Special Issue "Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica"

A special issue of Scientia Pharmaceutica (ISSN 2218-0532).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022 | Viewed by 20845

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Helen D. Skaltsa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, 15771 Athens, Greece
Interests: chemistry of natural products; analytical methods; NMR; GC-MS; terpenes (iridoids, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes); phenolics (flavonoids, phenols, phenolic acids, and lignans); essential oils; ethnopharmacology; history of pharmacy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica” aims to collect high-quality research articles, communications, and review articles in the all fields of pharmaceutical sciences. We encourage scholars to contribute feature papers reflecting the latest progress in their research field.

Prof. Dr. Helen D. Skaltsa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Scientia Pharmaceutica is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Gossypol from Gossypium spp. Inhibits Helicobacter pylori Clinical Strains and Urease Enzyme Activity: Bioactivity and Safety Assessments
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90020029 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
This study investigates the inhibitory activities of gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound from Gossypium spp., against Helicobacter pylori (HP) clinical strains and a urease enzyme that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of HP. Gossypol was detected to exhibit a bacteriostatic action [...] Read more.
This study investigates the inhibitory activities of gossypol, a natural polyphenolic compound from Gossypium spp., against Helicobacter pylori (HP) clinical strains and a urease enzyme that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of HP. Gossypol was detected to exhibit a bacteriostatic action against all the HP strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 3.51 to 4.14 µg/mL. The activity of HP urease (HPU) was efficiently impeded by gossypol with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.3 µM using an Electrospray Ionization–Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based method. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed no significant cytotoxic properties of gossypol against human gastric epithelial cells. Additionally, molecular docking studies were performed to assess the binding mode and the molecular interactions of gossypol with HPU with a binding affinity value of −8.1 kcal/mol compared with an HPU–acetohydroxamic acid (a standard urease inhibitor) docking complex (–6.1 kcal/mol). The overall results reveal that gossypol might help fight against HP infection by two mechanisms of action: inhibition of the growth of HP and inhibition of urease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Preclinical Safety Profile of an Oral Naringenin/Hesperidin Dosage Form by In Vivo Toxicological Tests
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90020028 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 353
Abstract
We developed a naringenin–hesperidin molar mixture (MIX–160) with proven antihyperglycemic and vasorelaxant activity in preclinical studies. A solid dosage form was manufactured to improve the bioavailability properties. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the oral preclinical toxicity of the MIX–160 dosage [...] Read more.
We developed a naringenin–hesperidin molar mixture (MIX–160) with proven antihyperglycemic and vasorelaxant activity in preclinical studies. A solid dosage form was manufactured to improve the bioavailability properties. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the oral preclinical toxicity of the MIX–160 dosage form, which showed no mortality or significant changes in the body weight, food consumption and tissue/organ mass in rats. Three daily oral doses (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg of MIX–160) were assayed for 28 days. The results showed no structural abnormalities in the histological analysis and no significant changes (p > 0.05) in the liver biochemical markers (total bilirubin, AST and ALT) compared to the control group. The above findings showed that the MIX–160 dosage form did not exhibit relevant toxic effects, which suggests its potential safety as a drug candidate for clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Compounding in Ukraine: Assessment of the Risks for the Ointment’s Quality by the FMECA Method
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90020025 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The level of compounded medicines (CM) quality has always been questioned in different countries. This problem has been resolved by the introduction of quality assurance system (QAS) standards. One of its main areas of significance is the risks assessment process, which is especially [...] Read more.
The level of compounded medicines (CM) quality has always been questioned in different countries. This problem has been resolved by the introduction of quality assurance system (QAS) standards. One of its main areas of significance is the risks assessment process, which is especially important for the compounding pharmacy according to the requirements of different international documents. Since ointments constitute a large part of CM, quantity assessment of risks for their quality by the FMECA method has been completed. During the first step of the research, 42 potential deviations of compounded ointments (CO) quality were identified. Via the questioning of compounding pharmacies specialists in different regions of Ukraine by a pre-developed ten-point scale, the severity of deviations consequence, their occurrence probability, and detecting possibility were determined followed by the calculation of the priority risk number (PRN) value. The Pareto analysis showed that nine possible CO quality defects represented 21% of their total number. Defects related to the composition or technology of ointments (29%) and their compliance with microbiological purity requirements (23%) had the largest percentage contribution to the total PRN value. It was also found that the deviations consequence had the most serious impact on the CO quality, due to their direct influence on patient health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Repurposing of Four Drugs as Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Agents and Their Interactions with Protein Targets
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90020024 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Although there are existing vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), new COVID-19 cases are increasing due to low immunization coverage and the emergence of new variants. For this reason, new drugs to treat and prevent severe COVID-19 are needed. Here, we [...] Read more.
Although there are existing vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), new COVID-19 cases are increasing due to low immunization coverage and the emergence of new variants. For this reason, new drugs to treat and prevent severe COVID-19 are needed. Here, we provide four different FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 proteins involved in the entry and replication process, aiming to identify potential drugs to treat COVID-19. We use the main protease (Mpro), the spike glycoprotein (S protein), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) as protein targets for anti- SARS-CoV-2 drugs. In our constructed database, we selected different drugs against each target (Mpro, S protein, and RdRp) based on their common interactions with relevant residues involved in viral entry at the host cell and replication. Furthermore, their stability inside the binding pocket, as well as their predicted binding-free energy, allow us to provide new insight into the possible drug repurposing of viomycin (interacting with Mpro) due to its interactions with key residues, such as Asn 143, Glu 166, and Gln 189 at the same time as hesperidin (interacting with the S protein) is interacting with residues Tyr 449, Ser 494, and Thr 500, keeping inside the predicted binding pocket, as well as interacting with residues in different variants of concern. Finally, we also suggest nystatin and elvitegravir (interacting with RdRp) as possible drugs due to their stability within the predicted pocket along the simulation and their interaction with key residues, such as Asp 760, Asp 761, and Asp 618. Altogether our results provide new knowledge about the possible mechanism of the inhibition of viomycin, hesperidin, elvitegravir, and nystatin to inhibit the viral life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and some of its variants of concern (VOC). Additionally, some iodide-based contrast agents were also found to bind the S protein strongly, i.e., iohexol (−58.99 Kcal/mol), iotrolan (−76.19 Kcal/mol), and ioxilan (−62.37 Kcal/mol). Despite the information we report here as the possible strong interaction between these contrast agents and the SARS-CoV-2′s S protein, Mpro, and RdRp, we believe that further investigation, including chemical modifications in their structures, are needed for COVID-19 treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Antineoplastic Activity of Water-Soluble Form of Novel Kinase Inhibitor 1-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-3-chloro-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione immobilized on Polymeric Poly(PEGMA-co-DMM) Carrier
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010007 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The maleimide derivative 1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-chloro-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (MI-1) was synthesized as inhibitor of several protein kinases, however, its application is hindered by its poor water solubility. In this study, the mechanisms of the antineoplastic action of MI-1 and its MI-1/M5 complex with M5 carrier [...] Read more.
The maleimide derivative 1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-chloro-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (MI-1) was synthesized as inhibitor of several protein kinases, however, its application is hindered by its poor water solubility. In this study, the mechanisms of the antineoplastic action of MI-1 and its MI-1/M5 complex with M5 carrier (poly (PEGMA-co-DMM)) towards human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were investigated by using the MTT and clonogenic assays, DNA intercalation with methyl green replacement, alkaline DNA comet assay, and Western-blot analysis. MI-1 compound and its MI-1/M5 complex possessed high toxicity towards colon (HCT116), cervical (HeLa) carcinoma cells and melanoma (SK-MEL-28) cells with GI50 value in a range of 0.75–7.22 µg/mL, and demonstrated high selectivity index (SI ˃ 6.9). The p53 status of colon cancer cells did not affect the sensitivity of these cells to the treatment with MI-1 and its MI-1/M5 complex. M5 polymer possessed low toxicity towards studied cells. The MI-1, MI-1/M5, and M5 only slightly inhibited growth of the pseudo-normal HaCaT and Balb/c 3T3 cell lines (GI50 ˃ 50 μg/mL). The MI-1 and its MI-1/M5 complex induced mitochondria-dependent pathway of apoptosis, damage of the DNA, and morphological changes in HCT116 cells, and affected the G2/M transition checkpoint. The MI-1 intercalated into the DNA molecule, while such capability of MI-1/M5 complex and M5 polymer was much lower. Thus, poly (PEGMA-co-DMM) might be a promising carrier for delivery of the maleimide derivative, MI-1, a novel kinase inhibitor, through improving its solubility in aqueous media and enhancing its antiproliferative action towards human tumor cells. Studies are in progress on the treatment of Nemeth-Kellner lymphoma (NK/Ly)-bearing mice with the MI-1 and MI-1/M5 complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
A New Practice to Monitor the Fabrication Process of Fab-Targeting Ligands from Bevacizumab by LC-MS: Preparation and Analytical Characterization
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010005 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 925
Abstract
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate a Fab-targeting ligand preparation containing free thiol groups in the hinge region by using bevacizumab as a model. The evaluation focused on the purification of fragments through a nonaffinity-based process using a centrifugal ultrafiltration [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate a Fab-targeting ligand preparation containing free thiol groups in the hinge region by using bevacizumab as a model. The evaluation focused on the purification of fragments through a nonaffinity-based process using a centrifugal ultrafiltration technique and mild reduction conditions for the intact production of F(ab’) fragments with specific inter-heavy-chain disulfide bonds cleavage. Under these conditions, F(ab’) fragments with a defined chemical composition were successfully obtained via proteolytic digestion followed by a controlled reduction reaction process maintaining the integrity of the binding sites. The ultrafiltration purification technique appears to be suitable for the removal of the digestive enzyme but inefficient for the removal of Fc fragments, thus requiring additional processing. A suitable analytical strategy was developed, allowing us to demonstrate the reformation of disulfide bridges between the two reduced cysteines within F(ab’) fragments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Communication
Compatibility of Different Formulations in Pentravan® and Pentravan® Plus for Transdermal Drug Delivery
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040051 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The potential therapeutic benefit of transdermal delivery systems for some active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has been well-established for decades within the scientific community. However, together with the clinical efficacy, there is the need for an evaluation of the stability of such APIs in [...] Read more.
The potential therapeutic benefit of transdermal delivery systems for some active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has been well-established for decades within the scientific community. However, together with the clinical efficacy, there is the need for an evaluation of the stability of such APIs in bases with known transdermal capabilities, which is necessary to provide the compounding pharmacist with confidence when providing transdermal products. In this study, the stability of danazol, metformin HCl, and resveratrol as individual ingredients, as well as metformin HCl, resveratrol, and Vitamin D3 in combinations at bracketed high and low concentrations, were evaluated over a period of 6 months, using a ready-to-use transdermal vehicle for compounding pharmacies (Pentravan® or Pentravan® Plus). The five formulations tested (F1: Danazol 50 mg/g + MiodesinTM 85 mg/g in Pentravan®, F2: Metformin HCl 200 mg/g in Pentravan®, F3: Resveratrol 200 mg/g in Pentravan®, F4: Metformin HCl 100 mg/g + Resveratrol 100 mg/g + Vitamin D3 5000 IU in Pentravan®, and F5: Metformin HCl 200 mg/g + Resveratrol 200 mg/g + Vitamin D3 5000 IU in Pentravan® Plus) presented a beyond-use date of at least 6 months, presenting high convenience for the compounding pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Computer-Aided Design of Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of Falcipain-3: QSAR and Pharmacophore Models
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040044 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
In this work, antiparasitic peptidomimetics inhibitors (PEP) of falcipain-3 (FP3) of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) are proposed using structure-based and computer-aided molecular design. Beginning with the crystal structure of PfFP3-K11017 complex (PDB ID: 3BWK), three-dimensional (3D) models of FP3-PEPx complexes with [...] Read more.
In this work, antiparasitic peptidomimetics inhibitors (PEP) of falcipain-3 (FP3) of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) are proposed using structure-based and computer-aided molecular design. Beginning with the crystal structure of PfFP3-K11017 complex (PDB ID: 3BWK), three-dimensional (3D) models of FP3-PEPx complexes with known activities ( IC50exp) were prepared by in situ modification, based on molecular mechanics and implicit solvation to compute Gibbs free energies (GFE) of inhibitor-FP3 complex formation. This resulted in a quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) model based on a linear correlation between computed GFE (ΔΔGcom) and the experimentally measured  IC50exp. Apart from the structure-based relationship, a ligand-based quantitative pharmacophore model (PH4) of novel PEP analogues where substitutions were directed by comparative analysis of the active site interactions was derived using the proposed bound conformations of the PEPx. This provided structural information useful for the design of virtual combinatorial libraries (VL), which was virtually screened based on the 3D-QSAR PH4. The end results were predictive inhibitory activities falling within the low nanomolar concentration range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
A Comprehensive Spectroscopic Analysis of the Ibuprofen Binding with Human Serum Albumin, Part II
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89030030 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant human plasma protein. HSA plays a crucial role in many binding endos- and exogenous substances, which affects their pharmacological effect. The innovative aspect of the study is not only the interaction of fatted (HSA) and [...] Read more.
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant human plasma protein. HSA plays a crucial role in many binding endos- and exogenous substances, which affects their pharmacological effect. The innovative aspect of the study is not only the interaction of fatted (HSA) and defatted (dHSA) human serum albumin with ibuprofen (IBU), but the analysis of the influence of temperature on the structural modifications of albumin and the interaction between the drug and proteins from the temperature characteristic of near hypothermia (308 K) to the temperature reflecting inflammation in the body (312 K and 314 K). Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. IBU is used to relieve acute pain, inflammation, and fever. To determine ibuprofen’s binding site in the tertiary structure of HSA and dHSA, fluorescence spectroscopy was used. On its basis, the fluorescent emissive spectra of albumin (5 × 10−6 mol/dm3) without and with the presence of ibuprofen (1 × 10−5–1 × 10−4 mol/dm3) was recorded. The IBU-HSA complex’s fluorescence was excited by radiation of wavelengths of λex 275 nm and λex 295 nm. Spectrophotometric spectroscopy allowed for recording the absorbance spectra (zero-order and second derivative absorption spectra) of HSA and dHSA under the influence of ibuprofen (1 × 10−4 mol/dm3). To characterize the changes of albumin structure the presence of IBU, circular dichroism was used. The data obtained show that the presence of fatty acids and human serum albumin temperature influences the strength and type of interaction between serum albumin and drug. Ibuprofen binds more strongly to defatted human serum albumin than to albumin in the presence of fatty acids. Additionally, stronger complexes are formed with increasing temperatures. The competitive binding of ibuprofen and fatty acids to albumin may influence the concentration of free drug fraction and thus its therapeutic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Characterization of Phytochemical Components of Crocus sativus Leaves: A New Attractive By-Product
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89020028 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Crocus sativus L. is one of the world’s most famous saffron production crops and its enormous by-products, such as leaves, are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with potential nutritional applications. The total phenolic content of Crocus leaves was 5.44 ± 0.01 mg [...] Read more.
Crocus sativus L. is one of the world’s most famous saffron production crops and its enormous by-products, such as leaves, are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with potential nutritional applications. The total phenolic content of Crocus leaves was 5.44 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g, and the total flavonoid content was 2.63 ± 0.05 mg RE/g, respectively. The main bioactive compounds in the leaves, such as polyphenols, flavonoids by HPLC and carboxylic acids, and amino acids, were also identified by GC-MS. HPLC analyses revealed mangiferin as a dominant constituent (1.26 ± 0.02 mg/g). C. sativus contains seven essential amino acids (ILE, LEU, LYS, MET, PHE, THR, TRP, VAL) in high concentration. Among them, isoleucine (7965 µg/g) was the dominant compound. In addition, the K and Ca concentrations in the leaves were significant (p < 0.05). The chemical composition revealed α-linolenic acid (22,490 µg/g) and linoelaidic acid (9880 µg/g) to be major constituents among all the acids found in the Crocus leaves. The extracts of C. sativus leaves showed the highest inhibitory activity for Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) bacteria in the in vitro assay. The current results identify and underline the potential of natural products from C. sativus leaves that can add value to saffron production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Article
Antihyperuricemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antihypertensive Effect of a Dry Extract from Solidago virgaurea L. (Asteraceae)
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89020027 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Solidago virgaurea L. is a perennial plant used in European traditional medicine as a diuretic or a remedy for inflammatory conditions of the urinary tract but also for gout, especially in the Balkans. The present study was focused on a preclinical, in vivo [...] Read more.
Solidago virgaurea L. is a perennial plant used in European traditional medicine as a diuretic or a remedy for inflammatory conditions of the urinary tract but also for gout, especially in the Balkans. The present study was focused on a preclinical, in vivo evaluation of antihyperuricemic, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive effects of a dry extract from S. virgaurea L. (ESV). Colorimetric and HPLC–MS techniques were used to identify the main chemical constituents of ESV. Antihyperuricemic effect of ESV was assessed in a rat model of hyperuricemia induced by the administration of potassium oxonate. Antihypertensive effect of ESV was evaluated in hyperuricemic rats by monitoring systolic blood pressure with a non-invasive blood-pressure recording system. The anti-inflammatory effect of ESV was tested using a rat model of paw edema. The main chemical constituents of ESV were rutin and phenolic acids represented by chlorogenic and caffeic acid. ESV demonstrated significant antihyperuricemic effects in rats due to an uricosuric mechanism. Additionally, ESV reduced the progression of arterial hypertension in hyperuricemic rats and also showed anti-inflammatory properties slightly inferior to diclofenac. The results suggest that ESV could be a natural remedy for the treatment of gout and protection against endothelial dysfunction caused by hyperuricemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review

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Review
Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Essential and Carrier Oils as Skin Penetration Enhancers in Pharmaceutical Formulations
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010014 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Oils, including essential oils and their constituents, are widely reported to have penetration enhancement activity and have been incorporated into a wide range of pharmaceutical formulations. This study sought to determine if there is an evidence base for the selection of appropriate oils [...] Read more.
Oils, including essential oils and their constituents, are widely reported to have penetration enhancement activity and have been incorporated into a wide range of pharmaceutical formulations. This study sought to determine if there is an evidence base for the selection of appropriate oils for particular applications and compare their effectiveness across different formulation types. A systematic review of the data sources, consisting of Google Scholar, EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, and Scopus, was carried out and, following screening and quality assessment, 112 articles were included within the analysis. The research was classified according to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, dosage form, in vitro/in vivo study, carrier material(s), penetration enhancers as essential oils, and other chemical enhancers. The review identified four groups of oils used in the formulation of skin preparations; in order of popularity, these are terpene-type essential oils (63%), fatty acid-containing essential oils (29%) and, finally, 8% of essential oils comprising Vitamin E derivatives and miscellaneous essential oils. It was concluded that terpene essential oils may have benefits over the fatty acid-containing oils, and their incorporation into advanced pharmaceutical formulations such as nanoemulsions, microemulsions, vesicular systems, and transdermal patches makes them an attractive proposition to enhance drug permeation through the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review
Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Elegia Species: A Review
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010004 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
In South Africa, plants belonging to the Restionaceae family possess an ecological dominance. As a result, they have been the subject of numerous morphological, anatomical, and evolutionary studies. However, few studies have focused on their phytochemical profile and their potential pharmacological activities. The [...] Read more.
In South Africa, plants belonging to the Restionaceae family possess an ecological dominance. As a result, they have been the subject of numerous morphological, anatomical, and evolutionary studies. However, few studies have focused on their phytochemical profile and their potential pharmacological activities. The genus Elegia L. is the second largest of this family comprising 52 species, which are mainly used as materials for thatching. Limited studies on the chemical constituents of Elegia species and their importance as medicinal plants have been undertaken. This review provides constructive and extensive information about the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Elegia. A comprehensive search of previously published literature was performed for studies on this genus, using databases with different key search words. This survey documented 52 Elegia species summarizing their previous taxonomic classification. In addition, 14 species were found to be studied for their phytochemical profile, revealing 14 chemical compounds. Concerning their biological activities, only one species (E. tectorum (L.f.) Moline and H.P.Linder) is reported for its anti-wrinkle activity. Moreover, two species are locally used for thatching and as materials for brooms. The present review highlights the Elegia genus as an important source of bioactive phytochemicals with flavonol glycosides being the main metabolites and reveals the uncharted territory of this genus for new research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review
Using Metabolite Data to Develop Patient Centric Specification for Amide Impurity in Vildagliptin Tablets
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010001 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Many specified impurities in vildagliptin’s finished product have been disclosed in the literature that are above their qualification threshold. We used the impurity B (amide impurity) as a case example to explore whether existing literature can be leveraged to determine the safe level [...] Read more.
Many specified impurities in vildagliptin’s finished product have been disclosed in the literature that are above their qualification threshold. We used the impurity B (amide impurity) as a case example to explore whether existing literature can be leveraged to determine the safe level of impurity and thereby develop a patient-centric specification (PCS) for impurities. No-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was derived from rate metabolism information and converted to human equivalent dose (HED). The HED was estimated as 6.5 mg/day. The high qualification levels are supported by repeat dose toxicity studies performed in rats, mice and dogs. Maximum theoretical amount (MTA) was correlated with the maximum observed amount (MOA) to verify whether the exposure was due to impurity and/or metabolite. MOA/MTA was found ≥1 suggesting that metabolism contributed to the amount excreted in feces and therefore could be used to further justify a higher specification limit than the usual one of ≤0.5%. Quite often the drug metabolism and degradation pathways overlap, resulting in the formation of identical constituents. Therefore, metabolism data can be leveraged for deriving safe levels of degradation impurities and develop PCS for impurities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review
Phytochemistry and Evidence-Based Traditional Uses of the Genus Achillea L.: An Update (2011–2021)
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040050 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Knowledge within the field of phytochemistry research has accelerated at a tremendous speed. The excess of literature reports featuring plants of high ethnopharmacological importance, in combination with our interest in the Asteraceae family and traditional medicine, led us to acknowledge the value of [...] Read more.
Knowledge within the field of phytochemistry research has accelerated at a tremendous speed. The excess of literature reports featuring plants of high ethnopharmacological importance, in combination with our interest in the Asteraceae family and traditional medicine, led us to acknowledge the value of the Achillea L. genus. In a broad context, the various Achillea species are used around the globe for the prevention and treatment of different diseases, including gastrointestinal problems, haemorrhages, pneumonia, rheumatic pains, diuresis, inflammation, infections, and wounds, as well as menstrual and gynaecologic abnormalities. The present review aims to provide and summarize the recent literature (2011–2021) on the phytochemistry of the Achillea genus. In parallel, this study attempts to bridge the reports on the traditional uses with modern pharmacological data. Research articles that focused on secondary metabolites, traditional uses and pharmacological activities were collected from various scientific databases such as Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Reaxys and Google Scholar. This study revealed the presence of 141 phytochemicals, while 24 traditionally used Achillea spp. were discussed in comparison to current data with an experimental basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review
New Frontiers on Adjuvants Drug Strategies and Treatments in Periodontitis
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040046 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Causes of the progression of periodontitis such as an imbalance between the immune response by the host by the release of inflammatory mediators in the response of the oral pathogenic dysbiotic biofilm have been identified. New insights on specific cell signaling pathways that [...] Read more.
Causes of the progression of periodontitis such as an imbalance between the immune response by the host by the release of inflammatory mediators in the response of the oral pathogenic dysbiotic biofilm have been identified. New insights on specific cell signaling pathways that appear during periodontitis have attracted the attention of researchers in the study of new personalised approaches for the treatment of periodontitis. The gold standard of non-surgical therapy of periodontitis involves the removal of supra and subgingival biofilm through professional scaling and root planing (SRP) and oral hygiene instructions. In order to improve periodontal clinical outcomes and overcome the limitations of traditional SRP, additional adjuvants have been developed in recent decades, including local or systemic antibiotics, antiseptics, probiotics, anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive drugs and host modulation therapies. This review is aimed to update the current and recent evolution of therapies of management of periodontitis based on the adjunctive and target therapies. Moreover, we discuss the advances in host modulation of periodontitis and the impact of targeting epigenetic mechanisms approaches for a personalised therapeutic success in the management of periodontitis. In conclusion, the future goal in periodontology will be to combine and personalise the periodontal treatments to the colonising microbial profile and to the specific response of the individual patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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