Special Issue "The Fascinating Story of Natural Polysaccharides in Glycosciences: From Extraction to Applications"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019
Prof. Cédric Delattre
Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut Pascal, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
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Interests: Biocatalyst, Biopolymers, Biochemistry of poly- et oligosaccharides, Biorefinery (plant, micro- and macro-algae, fungal), Green chemistry, Enzymology, Glycochemisty, biobased and bio-inspired Material
For a long time, natural biopolymers, such as polysaccharides, have fascinated humanity. Polysaccharides are certainly one of the greatest varied families of bio-polymers in terms of structure and use. Depending on the origin (animal, plant, algal or microbial), polysaccharides may be linear, substituted, or more or less branched. Polysaccharides are highly variable and complex biomolecules of which the inventory of structures is still partial, as nature still preserves many of the unexplored biotopes. In this context, many works from all over the world have led to the discovery of original polysaccharides extracted from medicinal plants and algae, or produced from bacteria and microalgae, with high potential as food ingredients or as biological assets. Their main roles in the organism are to either provide structural support as a constituent of a cell wall or to store energy in the cell. Some polysaccharides and/or their oligosaccharide derivatives may be involved in cellular and sub-cellular communication processes, as in the case of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Consequently, this Special Issue aims to (i) review and identify the main polysaccharides from all biotopes (plant, bacteria, animal and microalgae), from the past to the present, and (ii) identity the lastest bioactive polysaccharides and their techno-functional derivatives (low molecular weight, oligosaccharides, hydrogels, etc.) with advantageous effects in the agricultural, pharmaceutical and food fields.
Prof. Delattre Cedric
Manuscript Submission Information
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- extractions processes
- pharmaceutical applications
- agricultural applications
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Alkylchitosan-Based Adhesive: Water Resistance Improvement
Narimane Mati-Baouche1,2, Cédric Delattre1, de Baynast Hélène1, Michel Grédiac1, Jean-Denis Mathias3, Alina Violeta Ursu1, Jacques Desbrières4,* and Philippe Michaud1
1Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut Pascal, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
2Laboratoire Glyco-MEV EA 4358, Fédération de recherche Normandie-Végétal - FED 4277, Université de Rouen Normandie, Bâtiment CURIB 25 Rue Lucien Tesnière, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France
3IRSTEA, Laboratoire d’Ingénierie pour les Systèmes Complexes, 9 avenue Blaise Pascal, CS 20085, 63178 Aubière, France
4Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour (UPPA), Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 avenue P. Angot, 64053 PAU cedex 09, France
*Correspondence: [email protected] (Jacques Desbrieres); Tél.: + 33 5 59 40 76 02
Abstract: Chemical modification by grafting alkyl chains on chitosan was conducted with the aim to improve its water resistance for bonding applications. The chemical structure of modified polymers was determined by NMR analyses. Yields of alkylation of 10 and 15 % were obtained using octanal (C8). The flow properties of solutions with three concentrations of alkylated chitosan were evaluated revealing an increase of viscosity comparing to the same solutions with native chitosan. The evaluation of the adhesive strength of both native and grafted (modified) chitosans was performed on two different adherent double lap systems (aluminum and wood). Alkylated chitosans (10 and 15%) keep sufficient adhesive properties on wood and exhibit a better water resistance comparing to native one.
Keywords: Chitosan; alkylation; adhesive; water resistance
What’s in store for EPS microalgae in the next decade?
Guillaume Pierre 1, Cédric Delattre 1, Pascal Dubessay 1, Sébastien Jubeau 2, Carole Vialleix 3, Jean-Paul Cadoret 3 Ian Probert 4 and Philippe Michaud 1,*
1 Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut Pascal, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND, FRANCE; [email protected]
2 Xanthella, Malin House, European Marine Science Park, Dunstaffnage, Argyll, Oban PA37 1SZ SCOTLAND; [email protected]3 GreenSea Biotechnologies, Promenade du sergent Navarro, 34140 MEZE, FRANCE; [email protected]
4 Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 ROSCOFF, FRANCE; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +33 (0)4-73-40-74-25
Abstract: Microalgae and their metabolites are still an Eldorado since the turn of the XXIe century. Many scientific works and industrial exploitations have thus been set up. These developments have often highlighted the need to intensify the processes for biomass production in photo-autotrophy and exploit all the microalgae value including ExoPolySaccharides (EPS). Indeed, the bottlenecks limiting the development of low value products from microalgae are not linked to biology but to biological engineering problems including harvesting, recycling of culture media, photoproduction, and biorefinery. Even respecting the so-called “Biorefinery Concept”, few applications had chance to emerge and live on the market. Thus, exploiting microalgae and their EPS to access in some low value markets such as food is probably not mature considering the competitiveness of polysaccharides from terrestrial plants, macroalgae and bacteria. However, it does not imply to draw a line on their uses but rather to “think them” differently. This review provides insights into microalgae, EPS and their exploitation. Perspectives on issues affecting the future of EPS microalgae are also addressed with a critical point of view.
Keywords: microalgae; exopolysaccharides; EPS; application; market.
Safety and Quality Concerns of Animal-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate
Department of Life Sciences, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Glycobiology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
Correspondence: nicola.[email protected]; Tel +39 59 2055543; Fax +39 59 2055548
Abstract: The industrial production of chondroitin sulfate (CS) uses animal tissue sources as raw material derived from different species of animals, in particular from bovine, porcine, chicken or cartilaginous fishes such as sharks and skate. Minor production is also from bony fishes by-products. CS possess a heterogeneous structure and physical-chemical profile in different species and tissues, responsible for the various and more specialized functions of these macromolecules. Moreover, mixes of different animal tissues and sources are possible, producing a CS final product having varied characteristics and not well identified profile, influencing oral absorption and activity. Finally, different extraction and purification processes may introduce further modifications of the CS structural characteristics and properties and may led to extracts having a variable grade of purity, limited biological effects, presence of contaminants causing problems of safety and reproducibility along with not sure identified origin. These aspects pose a serious problem for the final consumers of the pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products that is related to the declaration in label of the real origin of the active ingredient and its content and to the label traceability of CS.
Keywords: Chondroitin sulfate; Glycosaminoglycans; Osteoarthritis; Nutraceuticals; Food supplements
Prospect Of Polysaccharide-Based Materials As Advanced Food Packaging
Aleksandra Nesić 1,3, Suzana Dimitrijevic-Branković 2,*, Sladjana Davidović 2, Neda Radovanović 5 and CédricDelattre 4
1 University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Mike Petrovica-Alasa 12-14, Belgrade, Serbia
2 University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade, Serbia
3 University of Concepcion, Technological Development Unit, Avda. Cordillera No. 2634, Parque Industrial Coronel, Coronel. Chile
4 Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Institut Pascal, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
5 University of Belgrade, Inovation Centre of Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade, Serbia
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: The use of polysaccharide-based materials presents an eco-friendly technological solution, by reducing dependence on fossil resources whilst improving a product’s carbon footprint, when compared to conventional plastic packaging materials. This reviewdiscusses the potential of polysaccharides as a raw material for the production of multifunctional materials for food packaging applications. Areas covered include the production and properties of the various types of polysaccharidematerials. Particular emphasis is given to hemicelluloses, marine polysaccharides and bacterial exopolysaccharides and their potential application in latest trend of food packaging materials, including edible coatings, intelligent films and thermo-insulated aerogel packaging.