy ponds highlight the need for robotic systems capable of deployment in hazardous environments [...] Read more.
The use of robotics in harsh environments, such as nuclear decommissioning, has increased in recent years. Environments such as the Fukushima Daiichi accident site from 2011 and the Sellafield legacy ponds highlight the need for robotic systems capable of deployment in hazardous environments unsafe for human workers. To characterise these environments, it is important to develop robust and accurate localization systems that can be combined with mapping techniques to create 3D reconstructions of the unknown environment. This paper describes the development and experimental verification of a localization system for an underwater robot, which enabled the collection of sonar data to create 3D images of submerged simulated fuel debris. The system was demonstrated at the Naraha test facility, Fukushima prefecture, Japan. Using a camera with a bird’s-eye view of the simulated primary containment vessel, the 3D position and attitude of the robot was obtained using coloured LED markers (active markers) on the robot, landmarks on the test-rig (passive markers), and a depth sensor on the robot. The successful reconstruction of a 3D image has been created through use of a robot operating system (ROS) node in real-time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Ensemble Filter for Indoor Positioning in a Retail Store Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4550; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204550 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper has developed and deployed a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacon-based indoor positioning system in a two-floor retail store. The ultimate purpose of this study was to compare the different indoor positioning techniques towards achieving efficient position determination of moving customers in [...] Read more.
This paper has developed and deployed a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacon-based indoor positioning system in a two-floor retail store. The ultimate purpose of this study was to compare the different indoor positioning techniques towards achieving efficient position determination of moving customers in the retail store. The innovation of this research lies in its context (the retail store) and the fact that this is not a laboratory, controlled experiment. Retail stores are challenging environments with multiple sources of noise (e.g., shoppers’ moving) that impede indoor localization. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work concerning indoor localization of consumers in a real retail store. This study proposes an ensemble filter with lower absolute mean and root mean squared errors than the random forest. Moreover, the localization error is approximately 2 m, while for the random forest, it is 2.5 m. In retail environments, even a 0.5 m deviation is significant because consumers may be positioned in front of different store shelves and, thus, different product categories. The more accurate the consumer localization, the more accurate and rich insights on the customers’ shopping behavior. Consequently, retailers can offer more effective customer location-based services (e.g., personalized offers) and, overall, better consumer localization can improve decision making in retailing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Maritime Traffic Anomaly Detection Based on Sensors and History Data Embedding
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173782 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The automated identification system of vessel movements receives a huge amount of multivariate, heterogeneous sensor data, which should be analyzed to make a proper and timely decision on vessel movements. The large number of vessels makes it difficult and time-consuming to detect abnormalities, [...] Read more.
The automated identification system of vessel movements receives a huge amount of multivariate, heterogeneous sensor data, which should be analyzed to make a proper and timely decision on vessel movements. The large number of vessels makes it difficult and time-consuming to detect abnormalities, thus rapid response algorithms should be developed for a decision support system to identify abnormal movements of vessels in areas of heavy traffic. This paper extends the previous study on a self-organizing map application for processing of sensor stream data received by the maritime automated identification system. The more data about the vessel’s movement is registered and submitted to the algorithm, the higher the accuracy of the algorithm should be. However, the task cannot be guaranteed without using an effective retraining strategy with respect to precision and data processing time. In addition, retraining ensures the integration of the latest vessel movement data, which reflects the actual conditions and context. With a view to maintaining the quality of the results of the algorithm, data batching strategies for the neural network retraining to detect anomalies in streaming maritime traffic data were investigated. The effectiveness of strategies in terms of modeling precision and the data processing time were estimated on real sensor data. The obtained results show that the neural network retraining time can be shortened by half while the sensitivity and precision only change slightly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid IRBM-BPNN Approach for Error Parameter Estimation of SINS on Aircraft
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3682; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173682 - 24 Aug 2019
Abstract
To realize the error parameter estimation of strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) and improve the navigation accuracy for aircraft, a hybrid improved restricted Boltzmann machine BP neural network (IRBM-BPNN) approach, which combines restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and BP neural network (BPNN), is proposed [...] Read more.
To realize the error parameter estimation of strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) and improve the navigation accuracy for aircraft, a hybrid improved restricted Boltzmann machine BP neural network (IRBM-BPNN) approach, which combines restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and BP neural network (BPNN), is proposed to forecast the inertial measurement unit (IMU) instrument errors and initial alignment errors of SINS. Firstly, the error generation mechanism of SINS is analyzed, and initial alignment error model and IMU instrument error model are established. Secondly, an unsupervised RBM method is introduced to initialize BPNN to improve the forecast performance of the neural network. The RBM-BPNN model is constructed through the information fusion of SINS/GPS/CNS integrated navigation system by using the sum of position deviation, the sum of velocity deviation and the sum of attitude deviation as the inputs and by using the error parameters of SINS as the outputs. The RBM-BPNN structure is improved to enhance its forecast accuracy, and the pulse signal is increased as the input of the neural network. Finally, we conduct simulation experiments to forecast and compensate the error parameters of the proposed IRBM-BPNN method. Simulation results show that the artificial neural network method is feasible and effective in forecasting SINS error parameters, and the forecast accuracy of SINS error parameters can be effectively improved by combining RBM and BPNN methods and improving the neural network structure. The proposed IRBM-BPNN method has the optimal forecast accuracy of SINS error parameters and navigation accuracy of aircraft compared with the radial basis function neural network method and BPNN method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Leveraging Visual Place Recognition to Improve Indoor Positioning with Limited Availability of WiFi Scans
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3657; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173657 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
WiFi-based fingerprinting is promising for practical indoor localization with smartphones because this technique provides absolute estimates of the current position, while the WiFi infrastructure is ubiquitous in the majority of indoor environments. However, the application of WiFi fingerprinting for positioning requires pre-surveyed signal [...] Read more.
WiFi-based fingerprinting is promising for practical indoor localization with smartphones because this technique provides absolute estimates of the current position, while the WiFi infrastructure is ubiquitous in the majority of indoor environments. However, the application of WiFi fingerprinting for positioning requires pre-surveyed signal maps and is getting more restricted in the recent generation of smartphones due to changes in security policies. Therefore, we sought new sources of information that can be fused into the existing indoor positioning framework, helping users to pinpoint their position, even with a relatively low-quality, sparse WiFi signal map. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information can be derived from the recognition of camera images. We present a way of transforming qualitative information of image similarity into quantitative constraints that are then fused into the graph-based optimization framework for positioning together with typical pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and WiFi fingerprinting constraints. Performance of the improved indoor positioning system is evaluated on different user trajectories logged inside an office building at our University campus. The results demonstrate that introducing additional sensing modality into the positioning system makes it possible to increase accuracy and simultaneously reduce the dependence on the quality of the pre-surveyed WiFi map and the WiFi measurements at run-time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Precise and Robust RTK-GNSS Positioning in Urban Environments with Dual-Antenna Configuration
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163586 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Robust and centimeter-level Real-time Kinematic (RTK)-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning is of paramount importance for emerging GNSS applications, such as drones and automobile systems. However, the performance of conventional single-rover RTK degrades greatly in urban environments due to signal blockage and [...] Read more.
Robust and centimeter-level Real-time Kinematic (RTK)-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning is of paramount importance for emerging GNSS applications, such as drones and automobile systems. However, the performance of conventional single-rover RTK degrades greatly in urban environments due to signal blockage and strong multipath. The increasing use of multiple-antenna/rover configurations for attitude determination in the above precise positioning applications, just as well, allows more information involved to improve RTK positioning performance in urban areas. This paper proposes a dual-antenna constraint RTK algorithm, which combines GNSS measurements of both antennas by making use of the geometric constraint between them. By doing this, the reception diversity between two antennas can be taken advantage of to improve the availability and geometric distribution of GNSS satellites, and what is more, the redundant measurements from a second antenna help to weaken the multipath effect on the first antenna. Particularly, an Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP)-based analysis is carried out to explore the intrinsic model strength for ambiguity resolution (AR) with different kinds of constraints. Based on the results, a Dual-Antenna with baseline VEctor Constraint algorithm (RTK) is developed. The primary advantages of the reported method include: (1) Improved availability and success rate of RTK, even if neither of the two single-antenna receivers can successfully solve the AR problem; and (2) reduced computational burden by adopting the concept of measurement projection. Simulated and real data experiments are performed to demonstrate robustness and precision of the algorithm in GNSS-challenged environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Calibration of BeiDou Triple-Frequency Receiver-Related Pseudorange Biases and Their Application in BDS Precise Positioning and Ambiguity Resolution
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163500 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite System pseudorange biases are of great importance for precise positioning, timing and ionospheric modeling. The existence of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) receiver-related pseudorange biases will lead to the loss of precision in the BDS satellite clock, differential code bias [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite System pseudorange biases are of great importance for precise positioning, timing and ionospheric modeling. The existence of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) receiver-related pseudorange biases will lead to the loss of precision in the BDS satellite clock, differential code bias estimation, and other precise applications, especially when inhomogeneous receivers are used. In order to improve the performance of BDS precise applications, two ionosphere-free and geometry-free combinations and ionosphere-free pseudorange residuals are proposed to calibrate the raw receiver-related pseudorange biases of BDS on each frequency. Then, the BDS triple-frequency receiver-related pseudorange biases of seven different manufacturers and twelve receiver models are calibrated. Finally, the effects of receiver-related pseudorange bias are analyzed by BDS single-frequency single point positioning (SPP), single- and dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP), wide-lane uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation, and ambiguity resolution, respectively. The results show that the BDS SPP performance can be significantly improved by correcting the receiver-related pseudorange biases and the accuracy improvement is about 20% on average. Moreover, the accuracy of single- and dual-frequency PPP is improved mainly due to a faster convergence when the receiver-related pseudorange biases are corrected. On the other hand, the consistency of wide-lane UPD among different stations is improved significantly and the standard deviation of wide-lane UPD residuals is decreased from 0.195 to 0.061 cycles. The average success rate of wide-lane ambiguity resolution is improved about 42.10%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Robust Indoor Positioning Method based on Bluetooth Low Energy with Separate Channel Information
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3487; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163487 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Among the current indoor positioning technologies, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) has gained increasing attention. In particular, the traditional distance estimation derived from aggregate RSS and signal-attenuation models is generally unstable because of the complicated interference in indoor environments. To improve the adaptability and [...] Read more.
Among the current indoor positioning technologies, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) has gained increasing attention. In particular, the traditional distance estimation derived from aggregate RSS and signal-attenuation models is generally unstable because of the complicated interference in indoor environments. To improve the adaptability and robustness of the BLE positioning system, we propose making full use of the three separate channels of BLE instead of their combination, which has generally been used before. In the first step, three signal-attenuation models are separately established for each BLE advertising channel in the offline phase, and a more stable distance in the online phase can be acquired by assembling measurements from all three channels with the distance decision strategy. Subsequently, a weighted trilateration method with uncertainties related to the distances derived in the first step is proposed to determine the user’s optimal position. The test results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm for determining the distance error achieves a value of less than 2.2 m at 90%, while for the positioning error, it achieves a value of less than 2.4 m at 90%. Compared with the traditional methods, the positioning error of our method is reduced by 33% to 38% for different smartphones and scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliable and Fast Localization in Ambiguous Environments Using Ambiguity Grid Map
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3331; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153331 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In real-world robotic navigation, some ambiguous environments contain symmetrical or featureless areas that may cause the perceptual aliasing of external sensors. As a result of that, the uncorrected localization errors will accumulate during the localization process, which imposes difficulties to locate a robot [...] Read more.
In real-world robotic navigation, some ambiguous environments contain symmetrical or featureless areas that may cause the perceptual aliasing of external sensors. As a result of that, the uncorrected localization errors will accumulate during the localization process, which imposes difficulties to locate a robot in such a situation. Using the ambiguity grid map (AGM), we address this problem by proposing a novel probabilistic localization method, referred to as AGM-based adaptive Monte Carlo localization. AGM has the capacity of evaluating the environmental ambiguity with average ambiguity error and estimating the possible localization error at a given pose. Benefiting from the constructed AGM, our localization method is derived from an improved Dynamic Bayes network to reason about the robot’s pose as well as the accumulated localization error. Moreover, a portal motion model is presented to achieve more reliable pose prediction without time-consuming implementation, and thus the accumulated localization error can be corrected immediately when the robot moving through an ambiguous area. Simulation and real-world experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves localization reliability while maintains efficiency in ambiguous environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Correlation-Based Fingerprinting Method Using LTE Signal for Localization in Urban Canyon
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153325 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
The Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) used in various location-based services is accurate and stable in outdoor environments. However, it cannot be utilized in an indoor environment because of low signal availability and degradation of accuracy due to the multipath distortion of satellite [...] Read more.
The Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) used in various location-based services is accurate and stable in outdoor environments. However, it cannot be utilized in an indoor environment because of low signal availability and degradation of accuracy due to the multipath distortion of satellite signals in urban areas. On the contrary, LTE signals are available almost everywhere in urban areas and are quite stable without much variation throughout the year. This is because of the fixed location of base stations and the well-maintained policy of mobile communication service providers. Its varied stability and reliability make LTE signals a more viable method for localization. However, there are some complexities in utilizing LTE signals including signal interference distortion phenomena during propagation multipath fading, and various types of noise. In this paper, we propose a surface correlation-based fingerprinting method to utilize LTE signals for localization in urban areas. The surface correlation converts timely measured signal strength into spatial pattern using the walking distance from a Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR). The surface correlation is carried out by comparing the spatial signal strength pattern of a pedestrian`s movement trajectory with a fingerprinting database to estimate the location. A reference trajectory of the moving pedestrian is chosen to have a greater correlation among the multiple trajectory candidates generated from a link-based fingerprinting database. By comparing spatial signal strength patterns, the proposed method can improve robustness in localization overcoming the accuracy degradation problem due to RF multipath and noise that are dominant in the conventional RSS measurement-based LTE localization scheme. The test results in urban areas demonstrate that the proposed surface correlation-based fingerprinting method has improved performance compared to the other conventional methods, thus proving to be a useful complementary method to the GNSS in urban areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variance-Triggered Two-Step GPS Acquisition
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3177; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143177 - 19 Jul 2019
Abstract
The acquisition is the most time-consuming step performed by a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The objective is to detect which satellites are transmitting and what are the phase and Doppler frequency shift of the signal. It is the step with the [...] Read more.
The acquisition is the most time-consuming step performed by a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The objective is to detect which satellites are transmitting and what are the phase and Doppler frequency shift of the signal. It is the step with the highest computational complexity, especially for signals subjected to large Doppler shifts. Improving acquisition performance has a large impact on the overall performance of the GNSS reception. In this paper, we present a two-step Global Positioning System (GPS) acquisition algorithm whose first step performs an incremental correlation to find a coarse pair of phase and frequency and the second step, triggered by the variance of the largest correlation values, refines the first step. The proposed strategy, based on the conventional time-domain serial algorithm, reduces the average execution time of the acquisition process to about 1/5 of the conventional acquisition while keeping the same modest logic hardware requirements and slightly better success and false-positive rates. Additionally, the new method reduces memory usage by a factor that is proportional to the signal’s sampling frequency. All these advantages over conventional acquisition contribute together to significantly improve the overall performance and cost of GPS receivers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Benchmarking Particle Filter Algorithms for Efficient Velodyne-Based Vehicle Localization
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3155; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143155 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Keeping a vehicle well-localized within a prebuilt-map is at the core of any autonomous vehicle navigation system. In this work, we show that both standard SIR sampling and rejection-based optimal sampling are suitable for efficient (10 to 20 ms) real-time pose tracking without [...] Read more.
Keeping a vehicle well-localized within a prebuilt-map is at the core of any autonomous vehicle navigation system. In this work, we show that both standard SIR sampling and rejection-based optimal sampling are suitable for efficient (10 to 20 ms) real-time pose tracking without feature detection that is using raw point clouds from a 3D LiDAR. Motivated by the large amount of information captured by these sensors, we perform a systematic statistical analysis of how many points are actually required to reach an optimal ratio between efficiency and positioning accuracy. Furthermore, initialization from adverse conditions, e.g., poor GPS signal in urban canyons, we also identify the optimal particle filter settings required to ensure convergence. Our findings include that a decimation factor between 100 and 200 on incoming point clouds provides a large savings in computational cost with a negligible loss in localization accuracy for a VLP-16 scanner. Furthermore, an initial density of ∼2 particles/m 2 is required to achieve 100% convergence success for large-scale (∼100,000 m 2 ), outdoor global localization without any additional hint from GPS or magnetic field sensors. All implementations have been released as open-source software. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Improvement of Time-Differenced Carrier Phase Measurement-Based Integrated GPS/INS Considering Noise Correlation
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3084; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143084 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, we combined a time-differenced carrier phase (TDCP)-based global positioning system (GPS) with an inertial navigation system (INS) to form an integrated system that appropriately considers noise correlation. The TDCP-based navigation system can determine positions precisely based on high-quality carrier phase [...] Read more.
In this study, we combined a time-differenced carrier phase (TDCP)-based global positioning system (GPS) with an inertial navigation system (INS) to form an integrated system that appropriately considers noise correlation. The TDCP-based navigation system can determine positions precisely based on high-quality carrier phase measurements without difficulty resolving integer ambiguity. Because the TDCP system contains current and previous information that violate the format of the conventional Kalman filter, a delayed state filter that considers the correlation between process and measurement noise is utilized to improve the accuracy and reliability of the TDCP-based GPS/INS. The results of a dynamic simulation and an experiment conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed system indicate that it can achieve performance improvements of up to 70% and 60%, respectively, compared to the conventional algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Navigation Simulation of a Mecanum Wheel Mobile Robot Based on an Improved A* Algorithm in Unity3D
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132976 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Computer simulation is an effective means for the research of robot navigation algorithms. In order to implement real-time, three-dimensional, and visual navigation algorithm simulation, a method of algorithm simulation based on secondary development of Unity3D is proposed. With this method, a virtual robot [...] Read more.
Computer simulation is an effective means for the research of robot navigation algorithms. In order to implement real-time, three-dimensional, and visual navigation algorithm simulation, a method of algorithm simulation based on secondary development of Unity3D is proposed. With this method, a virtual robot prototype can be created quickly with the imported 3D robot model, virtual joints, and virtual sensors, and then the navigation simulation can be carried out using the virtual prototype with the algorithm script in the virtual environment. Firstly, the scripts of the virtual revolute joint, virtual LiDAR sensors, and terrain environment are written. Secondly, the A* algorithm is improved for navigation in unknown 3D space. Thirdly, taking the Mecanum wheel mobile robot as an example, the 3D robot model is imported into Unity3D, and the virtual joint, sensor, and navigation algorithm scripts are added to the model. Then, the navigation is simulated in static and dynamic environments using a virtual prototype. Finally, the navigation tests of the physical robot are carried out in the physical environment, and the test trajectory is compared with the simulation trajectory. The simulation and test results validate the algorithm simulation method based on the redevelopment of Unity3d, showing that it is feasible, efficient, and flexible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Support Vector Machine for Regional Ionospheric Delay Modeling
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132947 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The distribution of total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere is irregular and complex, and it is hard to model accurately. The polynomial (POLY) model is used extensively for regional ionosphere modeling in two-dimensional space. However, in the active period of the ionosphere, [...] Read more.
The distribution of total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere is irregular and complex, and it is hard to model accurately. The polynomial (POLY) model is used extensively for regional ionosphere modeling in two-dimensional space. However, in the active period of the ionosphere, the POLY model is difficult to reflect the distribution and variation of TEC. Aiming at the limitation of the regional POLY model, this paper proposes a new ionosphere modeling method with combining the support vector machine (SVM) regression model and the POLY model. Firstly, the POLY model is established using observations of regional continuously operating reference stations (CORS). Then the SVM regression model is trained to compensate the model error of POLY, and the TEC SVM-P model is obtained by the combination of the POLY and the SVM. The fitting accuracies of the models are verified with the root mean square errors (RMSEs) and static single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) experiments. The results show that the RMSE of the SVM-P is 0.980 TECU (TEC unit), which produces an improvement of 17.3% compared with the POLY model (1.185 TECU). Using SVM-P models, the positioning accuracies of single-frequency PPP are improved over 40% compared with those using POLY models. The SVM-P is also compared with the back-propagation neural network combined with POLY (BPNN-P), and its performance is also better than BPNN-P (1.070 TECU). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Robust GICP-Based 3D LiDAR SLAM for Underground Mining Environment
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2915; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132915 - 01 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Unmanned mining is one of the most effective methods to solve mine safety and low efficiency. However, it is the key to accurate localization and mapping for underground mining environment. A novel graph simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) optimization method is proposed, which [...] Read more.
Unmanned mining is one of the most effective methods to solve mine safety and low efficiency. However, it is the key to accurate localization and mapping for underground mining environment. A novel graph simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) optimization method is proposed, which is based on Generalized Iterative Closest Point (GICP) three-dimensional (3D) point cloud registration between consecutive frames, between consecutive key frames and between loop frames, and is constrained by roadway plane and loop. GICP-based 3D point cloud registration between consecutive frames and consecutive key frames is first combined to optimize laser odometer constraints without other sensors such as inertial measurement unit (IMU). According to the characteristics of the roadway, the innovative extraction of the roadway plane as the node constraint of pose graph SLAM, in addition to automatic removing the noise point cloud to further improve the consistency of the underground roadway map. A lightweight and efficient loop detection and optimization based on rules and GICP is designed. Finally, the proposed method was evaluated in four scenes (such as the underground mine laboratory), and compared with the existing 3D laser SLAM method (such as Lidar Odometry and Mapping (LOAM)). The results show that the algorithm could realize low drift localization and point cloud map construction. This method provides technical support for localization and navigation of underground mining environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tightly-Coupled Vehicle Positioning Method at Intersections Aided by UWB
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132867 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Reliable and precise vehicle positioning is essential for most intelligent transportation applications as well as autonomous driving. Due to satellite signal blocking, it can be challenging to achieve continuous lane-level positioning in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and crossroads. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Reliable and precise vehicle positioning is essential for most intelligent transportation applications as well as autonomous driving. Due to satellite signal blocking, it can be challenging to achieve continuous lane-level positioning in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and crossroads. In this paper, a positioning strategy utilizing ultra-wide band (UWB) and low-cost onboard sensors is proposed, aimed at tracking vehicles in typical urban scenarios (such as intersections). UWB tech offers the potential of achieving high ranging accuracy through its ability to resolve multipath and penetrate obstacles. However, not line of sight (NLOS) propagation still has a high occurrence in intricate urban intersections and may significantly deteriorate positioning accuracy. Hence, we present an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to first address the NLOS problem. Then, we propose a tightly-coupled multi sensor fusion algorithm, in which the fuzzy calibration logic (FCL) is designed and introduced to adaptively adjust the dependence on each received UWB measurement to effectively mitigate NLOS and multipath interferences. At last, the proposed strategy is evaluated through experiments. Ground test results validate that this low-cost approach has the potential to achieve accurate, reliable and continuous localization, regardless of the GPS working statue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fault Identification Ability of a Robust Deeply Integrated GNSS/INS System Assisted by Convolutional Neural Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122734 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The problem of fault propagation which exists in the deeply integrated GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)/INS (Inertial Navigation System) system makes it difficult to identify faults. Once a fault occurs, system performance will be degraded due to the inability to identify and isolate [...] Read more.
The problem of fault propagation which exists in the deeply integrated GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)/INS (Inertial Navigation System) system makes it difficult to identify faults. Once a fault occurs, system performance will be degraded due to the inability to identify and isolate the fault accurately. After analyzing the causes of fault propagation and the difficulty of fault identification, maintaining correct navigation solution is found to be the key to prevent fault propagation from occurring. In order to solve the problem, a novel robust algorithm based on convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed. The optimal expansion factor of the robust algorithm is obtained adaptively by utilizing CNN, thus the adverse effect of fault on navigation solution can be reduced as much as possible. At last, the fault identification ability is verified by two types of experiments: artificial fault injection and outdoor occlusion. Experiment results show that the proposed robust algorithm which can successfully suppress the fault propagation is an effective solution. The accuracy of fault identification is increased by more than 20% compared with that before improvement, and the robustness of deep GNSS/INS integration is also improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Autonomous Celestial Integrated Navigation for Deep Space Exploration Based on Angle and Stellar Spectra Shift Velocity Measurement
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112555 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Traditional autonomous celestial navigation usually uses astronomical angle as measurement, which is a function of spacecraft’s position and can’t resolve the spacecraft’s velocity directly. To solve this problem, velocity measurement by stellar spectra shift is proposed in this paper. The autonomous celestial integrated [...] Read more.
Traditional autonomous celestial navigation usually uses astronomical angle as measurement, which is a function of spacecraft’s position and can’t resolve the spacecraft’s velocity directly. To solve this problem, velocity measurement by stellar spectra shift is proposed in this paper. The autonomous celestial integrated navigation method is derived by combining velocity measurement with angle measurement, which can ensure the long-term high accuracy, real-time and continuous navigation performance for deep space exploration (DSE) missions. The observability of the integrated navigation system is analyzed. Moreover, the design of doppler navigator and hardware in-the-loop simulation system are described. Finally, a simulation example is employed to demonstration the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed navigation algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of BeiDou-3 and Multi-GNSS Precise Point Positioning Performance
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112496 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
With the launch of BDS-3 and Galileo new satellites, the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has developed from the regional to global system, and the Galileo constellation will consist of 26 satellites in space. Thus, BDS, GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo all have the [...] Read more.
With the launch of BDS-3 and Galileo new satellites, the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has developed from the regional to global system, and the Galileo constellation will consist of 26 satellites in space. Thus, BDS, GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo all have the capability of global positioning services. It is meaningful to evaluate the ability of global precise point positioning (PPP) of the GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo. This paper mainly contributes to the assessment of BDS-2, BDS-2/BDS-3, GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo PPP with the observations that were provided by the international Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS). The Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) value was utilized to research the global coverage of GPS, BDS-2, BDS-2/BDS-3, GLONASS, and Galileo. In particular, GPS-only, BDS-2-only, BDS-2/BDS-3, GLONASS-only, Galileo-only, and multi-GNSS combined PPP solutions were analyzed to verify the capacity of the PPP performances in terms of positioning accuracy, convergence time, and zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) accuracy. In view of PDOP, the current BDS and Galileo are capable of global coverage. The BDS-2/BDS-3 and Galileo PDOP values are fairly evenly distributed around the world similar to GPS and GLONASS. The root mean square (RMS) of positioning errors for static BDS-2/BDS-3 PPP and Galileo-only PPP are 10.7, 19.5, 20.4 mm, and 6.9, 18.6, 19.6 mm, respectively, in the geographic area of the selected station, which is the same level as GPS and GLONASS. It is worth mentioning that, by adding BDS-3 observations, the positioning accuracy of static BDS PPP is improved by 17.05%, 24.42%, and 35.65%, and the convergence time is reduced by 27.15%, 27.87%, and 35.76% in three coordinate components, respectively. Similar to the static positioning, GPS, BDS-2/BDS-3, GLONASS, and Galileo have the basically same kinematic positioning accuracy. Multi-GNSS PPP significantly improves the positioning performances in both static and kinematic positioning. In terms of ZTD accuracy, the difference between GPS, BDS-2/BDS-3, GLONASS, and Galileo is less than 1 mm, and the BDS-2/BDS-3 improves ZTD accuracy by 20.48% over the BDS-2. The assessment of GPS, BDS-2, BDS-2/BDS-3, GLONASS, Galileo, and multi-GNSS global PPP performance are shown to make comments for the development of multi-GNSS integration, global precise positioning, and the construction of iGMAS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ConvNet and LSH-Based Visual Localization Using Localized Sequence Matching
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112439 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Convolutional Network (ConvNet), with its strong image representation ability, has achieved significant progress in the computer vision and robotic fields. In this paper, we propose a visual localization approach based on place recognition that combines the powerful ConvNet features and localized image sequence [...] Read more.
Convolutional Network (ConvNet), with its strong image representation ability, has achieved significant progress in the computer vision and robotic fields. In this paper, we propose a visual localization approach based on place recognition that combines the powerful ConvNet features and localized image sequence matching. The image distance matrix is constructed based on the cosine distance of extracted ConvNet features, and then a sequence search technique is applied on this distance matrix for the final visual recognition. To speed up the computational efficiency, the locality sensitive hashing (LSH) method is applied to achieve real-time performances with minimal accuracy degradation. We present extensive experiments on four real world data sets to evaluate each of the specific challenges in visual recognition. A comprehensive performance comparison of different ConvNet layers (each defining a level of features) considering both appearance and illumination changes is conducted. Compared with the traditional approaches based on hand-crafted features and single image matching, the proposed method shows good performances even in the presence of appearance and illumination changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Precision Indoor Visible Light Positioning Using Modified Momentum Back Propagation Neural Network with Sparse Training Point
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102324 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this letter, we propose an indoor visible light positioning technique using a Modified Momentum Back-Propagation (MMBP) algorithm based on received signal strength (RSS) with sparse training data set. Unlike other neural network algorithms that require a large number of training data points [...] Read more.
In this letter, we propose an indoor visible light positioning technique using a Modified Momentum Back-Propagation (MMBP) algorithm based on received signal strength (RSS) with sparse training data set. Unlike other neural network algorithms that require a large number of training data points to locate accurately, we have realized high-precision positioning for 100 test points with only 20 training points in a 1.8 m × 1.8 m × 2.1 m localization area. In order to verify the adaptability of the MMBP algorithm, we experimentally demonstrate two different training data acquisition methods adopting either even or arbitrary training sets. In addition, we also demonstrate the positioning accuracy of the traditional RSS algorithm. Experimental results show that the average localization accuracy optimized by our proposed algorithm is only 1.88 cm for the arbitrary set and 1.99 cm for the even set, while the average positioning error of the traditional RSS algorithm reaches 14.34 cm. Comparison indicates that the positioning accuracy of our proposed algorithm is 7.6 times higher. Results also show that the performance of our system is higher than some previous reports based on RSS and RSS fingerprint databases using complex machine learning algorithms trained by a large amount of training points. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative High-Precision Scheme for a GPS/MEMS-SINS Ultra-Tight Integrated System
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102291 - 17 May 2019
Abstract
The Doppler-assisted error provided by a low-precision microelectromechanical system (MEMS) strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) increases rapidly. Therefore, the bandwidth of the tracking loop for a global positioning system (GPS)/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration system is too narrow to track Doppler shift. GPS measurement error [...] Read more.
The Doppler-assisted error provided by a low-precision microelectromechanical system (MEMS) strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) increases rapidly. Therefore, the bandwidth of the tracking loop for a global positioning system (GPS)/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration system is too narrow to track Doppler shift. GPS measurement error is correlated with the MEMS-SINS velocity error when the Doppler-assisted error exists, leading to tracking loop lock loss. The estimated precision of the integrated Kalman filter (IKF) also decreases. Even the integrated system becomes unstable. To solve this problem, an innovative GPS/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration scheme based on using high-precision carrier phase measurements as the IKF measurements is proposed in this study. By assisting the tracking loop with time-differenced carrier phase (TDCP) velocity, the carrier loop noise bandwidth and code correlator spacing are reduced. The tracking accuracies of the carrier and code are increased. The navigation accuracy of GPS/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration is further improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Satellite Configuration and Fault Duration Time on the Performance of Fault Detection in GNSS/INS Integration
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092147 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
For the integration of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial navigation system (INS), real-time and accurate fault detection is essential to enhance the reliability and precision of the system. Among the existing methods, the residual chi-square detection is still widely used due [...] Read more.
For the integration of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial navigation system (INS), real-time and accurate fault detection is essential to enhance the reliability and precision of the system. Among the existing methods, the residual chi-square detection is still widely used due to its good real-time performance and sensibility of fault detection. However, further investigation on the performance of fault detection for different observational conditions and fault models is still required. In this paper, the principle of chi-square detection based on the predicted residual and least-squares residual is analyzed and the equivalence between them is deduced. Then, choosing the chi-square detection based on the predicted residual as the research object, the influence of satellite configuration and fault duration time on the performance of fault detection is analyzed in theory. The influence of satellite configuration is analyzed from the number and geometry of visible satellites. Several numerical simulations are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. The results show that, for a single-epoch fault, the location of faulty measurement and the geometry have little effect on the performance of fault detection, while the number of visible satellites has greater influence on the fault detection performance than the geometry. For a continuous fault, the fault detection performance will decrease with the increase of fault duration time when the value of the fault is near the minimal detectable bias (MDB), and faults occurring on different satellite’s measurement will result in different detection results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Rubber-Tapping Robot Forest Navigation and Information Collection System Based on 2D LiDAR and a Gyroscope
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092136 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Natural rubber is widely used in human life because of its excellent quality. At present, manual tapping is still the main way to obtain natural rubber. There is a sore need for intelligent tapping devices in the tapping industry, and the autonomous navigation [...] Read more.
Natural rubber is widely used in human life because of its excellent quality. At present, manual tapping is still the main way to obtain natural rubber. There is a sore need for intelligent tapping devices in the tapping industry, and the autonomous navigation technique is of great importance to make rubber-tapping devices intelligent. To realize the autonomous navigation of the intelligent rubber-tapping platform and to collect information on a rubber forest, the sparse point cloud data of tree trunks are extracted by the low-cost LiDAR and a gyroscope through the clustering method. The point cloud is fitted into circles by the Gauss–Newton method to obtain the center point of each tree. Then, these center points are threaded through the Least Squares method to obtain the straight line, which is regarded as the navigation path of the robot in this forest. Moreover, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is adopted to obtain the robot’s position. In a forest with different row spacings and plant spacings, the heading error and lateral error of this robot are analyzed and a Fuzzy Controller is applied for the following activities: walking along one row with a fixed lateral distance, stopping at fixed points, turning from one row into another, and collecting information on plant spacing, row spacing, and trees’ diameters. Then, according to the collected information, each tree’s position is calculated, and the geometric feature map is constructed. In a forest with different row spacings and plant spacings, three repeated tests have been carried out at an initial speed of 0.3 m/s. The results show that the Root Mean Square (RMS) lateral errors are less than 10.32 cm, which shows that the proposed navigation method provides great path tracking. The fixed-point stopping range of the robot can meet the requirements for automatic rubber tapping of the mechanical arm, and the average stopping error is 12.08 cm. In the geometric feature map constructed by collecting information, the RMS radius errors are less than 0.66 cm, and the RMS plant spacing errors are less than 11.31 cm. These results show that the method for collecting information and constructing a map recursively in the process of navigation proposed in the paper provides a solution for forest information collection. The method provides a low-cost, real-time, and stable solution for forest navigation of automatic rubber tapping equipment, and the collected information not only assists the automatic tapping equipment to plan the tapping path, but also provides a basis for the informationization and precise management of a rubber plantation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Evaluation of UWB Indoor Positioning for Indoor Track Cycling
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092041 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Accurate radio frequency (RF)-based indoor localization systems are more and more applied during sports. The most accurate RF-based localization systems use ultra-wideband (UWB) technology; this is why this technology is the most prevalent. UWB positioning systems allow for an in-depth analysis of the [...] Read more.
Accurate radio frequency (RF)-based indoor localization systems are more and more applied during sports. The most accurate RF-based localization systems use ultra-wideband (UWB) technology; this is why this technology is the most prevalent. UWB positioning systems allow for an in-depth analysis of the performance of athletes during training and competition. There is no research available that investigates the feasibility of UWB technology for indoor track cycling. In this paper, we investigate the optimal position to mount the UWB hardware for that specific use case. Different positions on the bicycle and cyclist were evaluated based on accuracy, received power level, line-of-sight, maximum communication range, and comfort. Next to this, the energy consumption of our UWB system was evaluated. We found that the optimal hardware position was the lower back, with a median ranging error of 22 cm (infrastructure hardware placed at 2.3 m). The energy consumption of our UWB system is also taken into account. Applied to our setup with the hardware mounted at the lower back, the maximum communication range varies between 32.6 m and 43.8 m. This shows that UWB localization systems are suitable for indoor positioning of track cyclists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Specific Direction-Based Outlier Detection Approach for GNSS Vector Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081836 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper we propose an outlier detection approach for GNSS vector networks based on the specific direction (i.e., SD approach), along which the test statistic constructed reaches the maximum. We derive the unit vector of this specific direction in detail, and prove [...] Read more.
In this paper we propose an outlier detection approach for GNSS vector networks based on the specific direction (i.e., SD approach), along which the test statistic constructed reaches the maximum. We derive the unit vector of this specific direction in detail, and prove that the unit vector is the same as that determined by the outlier estimates in three-dimensional (3D) approach, while the distribution of the maximum test statistic in this direction is the square root of Chi-squared distribution. Therefore, eliminating an outlier along this specific direction can get the same result as that of eliminating all three components of outlier vector in 3D approach. The mathematical equivalence of SD approach and 3D approach is further demonstrated by a real GNSS network. Moreover, preliminary application of the SD approach to detect the abnormal antenna height measurement is carried out in terms of numerical simulations of multiple baseline solutions, and it shows that the SD approach can effectively detect baselines that are directly infected by corresponding receiver antenna height errors. Full article
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