Topical Collection "Current Opinion in Polysaccharides"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Paolina Lukova
E-Mail Website
Co-Collection Editor
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Plovdiv, Vasil Aprilov Str. 15A, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Interests: medicinal plants; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry; plant polysaccharides and oligosaccharides; prebiotics; enzymology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Guillaume Pierre
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Co-Collection Editor
Institut Pascal UMR CNRS 6602 Axe GePEB, Team 4Bio, Université Clermont Auvergne, 63170 Aubière, France
Interests: polysaccharides from bacteria; algae and terrestrial plants; bioprocess; enzymes; chromatography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear colleagues,

For several years, polysaccharides have been described by a lot of scientists from all over the world. In fact, in the biosourced polymer group, polysaccharides are definitely considered one of the most structural complexes of biomolecules from so many diverse biotopes.

This new Topical Collection of the Polysaccharides journal aims to collect only review papers on polysaccharides exploration (from all current bioressources such as microbes/bacterias, animals, microalgae, seaweeds, and plants), description (structures, post-modification, etc.) and applications (bioprinting, active biomolecules, materials, etc.). Consequently, as collection editor, I request all scientists working in the polysaccharides field to contribute to this Topical Collection called “Current Opinions in Polysaccharides” by submitting exclusively review papers on all the main polysaccharide and oligosaccharide topics, such as pharmaceutical (bioactive polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, hydrogels, bioinks, etc.), food packaging (films, smart material, etc.), agriculture (biofertilizers, bioelicitors, etc.), etc. from physicochemical and/or enzymatic processes. In this Topical Collection, biological mechanisms, bioprocesses, and structural characterizations are mainly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Cédric Delattre
Prof. Paolina Lukova
Assoc. Prof. Guillaume Pierre
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polysaccharides is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bacterial polysaccharides
  • Seaweed and plant polysaccharides
  • Microalgae polysaccharides
  • Polysaccharide-based material
  • 3D-bioprinting
  • Oligosaccharide derivatives
  • Biological activities
  • Hydrogel

Published Papers (27 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Review
Biofunctionalized Nanomaterials: Alternative for Encapsulation Process Enhancement
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(2), 411-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3020025 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 307
Abstract
In recent years, interest in the development of nanometric materials with specific characteristics has grown; however, there are few scientific contributions that associate encapsulation methodologies and matrices with the particle objective (metabolic directions, type of administration, biological impact, and biocompatibility). This review focuses [...] Read more.
In recent years, interest in the development of nanometric materials with specific characteristics has grown; however, there are few scientific contributions that associate encapsulation methodologies and matrices with the particle objective (metabolic directions, type of administration, biological impact, and biocompatibility). This review focuses on describing the benefits and disadvantages of different techniques for designing custom particles and alternatives for the biofunctionalization nanomaterials regarding the biological impact of a nanomaterial with potential use in foods known as nutraceuticals. The study of optical properties, physicochemical factors, and characteristics such as rheological can predict its stability in the application matrix; however, not only should the characterization of a nanocomposite with applications in food be considered, but also the biological impact that it may present. Full article
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Review
Biofunctionalization of Endolysins with Oligosacharides: Formulation of Therapeutic Agents to Combat Multi-Resistant Bacteria and Potential Strategies for Their Application
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(2), 306-325; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3020018 - 23 Mar 2022
Viewed by 380
Abstract
In the aquaculture sector, the biofunctionalization of biomaterials is discussed using materials from algae and analyzed as a possible potential strategy to overcome the challenges that hinder the future development of the application of endolysins in this field. Derived from years of analysis, [...] Read more.
In the aquaculture sector, the biofunctionalization of biomaterials is discussed using materials from algae and analyzed as a possible potential strategy to overcome the challenges that hinder the future development of the application of endolysins in this field. Derived from years of analysis, endolysins have recently been considered as potential alternative therapeutic antibacterial agents, due to their attributes and ability to combat multi-resistant bacterial cells when applied externally. On the other hand, although the aquaculture sector has been characterized by its high production rates, serious infectious diseases have led to significant economic losses that persist to this day. Although there are currently interesting data from studies under in vitro conditions on the application of endolysins in this sector, there is little or no information on in vivo studies. This lack of analysis can be attributed to the relatively low stability of endolysins in marine conditions and to the complex gastrointestinal conditions of the organisms. This review provides updated information regarding the application of endolysins against multi-resistant bacteria of clinical and nutritional interest, previously addressing their important characteristics (structure, properties and stability). In addition, regarding the aquaculture sector, the biofunctionalization of biomaterials is discussed using materials from algae and analyzed as a possible potential strategy to overcome the challenges that hinder the future development of the application of endolysins in this field. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances of Microalgae Exopolysaccharides for Application as Bioflocculants
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(1), 264-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3010015 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Microalgae are used in flocculation processes because biopolymers are released into the culture medium. Microalgal cell growth under specific conditions (temperature, pH, luminosity, nutrients, and salinity) provides the production and release of exopolysaccharides (EPS). These biopolymers can be recovered from the medium for [...] Read more.
Microalgae are used in flocculation processes because biopolymers are released into the culture medium. Microalgal cell growth under specific conditions (temperature, pH, luminosity, nutrients, and salinity) provides the production and release of exopolysaccharides (EPS). These biopolymers can be recovered from the medium for application as bioflocculants or used directly in cultivation as microalgae autoflocculants. The optimization of nutritional parameters, the control of process conditions, and the possibility of scaling up allow the production and industrial application of microalgal EPS. Therefore, this review addresses the potential use of EPS produced by microalgae in bioflocculation. The recovery, determination, and quantification techniques for these biopolymers are also addressed. Moreover, other technological applications of EPS are highlighted. Full article
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Review
Nanocellulose in Heterogeneous Water-Based Polymerization for Wood Adhesives
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(1), 219-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3010012 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The interest in the development of biobased adhesives has increased due to environmental concerns. Moreover, as the production of engineered wood products (EWPs) is expected to grow, the wood adhesives market needs to transit toward formaldehyde-free products. Cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) are a material [...] Read more.
The interest in the development of biobased adhesives has increased due to environmental concerns. Moreover, as the production of engineered wood products (EWPs) is expected to grow, the wood adhesives market needs to transit toward formaldehyde-free products. Cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) are a material with unique properties and advantages for producing hybrid materials as biobased wood adhesives. Besides their traditional use as reinforcing additives, CNPs can be incorporated at the beginning of the polymerization reaction to form in situ polymerized hybrid adhesives with better mechanical and physicochemical properties than the neat adhesive. Despite their outstanding characteristics, CNPs are still an emerging nanomaterial in the wood adhesive field, and the studies are incipient. This review explores the utilization of CNPs in heterogeneous polymerization for the production of polyvinyl acetate, polymeric isocyanates, waterborne polyurethane systems, and other waterborne polymer latexes. The main challenges are discussed, and some recommendations are set down for the manufacture of these novel hybrid nanocomposites. Full article
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Review
Progress in Starch-Based Materials for Food Packaging Applications
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(1), 136-177; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3010007 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 843
Abstract
The food packaging sector generates large volumes of plastic waste due to the high demand for packaged products with a short shelf-life. Biopolymers such as starch-based materials are a promising alternative to non-renewable resins, offering a sustainable and environmentally friendly food packaging alternative [...] Read more.
The food packaging sector generates large volumes of plastic waste due to the high demand for packaged products with a short shelf-life. Biopolymers such as starch-based materials are a promising alternative to non-renewable resins, offering a sustainable and environmentally friendly food packaging alternative for single-use products. This article provides a chronology of the development of starch-based materials for food packaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the challenges faced in processing these materials using conventional processing techniques for thermoplastics and other emerging techniques such as electrospinning and 3D printing. The improvement of the performance of starch-based materials by blending with other biopolymers, use of micro- and nano-sized reinforcements, and chemical modification of starch is discussed. Finally, an overview of recent developments of these materials in smart food packaging is given. Full article
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Review
Polysaccharides in Agro-Industrial Biomass Residues
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(1), 95-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3010005 - 09 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
The large-scale industrial use of polysaccharides to obtain energy is one of the most discussed subjects in science. However, modern concepts of biorefinery have promoted the diversification of the use of these polymers in several bioproducts incorporating concepts of sustainability and the circular [...] Read more.
The large-scale industrial use of polysaccharides to obtain energy is one of the most discussed subjects in science. However, modern concepts of biorefinery have promoted the diversification of the use of these polymers in several bioproducts incorporating concepts of sustainability and the circular economy. This work summarizes the major sources of agro-industrial residues, physico-chemical properties, and recent application trends of cellulose, chitin, hyaluronic acid, inulin, and pectin. These macromolecules were selected due to their industrial importance and valuable functional and biological applications that have aroused market interests, such as for the production of medicines, cosmetics, and sustainable packaging. Estimations of global industrial residue production based on major crop data from the United States Department of Agriculture were performed for cellulose content from maize, rice, and wheat, showing that these residues may contain up to 18%, 44%, and 35% of cellulose and 45%, 22%, and 22% of hemicellulose, respectively. The United States (~32%), China (~20%), and the European Union (~18%) are the main countries producing cellulose and hemicellulose-rich residues from maize, rice, and wheat crops, respectively. Pectin and inulin are commonly obtained from fruit (~30%) and vegetable (~28%) residues, while chitin and hyaluronic acid are primarily found in animal waste, e.g., seafood (~3%) and poultry (~4%). Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020

Review
Delving into the Role of Dietary Fiber in Gluten-Free Bread Formulations: Integrating Fundamental Rheological, Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Aspects
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(1), 59-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3010003 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
The evidenced relevance of dietary fibers (DF) as functional ingredients shifted the research focus towards their incorporation into gluten-free (GF) bread, aiming to attain the DF contents required for the manifestation of health benefits. Numerous studies addressing the inclusion of DF from diverse [...] Read more.
The evidenced relevance of dietary fibers (DF) as functional ingredients shifted the research focus towards their incorporation into gluten-free (GF) bread, aiming to attain the DF contents required for the manifestation of health benefits. Numerous studies addressing the inclusion of DF from diverse sources rendered useful information regarding the role of DF in GF batter’s rheological properties, as well as the end product’s technological and nutritional qualities. The presented comprehensive review aspires to provide insight into the changes in fiber-enriched GF batter’s fundamental rheological properties, and technological, sensory, and nutritional GF bread quality from the insoluble and soluble DF (IDF and SDF) perspective. Different mechanisms for understanding IDF and SDF action on GF batter and bread were discussed. In general, IDF and SDF can enhance, but also diminish, the properties of GF batter and bread, depending on their addition level and the presence of available water in the GF system. However, it was seen that SDF addition provides a more homogenous GF batter structure, leading to bread with higher volumes and softer crumb, compared to IDF. The sensory properties of fiber-enriched GF breads were acceptable in most cases when the inclusion level was up to 7 g/100 g, regardless of the fiber type, enabling the labeling of the bread as a source of fiber. Full article
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Review
Cyclodextrins: Structural, Chemical, and Physical Properties, and Applications
Polysaccharides 2022, 3(1), 1-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides3010001 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Due to their unique structural, physical and chemical properties, cyclodextrins and their derivatives have been of great interest to scientists and researchers in both academia and industry for over a century. Many of the industrial applications of cyclodextrins have arisen from their ability [...] Read more.
Due to their unique structural, physical and chemical properties, cyclodextrins and their derivatives have been of great interest to scientists and researchers in both academia and industry for over a century. Many of the industrial applications of cyclodextrins have arisen from their ability to encapsulate, either partially or fully, other molecules, especially organic compounds. Cyclodextrins are non-toxic oligopolymers of glucose that help to increase the solubility of organic compounds with poor aqueous solubility, can mask odors from foul-smelling compounds, and have been widely studied in the area of drug delivery. In this review, we explore the structural and chemical properties of cyclodextrins that give rise to this encapsulation (i.e., the formation of inclusion complexes) ability. This review is unique from others written on this subject because it provides powerful insights into factors that affect cyclodextrin encapsulation. It also examines these insights in great detail. Later, we provide an overview of some industrial applications of cyclodextrins, while emphasizing the role of encapsulation in these applications. We strongly believe that cyclodextrins will continue to garner interest from scientists for many years to come, and that novel applications of cyclodextrins have yet to be discovered. Full article
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Review
Native Cyclodextrins and Their Derivatives as Potential Additives for Food Packaging: A Review
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(4), 825-842; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2040050 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used by the pharmaceutical and food industries since the 1970s. Their cavities allow the accommodation of several hydrophobic molecules, leading to the formation of inclusion complexes (ICs) increasing the guest molecules’ stability, allowing their controlled release, enhancing their water [...] Read more.
Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used by the pharmaceutical and food industries since the 1970s. Their cavities allow the accommodation of several hydrophobic molecules, leading to the formation of inclusion complexes (ICs) increasing the guest molecules’ stability, allowing their controlled release, enhancing their water solubility and biodisponibility. Due to these, CDs and their ICs have been proposed to be used as potential allies in food packaging, especially in active packaging. In this review, we present the many ways in which the CDs can be applied in food packaging, being incorporated into the polymer matrix or as a constituent of sachets and/or pads aiming for food preservation, as well as the diverse polymer matrices investigated. The different types of CDs, natives and derivatives, and the several types of compounds that can be used as guest molecules are also discussed. Full article
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Review
Using Chitosan or Chitosan Derivatives in Cancer Therapy
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(4), 795-816; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2040048 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs have become a popular choice as anticancer agents. Despite the therapeutic benefits of chemotherapeutic drugs, patients often experience side effects and drug resistance. Biopolymers could be used to overcome some of [...] Read more.
Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs have become a popular choice as anticancer agents. Despite the therapeutic benefits of chemotherapeutic drugs, patients often experience side effects and drug resistance. Biopolymers could be used to overcome some of the limitations of chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as be used either as anticancer agents or drug delivery vehicles. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer derived from chitin. Chitosan, chitosan derivatives, or chitosan nanoparticles have shown their promise as an anticancer agent. Additionally, functionally modified chitosan can be used to deliver nucleic acids, chemotherapeutic drugs, and anticancer agents. More importantly, chitosan-based drug delivery systems improved the efficacy, potency, cytotoxicity, or biocompatibility of these anticancer agents. In this review, we will investigate the properties of chitosan and chemically tuned chitosan derivatives, and their application in cancer therapy. Full article
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Review
Microalgae Polysaccharides: An Overview of Production, Characterization, and Potential Applications
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(4), 759-772; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2040046 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms capable of synthesizing several biocompounds, including polysaccharides with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. At the same time that the accumulation of biomolecules occurs, microalgae can use wastewater and gaseous effluents for their growth, mitigating these pollutants. The [...] Read more.
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms capable of synthesizing several biocompounds, including polysaccharides with antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. At the same time that the accumulation of biomolecules occurs, microalgae can use wastewater and gaseous effluents for their growth, mitigating these pollutants. The increase in the production of polysaccharides by microalgae can be achieved mainly through nutritional limitations, stressful conditions, and/or adverse conditions. These compounds are of commercial interest due to their biological and rheological properties, which allow their application in various sectors, such as pharmaceuticals and foods. Thus, to increase the productivity and competitiveness of microalgal polysaccharides with commercial hydrocolloids, the cultivation parameters and extraction/purification processes have been optimized. In this context, this review addresses an overview of the production, characterization, and potential applications of polysaccharides obtained by microalgae and cyanobacteria. Moreover, the main opportunities and challenges in relation to obtaining these compounds are highlighted. Full article
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Review
Polysaccharide Vaccines: A Perspective on Non-Typhoidal Salmonella
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(3), 691-714; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2030042 - 11 Sep 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Polysaccharides are often the most abundant antigens found on the extracellular surfaces of bacterial cells. These polysaccharides play key roles in interactions with the outside world, and for many bacterial pathogens, they represent what is presented to the human immune system. As a [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are often the most abundant antigens found on the extracellular surfaces of bacterial cells. These polysaccharides play key roles in interactions with the outside world, and for many bacterial pathogens, they represent what is presented to the human immune system. As a result, many vaccines have been or currently are being developed against carbohydrate antigens. In this review, we explore the diversity of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) in Salmonella and other selected bacterial species and explain the classification and function of CPS as vaccine antigens. Despite many vaccines being developed using carbohydrate antigens, the low immunogenicity and the diversity of infecting strains and serovars present an antigen formulation challenge to manufacturers. Vaccines tend to focus on common serovars or have changing formulations over time, reflecting the trends in human infection, which can be costly and time-consuming. We summarize the approaches to generate carbohydrate-based vaccines for Salmonella, describe vaccines that are in development and emphasize the need for an effective vaccine against non-typhoidal Salmonella strains. Full article
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Review
Application of Antioxidants as an Alternative Improving of Shelf Life in Foods
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(3), 594-607; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2030036 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Oxidation is the main problem in preserving food products during storage. A relatively novel strategy is the use of antioxidant-enriched edible films. Antioxidants hinder reactive oxygen species, which mainly affect fats and proteins in food. At present, these films have been improved by [...] Read more.
Oxidation is the main problem in preserving food products during storage. A relatively novel strategy is the use of antioxidant-enriched edible films. Antioxidants hinder reactive oxygen species, which mainly affect fats and proteins in food. At present, these films have been improved by the addition of micro- and nanoliposomes coated with carbohydrate polymers, which are not hazardous for human health and can be ingested without risk. The liposomes are loaded with different antioxidants, and their effects are observed as a longer storage time of the food product. The synergy of these methodologies and advances can lead to the displacement of the protective packaging used currently, which would result in food products with functional properties added by the films, an increase in shelf life, and an improvement to the environment by reducing the amount of waste. Full article
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Review
Dextran: Sources, Structures, and Properties
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(3), 554-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2030033 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Dextran is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or their enzymes in the presence of sucrose. Dextran is composed of a linear chain of d-glucoses linked by α-(1→6) bonds, with possible branches of d-glucoses linked by α-(1→4), α-(1→3), [...] Read more.
Dextran is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or their enzymes in the presence of sucrose. Dextran is composed of a linear chain of d-glucoses linked by α-(1→6) bonds, with possible branches of d-glucoses linked by α-(1→4), α-(1→3), or α-(1→2) bonds, which can be low (<40 kDa) or high molecular weight (>40 kDa). The characteristics of dextran in terms of molecular weight and branches depend on the producing strain, so there is a great variety in its properties. Dextran has commercial interest because its solubility, viscosity, and thermal and rheological properties allow it to be used in food, pharmaceutical, and research areas. The aim of this review article is to compile the latest research (in the past decade) using LAB to synthesize high or low molecular weight dextran. In addition, studies using modified enzymes to produce dextran with specific structural characteristics (molecular weights and branches) are addressed. On the other hand, special attention is paid to LAB extracted from unconventional sources to expose their capacities as dextran producers and their possible application to compete with the only commercial strain (Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512). Full article
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Review
Trends of Chitosan Based Delivery Systems in Neuroregeneration and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injuries
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 519-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020031 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most complicated nervous system injuries with challenging treatment and recovery. Regenerative biomaterials such as chitosan are being reported for their wide use in filling the cavities, deliver curative drugs, and also provide adsorption sites for [...] Read more.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most complicated nervous system injuries with challenging treatment and recovery. Regenerative biomaterials such as chitosan are being reported for their wide use in filling the cavities, deliver curative drugs, and also provide adsorption sites for transplanted stem cells. Biomaterial scaffolds utilizing chitosan have shown certain therapeutic effects on spinal cord injury repair with some limitations. Chitosan-based delivery in stem cell transplantation is another strategy that has shown decent success. Stem cells can be directed to differentiate into neurons or glia in vitro. Stem cell-based therapy, biopolymer chitosan delivery strategies, and scaffold-based therapeutic strategies have been advancing as a combinatorial approach for spinal cord injury repair. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the treatment strategies of SCI due to the use of bioactivity of chitosan-based drug delivery systems. An emphasis on the role of chitosan in neural regeneration has also been highlighted. Full article
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Review
Oxi-HA/ADH Hydrogels: A Novel Approach in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 477-496; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020029 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polyelectrolyte abundant in mammalian connective tissues, such as cartilage and skin. Both endogenous and exogenous HA produced by fermentation have similar physicochemical, rheological, and biological properties, leading to medical and dermo-cosmetic products. Chemical modifications such as cross-linking [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polyelectrolyte abundant in mammalian connective tissues, such as cartilage and skin. Both endogenous and exogenous HA produced by fermentation have similar physicochemical, rheological, and biological properties, leading to medical and dermo-cosmetic products. Chemical modifications such as cross-linking or conjugation in target groups of the HA molecule improve its properties and in vivo stability, expanding its applications. Currently, HA-based scaffolds and matrices are of great interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the partial oxidation of the proximal hydroxyl groups in HA to electrophilic aldehydes mediated by periodate is still rarely investigated. The introduced aldehyde groups in the HA backbone allow spontaneous cross-linking with adipic dihydrazide (ADH), thermosensitivity, and noncytotoxicity to the hydrogels, which are advantageous for medical applications. This review provides an overview of the physicochemical properties of HA and its usual chemical modifications to better understand oxi-HA/ADH hydrogels, their functional properties modulated by the oxidation degree and ADH concentration, and the current clinical research. Finally, it discusses the development of biomaterials based on oxi-HA/ADH as a novel approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Full article
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Review
Encapsulation of Carotenoids as Food Colorants via Formation of Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes: A Review
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 454-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020028 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
The use of natural carotenoids as food colorants is an important trend of innovation in the industry due to their low toxicity, their potential as bio-functional ingredients, and the increasing demand for natural and organic foods. Despite these benefits, their inclusion in food [...] Read more.
The use of natural carotenoids as food colorants is an important trend of innovation in the industry due to their low toxicity, their potential as bio-functional ingredients, and the increasing demand for natural and organic foods. Despite these benefits, their inclusion in food matrices presents multiple challenges related to their low stability and low water solubility. The present review covers the main concepts and background of carotenoid inclusion complex formation in cyclodextrins as a strategy for their stabilization, and subsequent inclusion in food products as color additives. The review includes the key aspects of the molecular and physicochemical properties of cyclodextrins as complexing agents, and a detailed review of the published evidence on complex formation with natural carotenoids from different sources in cyclodextrins, comparing complex formation methodologies, recovery, inclusion efficiency, and instrumental characterization techniques. Moreover, process flow diagrams (PFD), based on the most promising carotenoid-cyclodextrin complex formation methodologies reported in literature, are proposed, and discussed as a potential tool for their future scale-up. This review shows that the inclusion of carotenoids in complexes with cyclodextrins constitutes a promising technology for the stabilization of these pigments, with possible advantages in terms of their stability in food matrices. Full article
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Review
Trend of Modification by Autoclave at Low Pressure and by Natural Fermentation in Sweet Potato and Cassava Starches
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 354-372; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020023 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) are part of the largest food crops in many countries. They have good nutritional value because, in addition to containing vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and anthocyanins in varied contents, due to the [...] Read more.
Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) are part of the largest food crops in many countries. They have good nutritional value because, in addition to containing vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and anthocyanins in varied contents, due to the existence of various colors of their pulps, they have starch as their major constituent. As such, they are considered valuable raw materials for the food factory. The starch granules have distinct morphologies and properties, related to the type of cultivar, planting conditions, storage, and processing, which in turn can affect the quality of the final products to which they have been added. The use of native starches in the food industry has limitations, which can be improved by modifications. Physical methods, as they are associated with green technology, and do not pollute the environment, have demonstrated great potential for this purpose. Both modifications—by autoclave at low pressure and natural fermentation—have shown potential in modifying these starches. Full article
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Review
From Exosome Glycobiology to Exosome Glycotechnology, the Role of Natural Occurring Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 311-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020021 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Exosomes (EXOs) are nano-sized informative shuttles acting as endogenous mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Their innate ability to target specific cells and deliver functional cargo is recently claimed as a promising theranostic strategy. The glycan profile, actively involved in the EXO biogenesis, release, sorting [...] Read more.
Exosomes (EXOs) are nano-sized informative shuttles acting as endogenous mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Their innate ability to target specific cells and deliver functional cargo is recently claimed as a promising theranostic strategy. The glycan profile, actively involved in the EXO biogenesis, release, sorting and function, is highly cell type-specific and frequently altered in pathological conditions. Therefore, the modulation of EXO glyco-composition has recently been considered an attractive tool in the design of novel therapeutics. In addition to the available approaches involving conventional glyco-engineering, soft technology is becoming more and more attractive for better exploiting EXO glycan tasks and optimizing EXO delivery platforms. This review, first, explores the main functions of EXO glycans and associates the potential implications of the reported new findings across the nanomedicine applications. The state-of-the-art of the last decade concerning the role of natural polysaccharides—as targeting molecules and in 3D soft structure manufacture matrices—is then analysed and highlighted, as an advancing EXO biofunction toolkit. The promising results, integrating the biopolymers area to the EXO-based bio-nanofabrication and bio-nanotechnology field, lay the foundation for further investigation and offer a new perspective in drug delivery and personalized medicine progress. Full article
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Review
Strategies towards Reduction of Cellulases Consumption: Debottlenecking the Economics of Lignocellulosics Valorization Processes
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 287-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020020 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Lignocellulosic residues have been receiving growing interest as a promising source of polysaccharides, which can be converted into a variety of compounds, ranging from biofuels to bioplastics. Most of these can replace equivalent products traditionally originated from petroleum, hence representing an important environmental [...] Read more.
Lignocellulosic residues have been receiving growing interest as a promising source of polysaccharides, which can be converted into a variety of compounds, ranging from biofuels to bioplastics. Most of these can replace equivalent products traditionally originated from petroleum, hence representing an important environmental advantage. Lignocellulosic materials are theoretically unlimited, cheaper and may not compete with food crops. However, the conversion of these materials to simpler sugars usually requires cellulolytic enzymes. Being still associated with a high cost of production, cellulases are commonly considered as one of the main obstacles in the economic valorization of lignocellulosics. This work provides a brief overview of some of the most studied strategies that can allow an important reduction of cellulases consumption, hence improving the economy of lignocellulosics conversion. Cellulases recycling is initially discussed regarding the main processes to recover active enzymes and the most important factors that may affect enzyme recyclability. Similarly, the potential of enzyme immobilization is analyzed with a special focus on the contributions that some elements of the process can offer for prolonged times of operation and improved enzyme stability and robustness. Finally, the emergent concept of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is also described in the particular context of a potential reduction of cellulases consumption. Full article
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Review
A Review of Cellulose Coarse-Grained Models and Their Applications
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 257-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020018 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Cellulose is the most common biopolymer and widely used in our daily life. Due to its unique properties and biodegradability, it has been attracting increased attention in the recent years and various new applications of cellulose and its derivatives are constantly being found. [...] Read more.
Cellulose is the most common biopolymer and widely used in our daily life. Due to its unique properties and biodegradability, it has been attracting increased attention in the recent years and various new applications of cellulose and its derivatives are constantly being found. The development of new materials with improved properties, however, is not always an easy task, and theoretical models and computer simulations can often help in this process. In this review, we give an overview of different coarse-grained models of cellulose and their applications to various systems. Various coarse-grained models with different mapping schemes are presented, which can efficiently simulate systems from the single cellulose fibril/crystal to the assembly of many fibrils/crystals. We also discuss relevant applications of these models with a focus on the mechanical properties, self-assembly, chiral nematic phases, conversion between cellulose allomorphs, composite materials and interactions with other molecules. Full article
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Review
A Review on Recent Progress of Glycan-Based Surfactant Micelles as Nanoreactor Systems for Chemical Synthesis Applications
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 168-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2010012 - 07 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The nanoreactor concept and its application as a modality to carry out chemical reactions in confined and compartmentalized structures continues to receive increasing attention. Micelle-based nanoreactors derived from various classes of surfactant demonstrate outstanding potential for chemical synthesis. Polysaccharide (glycan-based) surfactants are an [...] Read more.
The nanoreactor concept and its application as a modality to carry out chemical reactions in confined and compartmentalized structures continues to receive increasing attention. Micelle-based nanoreactors derived from various classes of surfactant demonstrate outstanding potential for chemical synthesis. Polysaccharide (glycan-based) surfactants are an emerging class of biodegradable, non-toxic, and sustainable alternatives over conventional surfactant systems. The unique structure of glycan-based surfactants and their micellar structures provide a nanoenvironment that differs from that of the bulk solution, and supported by chemical reactions with uniquely different reaction rates and mechanisms. In this review, the aggregation of glycan-based surfactants to afford micelles and their utility for the synthesis of selected classes of reactions by the nanoreactor technique is discussed. Glycan-based surfactants are ecofriendly and promising surfactants over conventional synthetic analogues. This contribution aims to highlight recent developments in the field of glycan-based surfactants that are relevant to nanoreactors, along with future opportunities for research. In turn, coverage of research for glycan-based surfactants in nanoreactor assemblies with tailored volume and functionality is anticipated to motivate advanced research for the synthesis of diverse chemical species. Full article
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Review
Biopolymer Matrices Based on Chitosan and Fibroin: A Review Focused on Methods for Studying Surface Properties
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 154-167; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2010011 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
For the creation of tissue-engineered structures based on natural biopolymers with the necessary chemical, physical, adhesive, morphological, and regenerative properties, biocompatible materials based on polysaccharides and proteins are used. This work is devoted to a problem of the technology of polymeric materials for [...] Read more.
For the creation of tissue-engineered structures based on natural biopolymers with the necessary chemical, physical, adhesive, morphological, and regenerative properties, biocompatible materials based on polysaccharides and proteins are used. This work is devoted to a problem of the technology of polymeric materials for biomedical purposes: the creation of biopolymer tissue engineering matrix and the development of a methodology for studying morphology and functional properties of their surface to establish the prospects for using the material for contact with living objects. The conditions for the formation of scaffolds based on composite materials of chitosan and fibroin determine the structure of the material, the thickness and orientation of molecular layers, the surface morphology, and other parameters that affect cell adhesion and growth. The analysis of studies of the morphology and properties of the surface of biopolymer matrices obtained using different methods of molding from solutions of chitosan and fibroin is carried out. Full article
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Review
Biopolymeric Materials Used as Nonviral Vectors: A Review
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 100-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2010007 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types [...] Read more.
Bacterial transformation and gene transfection can be understood as being the results of introducing specific genetic material into cells, resulting in gene expression, and adding a new genetic trait to the host cell. Many studies have been carried out to investigate different types of lipids and cationic polymers as promising nonviral vectors for DNA transfer. The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review on the use of biopolymeric materials as nonviral vectors. The methodology was carried out based on searches of scientific articles and applications for patents published or deposited from 2006 to 2020 in different databases for patents (EPO, USPTO, and INPI) and articles (Scopus, Web of Science, and Scielo). The results showed that there are some deposits of patents regarding the use of chitosan as a gene carrier. The 16 analyzed articles allowed us to infer that the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is limited due to the low diversity of biopolymers used for these purposes. It was also observed that the use of different materials as nonviral vectors is based on chemical structure modifications of the material, mainly by the addition of cationic groups. Thus, the use of biopolymers as nonviral vectors is still limited to only a few polysaccharide types, emphasizing the need for further studies involving the use of different biopolymers in processes of gene transfer. Full article
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Review
Cyclodextrin Polymers and Cyclodextrin-Containing Polysaccharides for Water Remediation
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(1), 16-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2010002 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Chemical pollution of water has raised great concerns among citizens, lawmakers, and nearly all manufacturing industries. As the legislation addressing liquid effluents becomes more stringent, water companies are increasingly scrutinized for their environmental performance. In this context, emergent contaminants represent a major challenge, [...] Read more.
Chemical pollution of water has raised great concerns among citizens, lawmakers, and nearly all manufacturing industries. As the legislation addressing liquid effluents becomes more stringent, water companies are increasingly scrutinized for their environmental performance. In this context, emergent contaminants represent a major challenge, and the remediation of water bodies and wastewater demands alternative sorbent materials. One of the most promising adsorbing materials for micropolluted water environments involves cyclodextrin (CD) polymers and cyclodextrin-containing polysaccharides. Although cyclodextrins are water-soluble and, thus, unusable as adsorbents in aqueous media, they can be feasibly polymerized by using different crosslinkers such as epichlorohydrin, polycarboxylic acids, and glutaraldehyde. Likewise, with those coupling agents or after substituting hydroxyl groups with more reactive moieties, cyclodextrin units can be covalently attached to a pre-existing polysaccharide. In this direction, the functionalization of chitosan, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, and other carbohydrate polymers with CDs is vastly found in the literature. For the system containing CDs to be used for remediation purposes, there are benefits from a synergy that arises from (i) the ability of CD units to interact selectively with a broad spectrum of molecules, forming inclusion complexes and higher-order supramolecular assemblies, (ii) the functional groups of the crosslinker comonomers, (iii) the three-dimensional structure of the crosslinked network, and/or (iv) the intrinsic characteristics of the polysaccharide backbone. In view of the most recent contributions regarding CD-based copolymers and CD-containing polysaccharides, this review discusses their performance as adsorbents in micropolluted water environments, as well as their interaction patterns, addressing the influence of their structural and physicochemical properties and their functionalization. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2022, 2021

Review
Biosourced Polysaccharide-Based Superabsorbents
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 51-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides1010005 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
In the last decades, many studies have been conducted on new materials to meet a growing industrial demand and to move scientific research forward. Superabsorbents are good examples of materials that have generated special attention in many fields for their ability to absorb [...] Read more.
In the last decades, many studies have been conducted on new materials to meet a growing industrial demand and to move scientific research forward. Superabsorbents are good examples of materials that have generated special attention in many fields for their ability to absorb and retain water up to 1000 times of their dry weight. They found many applications in hygiene products and other products, for a fast growing market of USD 9.58 Billion in 2019. Most of them are composed of synthetic polymers, which are often not environmentally friendly. Therefore, natural superabsorbents and particularly those based on polysaccharides have received a recent increased interest for their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and renewability. This review focuses on polysaccharide-based superabsorbents, on their properties, synthesis methods, and characterization. Their potential applications in many fields, such as biomedical and hygiene, agriculture, water treatment, and the building sector, are also reported with an interest in products already marketed. Full article
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Review
Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Derivatives in Plant Protection against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses and in Recovery of Contaminated Soil and Water
Polysaccharides 2020, 1(1), 21-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides1010003 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Biotic, abiotic stresses and their unpredictable combinations severely reduce plant growth and crop yield worldwide. The different chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, phytoregulators) so far used to enhance crop tolerance to multistress have a great environmental impact. In the search of more eco-friendly systems to [...] Read more.
Biotic, abiotic stresses and their unpredictable combinations severely reduce plant growth and crop yield worldwide. The different chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, phytoregulators) so far used to enhance crop tolerance to multistress have a great environmental impact. In the search of more eco-friendly systems to manage plant stresses, chitin, a polysaccharide polymer composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine and its deacetylated derivative chitosan appear as promising tools to solve this problem. In fact, these molecules, easily obtainable from crustacean shells and from the cell wall of many fungi, are non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible and able to stimulate plant productivity and to protect crops against pathogens. In addition, chitin and chitosan can act as bioadsorbents for remediation of contaminated soil and water. In this review we summarize recent results obtained using chitin- and chitosan-based derivatives in plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses and in recovery of contaminated soil and water. Full article
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