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Special Issue "The Fascinating Story of Natural Polysaccharides in Glycosciences: From Extraction to Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Cédric Delattre
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut Pascal, Université Clermont Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France;
2 Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), 1 rue Descartes 75005 Paris, France
Interests: biocatalyst; biopolymers; biochemistry of poly- and oligosaccharides; biorefinery (plant, micro-, and macro-algae); green chemistry; enzymology; glycochemisty; biobased and bio-inspired material; food packagingimmunochemistry; NMR spectroscopy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For a long time, natural biopolymers, such as polysaccharides, have fascinated humanity. Polysaccharides are certainly one of the greatest varied families of bio-polymers in terms of structure and use. Depending on the origin (animal, plant, algal or microbial), polysaccharides may be linear, substituted, or more or less branched. Polysaccharides are highly variable and complex biomolecules of which the inventory of structures is still partial, as nature still preserves many of the unexplored biotopes. In this context, many works from all over the world have led to the discovery of original polysaccharides extracted from medicinal plants and algae, or produced from bacteria and microalgae, with high potential as food ingredients or as biological assets. Their main roles in the organism are to either provide structural support as a constituent of a cell wall or to store energy in the cell. Some polysaccharides and/or their oligosaccharide derivatives may be involved in cellular and sub-cellular communication processes, as in the case of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Consequently, this Special Issue aims to (i) review and identify the main polysaccharides from all biotopes (plant, bacteria, animal and microalgae), from the past to the present, and (ii) identity the lastest bioactive polysaccharides and their techno-functional derivatives (low molecular weight, oligosaccharides, hydrogels, etc.) with advantageous effects in the agricultural, pharmaceutical and food fields.

Prof. Delattre Cedric
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • polysaccharides
  • extractions processes
  • pharmaceutical applications
  • agricultural applications
  • material

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Use of a Pleurotus ostreatus Complex Cell Wall Extract as Elicitor of Plant Defenses: From Greenhouse to Field Trial
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051094 - 29 Feb 2020
Abstract
Fungi constitute an abundant source of natural polysaccharides, some of them harboring original structures which can induce responses in mammalian or plant cells. An alkaline extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has been obtained and called Pleuran complex cell wall extract (CCWE). [...] Read more.
Fungi constitute an abundant source of natural polysaccharides, some of them harboring original structures which can induce responses in mammalian or plant cells. An alkaline extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has been obtained and called Pleuran complex cell wall extract (CCWE). It consists of a glucan-peptide complex whose components fall in a quite broad range of molecular weights, from 30 to 80 kDa. Pleuran extract has been tested on cultivated plants in laboratory conditions and also during field trial for its capacity to stimulate plant defenses in response to pathogen attack. Following Pleuran CCWE treatment, enhanced levels of various biochemical markers associated with plant responses have been observed, including enzymatic activities (e.g., peroxidase) or expression of some pathogenesis-related genes. In addition, during field experiments, we have noticed significant reductions in disease symptom levels in relation to different plant/pathogen systems (wheat/septoria, vine/mildew). These results confirmed that Pleuran CCWE could be used as an elicitor of plant defenses and could help in reducing pesticide applications against plant pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Gellan Oligosaccharide and NaCl Stress on Growth, Photosynthetic Pigments, Mineral Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity in Red Perilla
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3925; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213925 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The growing market demand for plant raw materials with improved biological value promotes the extensive search for new elicitors and biostimulants. Gellan gum derivatives may enhance plant growth and development, but have never been used under stress conditions. Perilla (Perilla frutescens, [...] Read more.
The growing market demand for plant raw materials with improved biological value promotes the extensive search for new elicitors and biostimulants. Gellan gum derivatives may enhance plant growth and development, but have never been used under stress conditions. Perilla (Perilla frutescens, Lamiaceae) is a source of valuable bioproducts for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. However, there is not much information on the use of biostimulators in perilla cultivation. In this work we investigated the effects of oligo-gellan and salt (100 mM NaCl) on the yield and quality of red perilla (P. frutescens var. crispa f. purpurea) leaves. Plants grown under stress showed inhibited growth, smaller biomass, their leaves contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total polyphenol and total anthocyanins, and accumulated considerably more sodium than control plants. Treatment with oligo-gellan under non-saline conditions stimulated plant growth and the fresh weight content of the above-ground parts, enhanced the accumulation of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium and total polyphenols, and increased antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. Oligo-gellan applied under saline conditions clearly alleviated the stress effects by limiting the loss of biomass, macronutrients, and total polyphenols. Additionally, plants pretreated with oligo-gellan and then exposed to 100 mM NaCl accumulated less sodium, produced greater amounts of photosynthetic pigments, and had greater antioxidant activity than NaCl-stressed plants. Irrespective of the experimental treatment, 50% extract effectively inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Both microorganisms were the least affected by 25% extract obtained from plants untreated with either NaCl or oligo-gellan. In conclusion, oligo-gellan promoted plant growth and enhanced the quality of red perilla leaves and efficiently alleviated the negative effects of salt stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Polysaccharide Isolated from Codonopsis pilosula with Immunomodulation Effects Both In Vitro and In Vivo
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3632; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203632 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, an acidic polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen (WCP-I) and its main fragment, WCP-Ia, obtained after pectinase digestion, were structurally elucidated and found to consist of a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region containing both arabinogalactan type [...] Read more.
In this study, an acidic polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen (WCP-I) and its main fragment, WCP-Ia, obtained after pectinase digestion, were structurally elucidated and found to consist of a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region containing both arabinogalactan type I (AG-I) and type II (AG-II) as sidechains. They both expressed immunomodulating activity against Peyer’s patch cells. Endo-1,4-β-galactanase degradation gave a decrease of interleukine 6 (IL-6) production compared with native WCP-I and WCP-Ia, but exo-α-l-arabinofuranosidase digestion showed no changes in activity. This demonstrated that the stimulation activity partly disappeared with removal of β-d-(1→4)-galactan chains, proving that the AG-I side chain plays an important role in immunoregulation activity. WCP-Ia had a better promotion effect than WCP-I in vivo, shown through an increased spleen index, higher concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, and a slight increment in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that β-d-(1→4)-galactan-containing chains in WCP-I play an essential role in the expression of immunomodulating activity. Combining all the results in this and previous studies, the intestinal immune system might be the target site of WCP-Ia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Polysaccharide Composition in Polyporus umbellatus by HPLC–ESI–TOF–MS
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142526 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Polyporus umbellatus is a well-known and important medicinal fungus in Asia. Its polysaccharides possess interesting bioactivities such as antitumor, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. A qualitative and quantitative method has been established for the analysis of 12 monosaccharides comprising polysaccharides of Polyporus umbellatus [...] Read more.
Polyporus umbellatus is a well-known and important medicinal fungus in Asia. Its polysaccharides possess interesting bioactivities such as antitumor, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. A qualitative and quantitative method has been established for the analysis of 12 monosaccharides comprising polysaccharides of Polyporus umbellatus based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization–ion trap–time of flight–mass spectrometry. The hydrolysis conditions of the polysaccharides were optimized by orthogonal design. The results of optimized hydrolysis were as follows: neutral sugars and uronic acids 4 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 6 h, 120 °C; and amino sugars 3 mol/L TFA, 3 h, 100 °C. The resulting monosaccharides derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone have been well separated and analyzed by the established method. Identification of the monosaccharides was carried out by analyzing the mass spectral behaviors and chromatography characteristics of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone labeled monosaccharides. The results showed that polysaccharides in Polyporus umbellatus were composed of mannose, glucosamine, rhamnose, ribose, lyxose, erythrose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, and fucose. Quantitative recoveries of these monosaccharides in the samples were in the range of 96.10–103.70%. This method is simple, accurate, and sensitive for the identification and quantification of monosaccharides, and can be applied to the quality control of Polyporusumbellatus as a natural medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Production of Bioactive Compounds from the Sulfated Polysaccharides Extracts of Ulva lactuca: Post-Extraction Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Ion-Exchange Chromatographic Fractionation
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112132 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper describes a novel combined post-extraction process for obtaining bioactive compounds from the aqueous high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) extracts of the green algae, Ulva lactuca. After extracting the SPs, they were enzymatically hydrolyzed then the hydrolysate (V45) was fractionated [...] Read more.
This paper describes a novel combined post-extraction process for obtaining bioactive compounds from the aqueous high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) extracts of the green algae, Ulva lactuca. After extracting the SPs, they were enzymatically hydrolyzed then the hydrolysate (V45) was fractionated into eight different molecular weight fractions (F1–F8) using ion exchange chromatography. Crude SPs together with V45 and (F1–F8) were examined for their carbohydrate, protein, and sulfate contents. In addition, their degree of polymerization (DP) was estimated and they were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Fractions S1, F4, F5, and F8 showed promising antioxidant and antitumor activities in vitro. In particular, the remarkable antitumor activity of F5 on three types of cancer cell lines could be attributed to its comparable contents of protein, carbohydrate, and sulfate, in addition to its comparable contents of rhamnose and glucuronic acid, and the same for glucose and arabinose. F5 also possessed the highest Hill coefficient among the four promising fractions indicating a higher degree of cooperativity in ligand binding. Other influencing factors including DP, composition, and type of characteristic functional groups were also discussed. The implications of this work could potentially benefit the industries of food supplements and pharmaceuticals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alkyl-Chitosan-Based Adhesive: Water Resistance Improvement
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101987 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A chemical modification by grafting alkyl chains using an octanal (C8) on chitosan was conducted with the aim to improve its water resistance for bonding applications. The chemical structure of the modified polymers was determined by NMR analyses revealing two alkylation degrees (10 [...] Read more.
A chemical modification by grafting alkyl chains using an octanal (C8) on chitosan was conducted with the aim to improve its water resistance for bonding applications. The chemical structure of the modified polymers was determined by NMR analyses revealing two alkylation degrees (10 and 15%). In this study, the flow properties of alkyl-chitosans were also evaluated. An increase in the viscosity was observed in alkyl-chitosan solutions compared with solutions of the same concentration based on native chitosan. Moreover, the evaluation of the adhesive strength (bond strength and shear stress) of both native and alkyl-chitosans was performed on two different double-lap adherends (aluminum and wood). Alkyl-chitosans (10 and 15%) maintain sufficient adhesive properties on wood and exhibit better water resistance compared to native chitosan. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antiviral Effects of Houttuynia cordata Polysaccharide Extract on Murine Norovirus-1 (MNV-1)—A Human Norovirus Surrogate
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091835 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Houttuynia cordata is an herbal plant rich in polysaccharides and with several pharmacological activities. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis throughout the world. In this study, H. cordata polysaccharide (HP), with a molecular weight of ~43 kDa, [...] Read more.
Houttuynia cordata is an herbal plant rich in polysaccharides and with several pharmacological activities. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis throughout the world. In this study, H. cordata polysaccharide (HP), with a molecular weight of ~43 kDa, was purified from H. cordata water extract (HWE). The polysaccharide HP was composed predominantly of galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, and xylose in a molar ratio of 1.56:1.49:1.26:1.11. Methylation and NMR analyses revealed that HP was a pectin-like acidic polysaccharide mainly consisting of α-1,4-linked GalpA, β-1,4-linked Galp, β-1,4-linked Glcp, and β-1,4-linked Xylp residues. To evaluate the antiviral activity of H. cordata extracts, we compared the anti-norovirus potential of HP with HWE and ethanol extract (HEE) from H. cordata by plaque assay (plaque forming units (PFU)/mL) for murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a surrogate of HuNoVs. Viruses at high (8.09 log10 PFU/mL) or low (4.38 log10 PFU/mL) counts were mixed with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL of HP, HWE or HEE and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. H. cordata polysaccharide (HP) was more effective than HEE in reducing MNV-1 plaque formation, but less effective than HWE. When MNV-1 was treated with 500 μg/mL HP, the infectivity of MNV-1 decreased to an undetectable level. The selectivity indexes of each sample were 1.95 for HEE, 5.74 for HP, and 16.14 for HWE. The results of decimal reduction time and transmission electron microscopic revealed that HP has anti-viral effects by deforming and inflating virus particles, thereby inhibiting the penetration of viruses in target cells. These findings suggest that HP might have potential as an antiviral agent in the treatment of viral diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chitosan Dispersion and Microparticles on Older Streptococcus mutans Biofilms
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091808 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: The effectiveness of chitosan to improve the action of antimicrobial compounds against planktonic bacteria and young biofilms has been widely investigated in Dentistry, where the biofilm lifecycle is a determining factor for the success of antibacterial treatment. In the present study, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The effectiveness of chitosan to improve the action of antimicrobial compounds against planktonic bacteria and young biofilms has been widely investigated in Dentistry, where the biofilm lifecycle is a determining factor for the success of antibacterial treatment. In the present study, mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms were treated with chitosan dispersion (CD) or chitosan microparticles (CM). (2) Methods: CD at 0.25% and 1% were characterized by texture analysis, while CD at 2% was spray-dried to form CM, which were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, zeta potential, and morphology. After determining the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, S. mutans biofilms were grown on glass slides exposed 8×/day to 10% sucrose and 2×/day to CD or CM at 0.25% and 1%. Biofilm viability and acidogenicity were determined, using appropriate control groups for each experiment. (3) Results: CD had high viscosity and CM were spherical, with narrow size distribution and positive zeta potential. CM affected bacterial viability and acidogenicity in mature S. mutans biofilms more strongly than CD, especially at 1%. (4) Conclusions: Both chitosan forms exerted antimicrobial effect against mature S. mutans biofilms. CM at 1% can reduce bacterial viability and acidogenicity more effectively than CD at 1%, and thereby be more effective to control the growth of mature biofilms in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Concentration on the Cross-Linking and Gelling of Sodium Carbonate-Soluble Apple Pectins
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081635 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The cross-linking and gelation of low-methoxy pectins are basic processes commonly used in different industries. The aim of this research was to evaluate the cross-linking process of the sodium carbonate-soluble pectins (named DASP) extracted from apples, characterized by a low degree of methylesterification [...] Read more.
The cross-linking and gelation of low-methoxy pectins are basic processes commonly used in different industries. The aim of this research was to evaluate the cross-linking process of the sodium carbonate-soluble pectins (named DASP) extracted from apples, characterized by a low degree of methylesterification as a function of its concentration in water (CDASP). The cross-linking process was studied with a dynamic light scattering method, atomic force microscope (AFM), viscosity and pH measurements. An increase in CDASP above 0.01% resulted in a decrease in the aggregation index (AI) and the change of its sign from positive to negative. The value of AI = 0 occurred at CDASP = 0.33 ± 0.04% and indicated the formation of a pectin network. An increase in CDASP caused the changes in viscosity of pectin solutions and the nanostructure of pectins spin-coated on mica observed with AFM, which confirmed results obtained. The hydrogen bonds were involved in the cross-linking process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Purification, Partial Characterization, and Bioactivity of Polysaccharides from Panax ginseng
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081605 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Polysaccharides are a main active substance in Panax ginseng; however, microwave-assisted extraction used to prepare P. ginseng polysaccharides (MPPG) has rarely been reported, and knowledge of the bactericidal activity of P. ginseng polysaccharides remains low. Thus, this study was designed to investigate [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are a main active substance in Panax ginseng; however, microwave-assisted extraction used to prepare P. ginseng polysaccharides (MPPG) has rarely been reported, and knowledge of the bactericidal activity of P. ginseng polysaccharides remains low. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the extraction of P. ginseng polysaccharides by using two methods—hot water extraction and microwave-assisted extraction—and compare their chemical composition and structure. In addition, their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were also determined. The data implied that P. ginseng polysaccharides extracted by microwave-assisted extraction possessed a higher extraction yield than hot water extraction (WPPG) under optimized conditions, and the actual yields were 41.6% ± 0.09% and 28.5% ± 1.62%, respectively. Moreover, the preliminary characterization of polysaccharides was identified after purification. The WPPG with the molecular weight (Mw) of 2.07 × 105 Da was composed of Man, Rib, Rha, GalA, Glu, Gal, and Arab, and the typical characteristics of polysaccharides were determined by IR spectra. Compared with WPPG, MPPG had a higher Mw, uronic acid content, and Glu content. More importantly, the antioxidant activity of MPPG was higher than WPPG, which was probably ascribed to its highly Mw and abundant uronic acid content. Besides, both of them exhibited high bactericidal activity. These results demonstrate that microwave-assisted extraction is an effective method for obtaining P. ginseng polysaccharides, and MPPG could be applied as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polysaccharide-Rich Fractions from Rosa rugosa Thunb.—Composition and Chemopreventive Potential
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071354 - 06 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The huge health-beneficial potential of polysaccharides encourages the search for novel sources and applications of these compounds. One poorly explored source of polysaccharides is the rose. The content and biological activity of polysaccharides in rose organs is an almost completely unaddressed topic, therefore, [...] Read more.
The huge health-beneficial potential of polysaccharides encourages the search for novel sources and applications of these compounds. One poorly explored source of polysaccharides is the rose. The content and biological activity of polysaccharides in rose organs is an almost completely unaddressed topic, therefore, polysaccharide-rich extracts (crude polysaccharides, CPLs) from petals, leaves, hips, and achenes of Rosa rugosa Thunb. were studied for their composition and the influence on various cellular processes involved in the development of cancer and other civilization diseases. The study revealed the presence of water-soluble and -insoluble polysaccharides (including β-glucans) and protein-polysaccharide conjugates in rose organs. Rose hips were found to be the most abundant source of polysaccharides. Different polysaccharide-rich extracts showed the ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes (COX-1, COX-2, hyaluronidase), a radical scavenging effect (against DPPH and ABTS•+), and antiproliferative activity (in the A549 lung and SW480 colon cancer cell lines) in in vitro assays. Therefore, rose crude polysaccharides are very promising and can potentially be used as natural chemopreventive agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structure and Anti-Tumor Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Alternaria mali Roberts
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071345 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, an extracellular polysaccharide from Alternaria mali Roberts (AMEP) was extracted, and its structure was characterized, in addition to its antitumor activity in vitro. Neutral polysaccharide AMEP-1 and anionic polysaccharide AMEP-2 were isolated from AMEP, and their monosaccharide compositions consisted of [...] Read more.
In this study, an extracellular polysaccharide from Alternaria mali Roberts (AMEP) was extracted, and its structure was characterized, in addition to its antitumor activity in vitro. Neutral polysaccharide AMEP-1 and anionic polysaccharide AMEP-2 were isolated from AMEP, and their monosaccharide compositions consisted of mannose (Man), glucose (Glc), and galactose (Gal) but at different ratios. The linking mode of both AMEP-1 and AMEP-2 is Manp-(1→4) and Glcp-(1→6), and the branched chains are connected to the main chain through O-6. AMEP-2 inhibited the proliferation of BGC-823 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. AMEP-2 also induced the apoptosis of BGC-823 cells, and showed anti-tumor effects by inducing cell cycle arrest in the S phase, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction in BGC-823 cells. Therefore, AMEP-2 shows potential for further development as a novel anti-tumor agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Inulin-Type Fructan from Platycodon grandiflorus and Study on Its Prebiotic and Immunomodulating Activity
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071199 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Platycodon grandiflorus is a plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, of which polysaccharides are reported to be the main components responsible for its bio-functions. In this work, the inulin-type fructan (PGF) was obtained by DEAE anion exchange chromatography from the water extracted [...] Read more.
Platycodon grandiflorus is a plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, of which polysaccharides are reported to be the main components responsible for its bio-functions. In this work, the inulin-type fructan (PGF) was obtained by DEAE anion exchange chromatography from the water extracted from P. grandifloras. Characterization was performed with methanolysis, methylation, and NMR and the results showed that PGF is a β-(2-1) linked fructan, with terminal glucose and with a degree of polymerization of 2–10. In order to study its biofunctions, the prebiotic and immunomodulation properties were assayed. We found that PGF exhibited good prebiotic activity, as shown by a promotion on six strains of lactobacillus proliferation. Additionally, the PGF also displayed direct immunomodulation on intestinal epithelial cells and stimulated the expressions of anti-inflammatory factors. These results indicated that the inulin from P. grandiflorus is a potential natural source of prebiotics as well as a potential intestinal immunomodulator, which will be valuable for further studies and new applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Lysine-Involved Maillard Reaction on the Structure and In Vitro Activities of Polysaccharides from Longan Pulp
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050972 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effects of amino acid-involved Maillard reactions (MRs) on the structure and activities of longan pulp polysaccharides (LPs), which were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, ribose, and galacturonic acid, were investigated. The changes of browning degree and molecular [...] Read more.
The effects of amino acid-involved Maillard reactions (MRs) on the structure and activities of longan pulp polysaccharides (LPs), which were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, ribose, and galacturonic acid, were investigated. The changes of browning degree and molecular weight (Mw) distribution in the MR systems containing LPs and amino acids (lysine, proline, or glycine) indicated that lysine was more active in conjugating with LPs. The MR-modified LPs (MLPs) obtained via a 4 h MR between LPs and lysine showed obvious structural differences from LPs. Specifically, particle-like LPs contained 94% fractions with a Mw less than 7.07 kDa, by contrast, network-like MLPs contained 45% fractions with a Mw larger than 264.1 kDa. Moreover, MLPs showed stronger radical scavenging abilities and macrophage immunostimulating effects, but weaker cancer cell growth-inhibitory abilities. The results indicate that the amino acid-involved MR is a promising method to modify native polysaccharides for better biological properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Partial Characterization, the Immune Modulation and Anticancer Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Filamentous Microalgae Tribonema sp.
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020322 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Recently, Tribonema sp., a kind of filamentous microalgae, has been studied for biofuel production due to its accumulation of triacylglycerols. However, the polysaccharides of Tribonema sp. and their biological activities have rarely been reported. In this paper, we extracted sulfated polysaccharides from Tribonema [...] Read more.
Recently, Tribonema sp., a kind of filamentous microalgae, has been studied for biofuel production due to its accumulation of triacylglycerols. However, the polysaccharides of Tribonema sp. and their biological activities have rarely been reported. In this paper, we extracted sulfated polysaccharides from Tribonema sp. (TSP), characterized their chemical composition and structure, and determined their immunostimulation and anticancer activities on RAW264.7 macrophage cells and HepG2 cells. The results showed that TSP is a sulfated polysaccharide with a Mw of 197 kDa. TSP is a heteropolysaccharide that is composed mainly of galactose. It showed significant immune-modulatory activity by stimulating macrophage cells, such as upregulating interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In addition, TSP also showed significant dose-dependent anticancer activity (with an inhibition rate of up to 66.8% at 250 µg/mL) on HepG2 cells as determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cycle analysis indicated that the anticancer activity of TSP is mainly the result of induced cell apoptosis rather than affecting the cell cycle and mitosis of HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that TSP might have potential as an anticancer resource, but further research is needed, especially in vivo experiments, to explore the anticancer mechanism of TSP. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Prospect of Polysaccharide-Based Materials as Advanced Food Packaging
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010135 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The use of polysaccharide-based materials presents an eco-friendly technological solution, by reducing dependence on fossil resources while reducing a product’s carbon footprint, when compared to conventional plastic packaging materials. This review discusses the potential of polysaccharides as a raw material to produce multifunctional [...] Read more.
The use of polysaccharide-based materials presents an eco-friendly technological solution, by reducing dependence on fossil resources while reducing a product’s carbon footprint, when compared to conventional plastic packaging materials. This review discusses the potential of polysaccharides as a raw material to produce multifunctional materials for food packaging applications. The covered areas include the recent innovations and properties of the polysaccharide-based materials. Emphasis is given to hemicelluloses, marine polysaccharides, and bacterial exopolysaccharides and their potential application in the latest trends of food packaging materials, including edible coatings, intelligent films, and thermo-insulated aerogel packaging. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
What Is in Store for EPS Microalgae in the Next Decade?
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4296; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234296 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Microalgae and their metabolites have been an El Dorado since the turn of the 21st century. Many scientific works and industrial exploitations have thus been set up. These developments have often highlighted the need to intensify the processes for biomass production in photo-autotrophy [...] Read more.
Microalgae and their metabolites have been an El Dorado since the turn of the 21st century. Many scientific works and industrial exploitations have thus been set up. These developments have often highlighted the need to intensify the processes for biomass production in photo-autotrophy and exploit all the microalgae value including ExoPolySaccharides (EPS). Indeed, the bottlenecks limiting the development of low value products from microalgae are not only linked to biology but also to biological engineering problems including harvesting, recycling of culture media, photoproduction, and biorefinery. Even respecting the so-called “Biorefinery Concept”, few applications had a chance to emerge and survive on the market. Thus, exploiting EPS from microalgae for industrial applications in some low-value markets such as food is probably not a mature proposition considering the competitiveness of polysaccharides from terrestrial plants, macroalgae, and bacteria. However, it does not imply drawing a line on their uses but rather “thinking them” differently. This review provides insights into microalgae, EPS, and their exploitation. Perspectives on issues affecting the future of EPS microalgae are also addressed with a critical point of view. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Extraction, Purification, Structural Characteristics, Biological Activities and Pharmacological Applications of Acemannan, a Polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A Review
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081554 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Aloe vera is a medicinal plant species of the genus Aloe with a long history of usage around the world. Acemannan, considered one of the main bioactive polysaccharides of Aloe vera, possesses immunoregulation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, wound healing and bone proliferation promotion, neuroprotection, [...] Read more.
Aloe vera is a medicinal plant species of the genus Aloe with a long history of usage around the world. Acemannan, considered one of the main bioactive polysaccharides of Aloe vera, possesses immunoregulation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, wound healing and bone proliferation promotion, neuroprotection, and intestinal health promotion activities, among others. In this review, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of acemannan from Aloe vera were summarized. Among these advancements, the structural characteristics of purified polysaccharides were reviewed in detail. Meanwhile, the biological activities of acemannan from Aloe vera determined by in vivo, in vitro and clinical experiments are summarized, and possible mechanisms of these bioactivities were discussed. Moreover, the latest research progress on the use of acemannan in dentistry and wound healing was also summarized in details. The structure-activity relationships of acemannan and its medical applications were discussed. Finally, new perspectives for future research work on acemannan were proposed. In conclusion, this review summarizes the extraction, purification, structural characteristics, biological activities and pharmacological applications of acemannan, and provides information for the industrial production and possible applications in dentistry and wound healing in the future. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Chondroitin Sulfate Safety and Quality
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081447 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
The industrial production of chondroitin sulfate (CS) uses animal tissue sources as raw material derived from different terrestrial or marine species of animals. CS possesses a heterogeneous structure and physical-chemical profile in different species and tissues, responsible for the various and more specialized [...] Read more.
The industrial production of chondroitin sulfate (CS) uses animal tissue sources as raw material derived from different terrestrial or marine species of animals. CS possesses a heterogeneous structure and physical-chemical profile in different species and tissues, responsible for the various and more specialized functions of these macromolecules. Moreover, mixes of different animal tissues and sources are possible, producing a CS final product having varied characteristics and not well identified profile, influencing oral absorption and activity. Finally, different extraction and purification processes may introduce further modifications of the CS structural characteristics and properties and may lead to extracts having a variable grade of purity, limited biological effects, presence of contaminants causing problems of safety and reproducibility along with not surely identified origin. These aspects pose a serious problem for the final consumers of the pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products mainly related to the traceability of CS and to the declaration of the real origin of the active ingredient and its content. In this review, specific, sensitive and validated analytical quality controls such as electrophoresis, eHPLC (enzymatic HPLC) and HPSEC (high-performance size-exclusion chromatography) able to assure CS quality and origin are illustrated and discussed. Full article
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