Next Issue
Volume 46, IEEC 2023
Previous Issue
Volume 44, CSCE 2023
 
 
engproc-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Eng. Proc., 2023, ICAME 2023

The 3rd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Islamabad, Pakistan | 24 August 2023

Volume Editors:
Muhammad Mahabat Khan, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan
Mohammad Javed Hyder, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan
Muhammad Irfan, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan
Manzar Masud, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan

Number of Papers: 55

Printed Edition Available!

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image): The 3rd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2023 (ICAME-23) was held on 24 August 2023 by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Capital University of Science and [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Other

1 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Muhammad Mahabat Khan, Mohammad Javed Hyder, Muhammad Irfan and Manzar Masud
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045009 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 566
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
3 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Preface: The Third International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2023 (ICAME-23)
by Muhammad Mahabat Khan, Mohammad Javed Hyder, Muhammad Irfan and Manzar Masud
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045010 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
The third International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2023 (ICAME-23) was held on 24 August 2023 by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST) [...] Full article

Other

Jump to: Editorial

5 pages, 692 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tool Wear Parameter Optimization in Machining a Squeeze-Cast Metal Matrix Composite (Al6061-SiC)
by Asif Imran, Muhammad Waqas Hanif, Muhammad Sajid, Shahab Salim, Feroz Haider and Muhammad Azeem
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045001 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 533
Abstract
In this research work, machining operations on an aluminum matrix composite (AMC) were optimized for improving the wear of high-speed steel tools. The squeeze casting method was used to manufacture the AMC, which had Al-6061 as matrix material and silicon carbide (wt. 15%) [...] Read more.
In this research work, machining operations on an aluminum matrix composite (AMC) were optimized for improving the wear of high-speed steel tools. The squeeze casting method was used to manufacture the AMC, which had Al-6061 as matrix material and silicon carbide (wt. 15%) microparticles used as reinforcement. Feed rate (Fr), cutting speed (Cs), and depth of cut (Dc) were selected to optimize HSS tool wear rate. Using the Box–Behnken design, seventeen experiments were performed to analyze the single-factor effects and interaction effects of the process parameters on HSS tool wear rate. Experimental results show that optimal tool wear (0.964) was achieved at a Cs of 80 m/min, Fr of 0.2 rev/min, and Dc of 0.8 mm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1767 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reduction in Specific Energy Consumption in Desalination through Hybrid Desalination Techniques
by Faisal Iqbal and Muhammad Asif
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045002 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern worldwide due to increasing demand and climate change. A promising method that could provide fresh water is seawater desalination. Presently, both thermal- and membrane-based desalination technologies consume a high amount of specific energy (measured in kWh/m3 [...] Read more.
Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern worldwide due to increasing demand and climate change. A promising method that could provide fresh water is seawater desalination. Presently, both thermal- and membrane-based desalination technologies consume a high amount of specific energy (measured in kWh/m3), which limits the use of seawater for drinking purposes. The development of hybrid desalination technologies has the potential to significantly reduce the energy consumption and cost of desalination, making it a more viable solution to address freshwater scarcity. By integrating the advantages of several desalination techniques and eliminating their drawbacks, hybridization can improve system performance. In the current study, a hybrid desalination system was developed by integrating the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) output into the multi-effect distillation (MED) input. The results indicated a drop in specific thermal energy consumption (STEC) at various feed flow rates and a decrease in STEC in hybrid mode compared to stand-alone VMD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 742 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Parametric Optimization of Gravitational Water Vortex Turbines for Enhanced Torque Generation
by Muhammad Mobeen, Saqib Jaweed, Ahmad Abdullah, Shummaila Rasheed and Manzar Masud
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045003 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Gravitational water vortex turbines (GWVTs) are favored over fuel-based power plants due to its lower head requirements and smaller flow rates, making it an economically viable energy source. Different process parameters such as flow rate, cone angle, blade position, and blade type directly [...] Read more.
Gravitational water vortex turbines (GWVTs) are favored over fuel-based power plants due to its lower head requirements and smaller flow rates, making it an economically viable energy source. Different process parameters such as flow rate, cone angle, blade position, and blade type directly affect the torque generation and ultimately the efficiency of GWVTs. The objective of this research is to analyze the impact of different process parameters on torque generation and to determine the optimal efficiency by optimizing the controlling parameters through Design of Experiments (DOE) in combination with Taguchi analysis. This study involved fabricating an accurate experimental setup and conducting experiments on various parameter combinations. The results obtained showed that the blade type has a major influence on the response factor (torque). This research holds potential for advancements in renewable energy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1243 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tribological Testing and Analysis of Surface-Textured Metal Surfaces
by Rizwan Siddiqui, Mian Ashfaq Ali, Waqar Arshad, Muhammad Shaban, Muhammad Usman and Muhammad Zulfiqar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045004 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 581
Abstract
This study investigates the friction-reducing potential of “micro surface texturing” on H-13 steel metal surfaces. Tribological tests were performed on a ball-on-plate reciprocating tribometer using SAE30 oil. Circular micro textures with a 0.1 mm diameter and 5–8 µm depth were applied at varying [...] Read more.
This study investigates the friction-reducing potential of “micro surface texturing” on H-13 steel metal surfaces. Tribological tests were performed on a ball-on-plate reciprocating tribometer using SAE30 oil. Circular micro textures with a 0.1 mm diameter and 5–8 µm depth were applied at varying area densities (5%, 10%, and 15%). The results were compared to identify the most effective area density for the micro textures. A friction reduction of 37.95% was observed compared to the untextured sample at 15% area density. The average friction for all the textures is reduced, which shows the effectiveness of laser surface texturing on tribological performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 919 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Storage Reservoir on Fluid Velocity in Lateral Flow Paper Device
by Hamza Abbas, Mubashar Ali, Nauman Naeem, Hammas Ullah, Moazzam Ali and Ali Turab Jafry
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045005 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Paper-based microfluidics provides a versatile platform for numerous applications, including diagnostics at the point of care, environmental detection, and food quality control. Utilizing paper as a substrate offers numerous benefits, including flexibility, biodegradability, low cost, and capillary-driven flow. Despite significant advancements in paper-based [...] Read more.
Paper-based microfluidics provides a versatile platform for numerous applications, including diagnostics at the point of care, environmental detection, and food quality control. Utilizing paper as a substrate offers numerous benefits, including flexibility, biodegradability, low cost, and capillary-driven flow. Despite significant advancements in paper-based microfluidic devices, regulating fluid flow effectively within the paper channel remains a persistent challenge. In order to resolve this problem, our research proposes a method for manipulating fluid flow in the paper channel by altering the surface contact between the storage medium and the paper channel. According to the results, increasing the contact area between the reservoir and the paper surface decreases the flow velocity and increases the fluidic time delay. This is due to the increased diffusion area between the storage medium and the paper channel, which creates resistance to liquid flow. Therefore, the liquid takes longer to travel through the paper channel, resulting in a decrease in velocity relative to contact areas of 50% or 70%. We are confident that this method of flow control can enable lateral flow sensing devices with enhanced flow variation options for use in medical, environmental, or food quality applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 2248 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Energy Efficiency: Geothermal Heat Pumps Utilizing Existing Water Boreholes in Pakistan
by Saif Ullah, Muhammad Irfan and Muhammad Mahabat Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045006 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Vertical borehole geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) offer eco-friendly and energy-efficient heating and cooling. This paper proposes enhancing the coefficient of performance (COP) by converting air source heat pumps (ASHPs) into ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). This study presents a cost-effective approach to utilizing [...] Read more.
Vertical borehole geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) offer eco-friendly and energy-efficient heating and cooling. This paper proposes enhancing the coefficient of performance (COP) by converting air source heat pumps (ASHPs) into ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). This study presents a cost-effective approach to utilizing existing water boreholes in Pakistani buildings, reducing drilling and piping expenses. The results show that GSHPs achieved average COP values of 5.92, 33.33% higher than ASHPs. GSHPs demonstrated an average energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 20.12, exceeding ASHPs by 33.9%. These findings highlight the enhanced COP and energy efficiency of GSHPs, making them an attractive option for sustainable HVAC systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1105 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Fabrication of Digital Microfluidics device for Lab-on-a-Chip Applications
by Hammas Ullah, Faraz Shoaib, Syed Danyal Zahid, Mohammad Iymaan Mahmood, Mubashar Ali, Moazzam Ali, Hamza Abbas and Ali Turab Jafry
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045007 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
In digital microfluidics, discrete liquid droplets move on a dielectric surface with the help of AC or DC voltage. Digital microfluidics system has extended the scope of microfluidics by providing automated, precise flow control for point-of-care devices capable of medical diagnostics, environmental, and [...] Read more.
In digital microfluidics, discrete liquid droplets move on a dielectric surface with the help of AC or DC voltage. Digital microfluidics system has extended the scope of microfluidics by providing automated, precise flow control for point-of-care devices capable of medical diagnostics, environmental, and chemical sensing platforms. In this paper, we introduce a digital microfluidics platform based on electrowetting on a dielectric using PCB substrate designed on Easy EDA software. The platform’s performance was analyzed at various DC voltages between 200 V and 400 V for droplet actuation. PCB fabrication, the utilization of easily accessible and cheap materials such as cooking oil and grafting tape as a dielectric layer, allowed the fabrication to be affordable and simple. The results indicate that droplet actuation takes place at 220 V. The droplet velocity obtained was 2.6 mm/s and 1.51 mm/s using silicon oil and cooking oil, respectively, at 400 V. Our proposed digital microfluidics platform will play a vital role in droplet actuation and can be used for diagnostic applications such as DNA analysis and cell culture due to its simple fabrication and cost-effective technique. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1990 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Applying Ultrasonic-Assisted Incremental Sheet Forming to Al 5052 Aluminum Alloy
by Ky-Thanh Ho, Ngoc-Tuan La, Ngoc-Hung Chu, Nhu-Huynh Vu and Tat-Loi Mai
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045008 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 503
Abstract
In this paper, the influence of ultrasonic vibration on the forming forces and surface quality of products formed using an ultrasonic-assisted incremental sheet forming (UISF) method was investigated and compared with an incremental sheet forming (ISF) method. The elements and parameters used for [...] Read more.
In this paper, the influence of ultrasonic vibration on the forming forces and surface quality of products formed using an ultrasonic-assisted incremental sheet forming (UISF) method was investigated and compared with an incremental sheet forming (ISF) method. The elements and parameters used for research include a sheet of Al 5052 aluminum alloy with thickness of 1.0 mm, a lathe with a feed rate of 70–130–225 rpm, and step size of 1.0–1.5–2.0 mm. The results show that ultrasonic vibration significantly reduces the forming forces, of which the main forming force Fzmax is reduced by about 20%. Besides, the results also show that the surface quality of products formed via UISF is significantly improved compared to that formed by ISF. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 505 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Development and Evaluation of a High-Frequency Toroidal Transformer for Solid-State Transformer Applications
by Abdul Shakoor, Azhar Ul Haq and Taosif Iqbal
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045011 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 772
Abstract
The performance and efficiency of high-frequency transformers (HFTs) are significantly influenced by leakage inductance. To improve the efficiency of HFTs, it is crucial to consider the effects of leakage inductance during the design and analysis processes. This research study aims to investigate a [...] Read more.
The performance and efficiency of high-frequency transformers (HFTs) are significantly influenced by leakage inductance. To improve the efficiency of HFTs, it is crucial to consider the effects of leakage inductance during the design and analysis processes. This research study aims to investigate a high-frequency toroidal transformer by examining different magnetic materials (Ferrite, Amorphas, and Iron-Powdered Alloy), winding configurations (solid, twisted, and LITZ wire), and operating frequencies (10 kHz and 50 kHz). To validate the effectiveness of parametric optimization in enhancing the system efficiency, the designed toroidal HFT was constructed and tested in a 600/300 V 3 kW dual active bridge (DAB) converter. The leakage inductances were measured using a frequency sweeping LCR meter. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1320 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating Energy-Saving Strategies: A Numerical Study of Translucent Insulation and Phase Change Materials in Windows
by Ubaid ur Rehman, Muhammad Ashiq, Muhammad Ahmad Rafi, Usama Malik, Waqas Javid and Mehmood ul Hassan Amjad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045012 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 530
Abstract
In Pakistan, residential energy consumption is predominantly devoted to ensuring thermal comfort, making energy reduction a significant task in building load management. Windows, which are notorious for having poor thermal barriers, contribute considerably to energy losses under harsh weather conditions. Incorporating high thermal [...] Read more.
In Pakistan, residential energy consumption is predominantly devoted to ensuring thermal comfort, making energy reduction a significant task in building load management. Windows, which are notorious for having poor thermal barriers, contribute considerably to energy losses under harsh weather conditions. Incorporating high thermal inertia materials in windows, such as transparent insulation materials (TIM) and phase change materials (PCM), offers the potential for energy reduction. Using numerical simulations in ANSYS Fluent, this study compares three window types and explores their influence on interior temperature. The findings show that PCM-based windows have a low temperature increase during the melting phase, indicating their great energy-saving potential. Furthermore, PCM absorbs almost 90% of exposed heat, emphasizing its usefulness for energy saving in the Pakistani building industry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 965 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of the Simultaneous Cooling and Heating Using a Thermoelectric Peltier
by Abdur Rehman Mazhar, Ali Ubaid, Syed Muhammad Hamza Shah, Suhaib Masood and Muneeb Zafar Alvi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045013 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Substitution of vapor compression refrigeration systems (VCRS) by using Thermoelectric Peltier offers numerous advantages. The Peltier effect is the inverse of the Seebeck effect: as a current flows between two dissimilar materials, it causes one side to grow hotter, making the other side [...] Read more.
Substitution of vapor compression refrigeration systems (VCRS) by using Thermoelectric Peltier offers numerous advantages. The Peltier effect is the inverse of the Seebeck effect: as a current flows between two dissimilar materials, it causes one side to grow hotter, making the other side cooler. This effect was experimentally exploited to simultaneously cool and heat water. In 60 min, 1 L of water was cooled from 40 °C to 16 °C and another liter heated from 25 °C to 45 °C. Power consumption was about 0.0828 kWh with a COP of 1.33, which can be enhanced using improved methods of heat dissipation on the Peltier device. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 3386 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental and Computational Analysis of 14 Gauge Rooftop Solar PV Mounting Structure against Wind in Pakistan
by Arhaam Mubarak and M. Javed Hyder
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045014 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Fourteen-gauge solar PV mounting structure installations represent 60% of total solar PV installations in Pakistan. At least 34 (1.72%) structures were damaged on 13 June 2021 with an average 56 km/h wind speed on that day. Therefore, a need arose for a thorough [...] Read more.
Fourteen-gauge solar PV mounting structure installations represent 60% of total solar PV installations in Pakistan. At least 34 (1.72%) structures were damaged on 13 June 2021 with an average 56 km/h wind speed on that day. Therefore, a need arose for a thorough analysis of the 14-gauge solar PV mounting structure. Computational analysis was carried out for 14-gauge solar PV mounting structures. The equivalent stress and total deformation in the structure were calculated computationally. Using computational analysis, it was found that 14-gauge solar PV mounting structures deformed at an 80 km/h wind velocity and broke at a 110 km/h wind velocity. Hence, 14-gauge solar PV mounting structures do not fulfil the building code of Pakistan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 566 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Techno-Economic Viability Analysis of Wind-Powered Power Plants in Panjgur, Balochistan
by Habeeb Ur Rehman, Hafeez Ullah, Muhammad Zakarya, Fasihullah Kakar, Qamar ud Din Abid, Muhammad Haroon, Muhammad Arsalan Munawar and Muhammad Aqil Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045015 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 540
Abstract
This research paper explores the potential of wind turbine power plants as a sustainable energy solution for addressing energy deprivation in the Panjgur region of Balochistan. Balochistan, an area with limited access to traditional energy sources, suffers from chronic electricity shortages, hindering its [...] Read more.
This research paper explores the potential of wind turbine power plants as a sustainable energy solution for addressing energy deprivation in the Panjgur region of Balochistan. Balochistan, an area with limited access to traditional energy sources, suffers from chronic electricity shortages, hindering its socio-economic development. This study examines the feasibility of harnessing wind energy through establishing wind turbine power plants. This paper discusses the technical aspects of wind turbine technology, including turbine designs, capacities, and power generation potential. The findings highlight the viability of wind turbine power plants as a renewable energy source to alleviate the energy crisis in the region and promote sustainable development at a very reasonable price. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 467 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of a Chassis Dynamometer Facility for the European Type-Approval of Passenger Cars Manufactured in Pakistan
by Kashif Usman, Muhammad Kashif, Muhammad Haroon, Muhammad Ahmed, Haseeb Ahmad and Al-Bara Shalaby
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045016 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The objective of this research is to develop a suitable chassis dynamometer to test new vehicles for compliance with emission standards for type-approval in Pakistan. There is a lack of facilities and protocols for testing new passenger vehicles to measure vehicle exhaust gas [...] Read more.
The objective of this research is to develop a suitable chassis dynamometer to test new vehicles for compliance with emission standards for type-approval in Pakistan. There is a lack of facilities and protocols for testing new passenger vehicles to measure vehicle exhaust gas emissions. This study is performed to fill this gap and might help local authorities in the implementation of exhaust emission test procedures. Assessment of exhaust emissions can be performed by placing the vehicle over the chassis dynamometer. An air-cooled eddy current dynamometer is selected for this purpose. The road load equation is used to simulate the real-life performance of a vehicle while driving at different speeds. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 811 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Integration of Cyber-Security Locks with SCADA Software for Smart Surveillance Management
by Duaa Ayesha, Tayyaba Iqbal and Ghulam Asghar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045017 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
Due to the augmented engrossment of technology in security, everything moves towards a cohesive system. Smart cyber-lock technology is one of the eminent concepts with the potential to solve emerging safety and security issues. This work aims to establish an efficient system of [...] Read more.
Due to the augmented engrossment of technology in security, everything moves towards a cohesive system. Smart cyber-lock technology is one of the eminent concepts with the potential to solve emerging safety and security issues. This work aims to establish an efficient system of safety and security through the integration of smart cyber-locks with a software package. The smart monitoring and evaluation of security-intensive sites are accomplished through cyber-link software, and the audit reports of security processes are generated on a quarterly basis. The comparative analyses of the case study data represent that the illegal security breaches decline quite noticeably after the successful implementation and synchronization of cyber-security locks with SCADA software. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1162 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Mechanical Strength of Indium-Doped SAC 105 Lead-Free Solder Alloy
by Muhammad Sohail Hameed, Aneela Wakeel, Riffat Asim Pasha, Barkat Ullah and Umair Ali
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045018 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 552
Abstract
The incorporation and doping of elements represent a widely used approach to enhance the solidity, integrity, and characteristics of pb-free solder joints. The present study summarizes the incorporation of indium and its impact on the mechanical aspects of the SAC105 pb-free solder alloy. [...] Read more.
The incorporation and doping of elements represent a widely used approach to enhance the solidity, integrity, and characteristics of pb-free solder joints. The present study summarizes the incorporation of indium and its impact on the mechanical aspects of the SAC105 pb-free solder alloy. To refine the mechanical impact of the solder alloy, the evaluation of samples were categorized into three groups: as-cast, low-thermal aged (at 125 °C), and high-thermal aged (at 180 °C). The tensile deformation data were obtained via the universal tensile machine (UTM). Investigational findings demonstrated the enhancement in mechanical characteristics, including ultimate tensile and yield strength of the solder alloy. The addition of 1 wt.% of indium to SAC105 led to a notable increase in ultimate tensile strength, rising from 29.6 MPa to 35.31 MPa, which corresponds to an approximate 19.30% increase over the initial value. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 641 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Unrelated Parallel Batch Machine Scheduling Using a Modified ABC Algorithm
by Ke Ke, Yarong Chen, Jabir Mumtaz and Shenquan Huang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045019 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 402
Abstract
This paper introduces a multi-objective discrete artificial bee colony (MODABC) algorithm, which aims to simultaneously minimize the makespan, total earliness and tardiness (ET), and total energy consumption (TEC) by efficiently scheduling a variety of jobs on unrelated parallel batch machines. Machines have different [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a multi-objective discrete artificial bee colony (MODABC) algorithm, which aims to simultaneously minimize the makespan, total earliness and tardiness (ET), and total energy consumption (TEC) by efficiently scheduling a variety of jobs on unrelated parallel batch machines. Machines have different capacities and consume varying amounts of processing energy, whereas the jobs differ in sizes, release times, and due dates. In the employed bee and follower bee phase, three neighborhood structures are employed to generate feasible solutions, improving the population’s quality. In the scout bee phase, three multi-objective local search strategies are used to fully search the solution space. The experimental results show that the MODABC algorithm is superior to the NSGA-III algorithm in terms of convergence and diversity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 744 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Output Feedback Control of Two-Time-Scale Permanent-Magnet DC Motor Using High-Gain Observers
by Abid Raza, Naveed Mazhar, Fahad Mumtaz Malik, Rameez Khan, Arslan Khan and Hameed Ullah
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045020 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 447
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a methodology for implementing an output feedback control (OFC) strategy for a two-time-scale nonlinear system. A permanent-magnet DC motor model is utilized. We estimated the states using a high-gain observer for a two-time-scale nonlinear system. The results demonstrate [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a methodology for implementing an output feedback control (OFC) strategy for a two-time-scale nonlinear system. A permanent-magnet DC motor model is utilized. We estimated the states using a high-gain observer for a two-time-scale nonlinear system. The results demonstrate the robustness and efficacy of the suggested OFC technique. Furthermore, the output feedback control approach exhibits robustness to parametric uncertainties, thereby making it feasible for practical implementation in a two-time-scale nonlinear system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1848 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Investigation of the Thermal Conductivity of Water-Based Nanofluids with and without the Combination of Alumina and Carbon Nanotubes
by Muhammad Talha Bin Shoaib, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Naveed Gull, Muhammad Taha Khan, Muhammad Tahir Qureshi, Muhammad Shayan Ali Malik and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045021 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 430
Abstract
In the present study, the thermal conductivity of two distinct water-based nanofluids of single-walled CNTs and Al2O3, as well as their hybrid solution, was investigated experimentally. The Al2O3 and CNTs nanoparticle concentrations are taken to be [...] Read more.
In the present study, the thermal conductivity of two distinct water-based nanofluids of single-walled CNTs and Al2O3, as well as their hybrid solution, was investigated experimentally. The Al2O3 and CNTs nanoparticle concentrations are taken to be 2%v/v, while the hybrid solution contained 2%v/v of both Al2O3 and CNTs nanoparticles. A PSS (Polly styrene sulphonic acid) solution was used as a surfactant to increase the suspension time of the nanoparticles to avoid sedimentation. The dispersion and breaking of the particles of CNT and Al2O3 into nano size were performed employing a probe sonicator and bath sonicator. Moreover, a hot plate magnetic stirrer was used to obtain a consistent liquid mixture. The experiments are performed on the Computer Controlled Thermal Conductivity of Liquid and Gases (TCLGC) unit available in the heat transfer lab at GIKI. The results concluded that the thermal conductivity of water-based single-walled CNT nanofluids was higher compared to Al2O3 and their hybrid solution. Therefore, Al2O3 and a hybrid solution are less desirable for thermal conduction compared to CNTs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 545 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Differential Evolution Algorithm to Solve the Parallel Batch Processing Machine Scheduling Problem with Multiple Jobs
by Xue Zhao, Yarong Chen, Mudassar Rauf and Chen Wang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045022 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 337
Abstract
We conducted this study with the aim of resolving the scheduling problem of parallel batch processing machines (PBPM) with different capacity constraints and different energy consumption per unit of time, as well as jobs with different processing times, arrival times, delivery dates and [...] Read more.
We conducted this study with the aim of resolving the scheduling problem of parallel batch processing machines (PBPM) with different capacity constraints and different energy consumption per unit of time, as well as jobs with different processing times, arrival times, delivery dates and sizes, with the goal of simultaneously minimizing the maximum completion time, ET and total energy consumption. The IUDRLM rule is used to batch and sort jobs, and a decomposition-based multi-objective differential evolution algorithm MODE/D is proposed. Simulation experiments are performed to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to those of existing algorithms. The proposed MODE/D algorithm outperformed NSGA-III in terms of NR value (0.96) and IGD (6.6) measures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 990 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improved Spider Monkey Optimization Algorithm for Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Lot Streaming
by Jinhao Du, Jabir Mumtaz and Jingyan Zhong
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045023 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 417
Abstract
This paper investigates the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with lot streaming, which integrates the order lot problem (OLP), order sequence problem (OSP), and lots assignment problem (LAP), with the objective of minimizing both the maximum completion time (Cmax [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with lot streaming, which integrates the order lot problem (OLP), order sequence problem (OSP), and lots assignment problem (LAP), with the objective of minimizing both the maximum completion time (Cmax) and the total tardiness (TT) simultaneously. An improved spider monkey optimization (I-SMO) algorithm is proposed by combining the advantages of crossover and mutation operations of a genetic algorithm (GA) with the spider monkey optimization algorithm. The contribution value method is employed to select both global and local leaders. Experimental comparisons with classical optimization algorithms, including particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), were conducted to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed I-SMO algorithm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1434 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Inclined Rayleigh–Benard Convection: Role of Critical Aspect Ratio in Vertical Cavities
by Wajeeha Siddiqui
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045024 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Inclined Rayleigh–Benard Convection (RBC) is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional vertical cavity; the critical aspect ratio and the critical Rayleigh number are discussed. It is established that beyond the 6500 Rayleigh number, secondary cell formation starts in the cavity. But this phenomenon is [...] Read more.
Inclined Rayleigh–Benard Convection (RBC) is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional vertical cavity; the critical aspect ratio and the critical Rayleigh number are discussed. It is established that beyond the 6500 Rayleigh number, secondary cell formation starts in the cavity. But this phenomenon is not visible at lower aspect ratios. The presence of secondary cells is directly related to heat transfer across the cavity. In recent times, insulated glazing units (IGUs) have been considered for better thermal performance, typically in energy-efficient buildings. The study gains significance by gauging the performance and optimization of IGUs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 572 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Neuro-Evolution of Augmenting Topologies for Dynamic Scheduling of Hybrid Flow Shop Problem
by Junjie Zhang, Yarong Chen, Jabir Mumtaz and Shengwei Zhou
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045025 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 367
Abstract
In this paper, the Neuro-Evolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) algorithm is proposed to minimize the maximum completion time in a dynamic scheduling problem of hybrid flow shops. In hybrid flow shops, machines require flexible preventive maintenance and jobs arrive randomly with uncertain processing [...] Read more.
In this paper, the Neuro-Evolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) algorithm is proposed to minimize the maximum completion time in a dynamic scheduling problem of hybrid flow shops. In hybrid flow shops, machines require flexible preventive maintenance and jobs arrive randomly with uncertain processing times. The NEAT-based approach is experimentally compared with the SPT and FIFO scheduling rules by designing problem instances. The results show that the NEAT-based scheduling method can obtain solutions with better convergence while responding quickly compared to the scheduling rules. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 605 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Obstructions in BIM Implementation for Developing Countries—A Mini-Review
by Usman Aftab, Farrokh Jaleel, Rafiq Mansoor, Muhammad Haroon and Mughees Aslam
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045026 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Technologically advanced countries are accruing benefits from the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry after decades of struggling for productivity enhancement using innovation and automation. Most of the developing countries have not been able to [...] Read more.
Technologically advanced countries are accruing benefits from the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry after decades of struggling for productivity enhancement using innovation and automation. Most of the developing countries have not been able to embrace technology in the AEC Sector and, consequently, are unable to ameliorate prevalent performance-related issues in construction projects. This review article identifies hurdles to BIM implementation in selected developing countries via an examination of the latest studies. The most significant challenges observed in this study are Lack of Training for Professionals, Lack of Awareness, Huge Capital Cost, Resistance to Change, and Complexity of BIM Software. This study is an update on previous studies conducted with the aim of assisting the implementation of BIM in developing countries. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1262 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Real-Time Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Estimation Using State Observer and Adaptive Filter
by Malik Kamal Mazhar, Muhammad Jawad Khan, Karam Dad Kallu and Yasar Ayaz
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045027 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Accurate state estimation of a vehicle is essential for ensuring the effective operation of stability control systems, particularly in dynamic road conditions. The side-slip angle serves as a crucial parameter for vehicle handling and safety control. However, the commercially available sensors for measuring [...] Read more.
Accurate state estimation of a vehicle is essential for ensuring the effective operation of stability control systems, particularly in dynamic road conditions. The side-slip angle serves as a crucial parameter for vehicle handling and safety control. However, the commercially available sensors for measuring side-slip angle are often expensive, prompting the utilization of estimation methods that rely on vehicle dynamics and the available sensor measurements. This paper introduces a novel observer for side-slip angles that employs a bicycle model and directly incorporates the lateral accelerometer signal through roll angle estimation. Roll angle estimates are obtained using novel complementary filters (NCF). Complementary filter tuning parameters are adjusted automatically using the recursive least square estimation technique. The estimation performance of the mentioned algorithms is verified using standard maneuvers through CarSim®. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1708 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Study of Gas-Sand Two-Phase Flow Erosion in a Standard 90° Elbow
by Nauman Khan, Muhammad Rehan Khan, Sati Ullah, Tariq Talha, Muhammad Ali Khan and Zubair Sajid
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045028 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Erosive wear is a common problem in hydrocarbon industry pipelines transporting a multi-phase flow. Erosion is more critical in flow-changing devices, like tees, elbows, U- bends, valves, and chokes. By performing numerical simulations, this research investigation focuses on pre-eminent parameters that influence elbow [...] Read more.
Erosive wear is a common problem in hydrocarbon industry pipelines transporting a multi-phase flow. Erosion is more critical in flow-changing devices, like tees, elbows, U- bends, valves, and chokes. By performing numerical simulations, this research investigation focuses on pre-eminent parameters that influence elbow wear, including erodent size and flow velocity. In this analysis, particle diameters of 150 and 300 μm and velocities of 11, 15, and 23 m/s were used. At a velocity of 11 m/sec, the erosion rate induced by a particle size of 300 μm was 1.62 times higher than with a particular size of 150 μm. Similarly, when the velocity was increased from 15 m/s to 23 m/s for the same particle size of 300 μm, the erosion rate was increased by 3.23 times. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2452 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Maturity Level Assessment of Industry 4.0 in the Context of Pakistani Industries
by Uzair Khan, Wasim Ahmad, Ahmad Sajjad and Muhammad Jawad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045029 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 459
Abstract
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the adaptability and inclination of industrial sectors of Pakistan with respect to Industry 4.0. A questionnaire with nine questions was developed and disseminated to 20 sampled industries. To analyze the variability in responses, a [...] Read more.
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the adaptability and inclination of industrial sectors of Pakistan with respect to Industry 4.0. A questionnaire with nine questions was developed and disseminated to 20 sampled industries. To analyze the variability in responses, a one-way analysis of variance test was used. The statistical analysis revealed that there is an awareness of the basic concept behind Industry 4.0 in Pakistani industries, but there is a reluctance to adopt digitization and to shift from conventional production systems. This study will be helpful and will provide a guide for new and already existing enterprises for achieving Industry 4.0 requisite attributes precisely. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 651 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Techno-Economic Investigation of Standalone Photovoltaic Energy Systems for Rural Areas of Quetta
by Riaz Ahmed, Abdul Basit, Qamar ud Din Abid, Muhammad Haroon, Fasihullah Kakar, Najeeb Ullah and Danish Ahmed Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045030 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 469
Abstract
The purpose of this techno-economic study is to investigate the potential of the implementation of standalone photovoltaic (PV) energy systems in rural areas of Quetta, Pakistan. This study focuses on alleviating the region’s energy crisis and giving the local population access to clean [...] Read more.
The purpose of this techno-economic study is to investigate the potential of the implementation of standalone photovoltaic (PV) energy systems in rural areas of Quetta, Pakistan. This study focuses on alleviating the region’s energy crisis and giving the local population access to clean and sustainable energy. The technique used entails data collection, load demand analysis, technical and economic evaluation, site selection, and data interpretation. The findings and discussion provide an estimate of PV energy systems’ lifetime costs, annual maintenance expenses, and energy prices. The results show that standalone PV energy systems are a feasible and financially viable option for electricity generation in Quetta’s rural areas that operates via monitoring the economic development and environmental sustainability of the region. Three plants are proposed for generating 26.8 KW, 15 KW, and 6.8 KW of power, and it is demonstrated that green and clean energy can be provided for domestic consumers at reasonable unit costs of PKR. 21.33, PKR. 21.9, and PKR. 23.89, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 2267 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dynamic Contact Angle Variation with Applied Voltage and Droplet Volume in Digital Microfluidics
by Moazzam Ali, Hammas Ullah, Mubashar Ali, Nauman Naeem, Hamza Abbas and Ali Turab Jafry
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045031 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Digital microfluidics allows for controlled droplet movement by applying AC or DC voltages. In this research, we investigated the dynamic contact angle variation of droplets at different voltages and droplet volumes in a digital microfluidics platform. Volumes of 10 µL, 14 µL, and [...] Read more.
Digital microfluidics allows for controlled droplet movement by applying AC or DC voltages. In this research, we investigated the dynamic contact angle variation of droplets at different voltages and droplet volumes in a digital microfluidics platform. Volumes of 10 µL, 14 µL, and 18 µL were investigated with voltages ranging from 250 V to 400 V. The goal was to investigate how variations in voltage and droplet volume affected the contact angle, specifically by tracking variations in the advancing and receding contact angles. The findings showed that as voltage rises, the contact angle decreases more noticeably in terms of both advancing and receding angles. This shows that higher voltages boost the electrowetting effect and lead to better droplet dispersal and substrate wetting. Furthermore, it was found that across the studied voltage range, the effect of volume on the contact angle was largely consistent. The relation between voltage, volume, and contact angle in electrowetting is better understood from our analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 885 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fabrication of Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cell under Ambient Condition
by Abdul Basit, Aimal Daud Khan and Adnan Daud Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045032 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 534
Abstract
In this study, the viability of the commercial production of ambient air perovskite solar cells is investigated. In order to address issues with overlapping and non-uniform layers and minimize recombination losses, this study suggests a novel device architecture. A 2 × 2cm2 [...] Read more.
In this study, the viability of the commercial production of ambient air perovskite solar cells is investigated. In order to address issues with overlapping and non-uniform layers and minimize recombination losses, this study suggests a novel device architecture. A 2 × 2cm2 perovskite solar cell with a 4.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) was successfully created utilizing a straightforward screen-printing technique. After humidity treatment, the short-circuit current (jsc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc) were stabilized at 5.36% due to layer optimization. These results show the potential for the widespread industrial production of more durable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 5918 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Intelligent RGV Scheduling Model Considering Advanced Movement under Repeated Single-Cycle Jobs
by Yinghao Meng, Zihao Xu, Faqun Qi and Zhen Yin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045033 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 368
Abstract
At present, automated material processing systems have been adopted by numerous high-tech enterprises, which mainly include Rail Guided Vehicles (RGVs) and CNC Machines. However, in the actual operation process, RGVs are generally scheduled according to the preset procedures of the system, and the [...] Read more.
At present, automated material processing systems have been adopted by numerous high-tech enterprises, which mainly include Rail Guided Vehicles (RGVs) and CNC Machines. However, in the actual operation process, RGVs are generally scheduled according to the preset procedures of the system, and the lack of intelligent models considering the advanced movement does not elevate the operation efficiency of the system. In this paper, we propose an intelligent scheduling model for RGVs with advanced movement, considering all the work of the RGVs and its matching CNCs in the system within the cycle time, and verify the accuracy and superiority of the model by taking an automated material processing system of a factory as an example. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 670 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Uncovering the Cooling Potential by Water Circulation on the Hot Side of a Peltier Module
by Fahad Iqbal, Muhammad Naveed Gull, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Daniyal Amir, Arsalan Saleem, Sami Ul Haq and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045034 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Thermolectric cooling offers several advantages over conventional refrigeration systems due to its light weight, environmental friendliness, silent operation, and no moving parts. In this work, a thermoelectric water cooling system is created in which water flowing at various flowrates removes heat produced on [...] Read more.
Thermolectric cooling offers several advantages over conventional refrigeration systems due to its light weight, environmental friendliness, silent operation, and no moving parts. In this work, a thermoelectric water cooling system is created in which water flowing at various flowrates removes heat produced on the hot side of the Peltier module. The cooling effect and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooling system are experimentally determined at various flowrates of water on the hot side of the module. The cooling effect produced in water increases with the increase in flowrate. A similar trend is noticed for the COP of the system. The maximum cooling effect produced in water is 1363 W at 43 mL/s. The maximum COP of the system is 3.99. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 5004 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of Progressive Delamination Growth Characterization in Composite Materials
by Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad Haroon, Muhammad Arsalan Munawar, Shummaila Rasheed and Manzar Masud
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045035 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Composite-materials-based structures are extensively used in aerospace structures owing to their high strength-to-weight ratio and high specific modulus. There are different types of failures in a composite material subjected to multiple types of loading, but delamination is the most important one and occurs [...] Read more.
Composite-materials-based structures are extensively used in aerospace structures owing to their high strength-to-weight ratio and high specific modulus. There are different types of failures in a composite material subjected to multiple types of loading, but delamination is the most important one and occurs where the material fractures into layers. In this current research, a cohesive zone method approach is applied to investigate the fracture mechanics due to delamination. Finite element analysis was used for the delamination characterization in composite materials in which 2D and 3D models of double cantilever beams (DCBs) were used. ABAQUS Software was used for analysis completion. It is observed that the cohesive element’s size must be 0.5 mm or less in order to forecast delamination precisely for double cantilever beams. It was also determined that the initial stiffness could not be less, or else the damage initiation cannot be forecast correctly. The value for initial stiffness used in this research was 106 kJ/m2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 776 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improving the Efficiency of Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Passivation of Electron Transport Layer
by Sania Khan, Adnan Daud Khan and Muhammad Noman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045036 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Among perovskite solar cells (PSCs), carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) are regarded as one of the best advantageous designs centered on a number of desirable characteristics, such as outstanding scalability, long-term stability, and cost-effectiveness. In these C-PSCs, titanium oxide (TiO2) has [...] Read more.
Among perovskite solar cells (PSCs), carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) are regarded as one of the best advantageous designs centered on a number of desirable characteristics, such as outstanding scalability, long-term stability, and cost-effectiveness. In these C-PSCs, titanium oxide (TiO2) has usually been utilized as the electron transport layer (ETL) because of its simplicity in preparation and low cost. In these hole transport layer-free C-PSCs, the quality of ETLs is essential for the high performance of PSCs. In this paper, we used TiCl4 post-treatment for the passivation of the titania layer (TiO2) to improve the quality of ETL. Consequently, after passivation, the charge recombination has been reduced, the efficiency increased from 3.15% to 4.16%, and resulted in a 32.06% improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 950 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Integrated Consideration of Fixture Resources
by Longlong Xu, Jian Guo and Lixia Zhu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045037 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 508
Abstract
A solution method based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is established for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the maximum completion time and the number of fixtures. By using the linear weighting method, the [...] Read more.
A solution method based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is established for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the maximum completion time and the number of fixtures. By using the linear weighting method, the dual-objective optimization problem can be effectively converted into a single-objective optimization. Taking the scheduling problem of an automated production line of precision parts as an example, the feasibility of the proposed algorithm is verified, and the integrated optimization of fixture resource allocation and production scheduling is realized. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1656 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of Impact of Cool Roof Coating on Bifacial and Monofacial Photovoltaic Modules
by Khalid Mahmood, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Arslan and Bilal Tariq
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045038 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
Cool roof coatings are being applied on rooftops to reflect solar irradiance back into the atmosphere. Bifacial photovoltaic modules can receive solar irradiance from the front and rear side. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of reflected irradiance caused [...] Read more.
Cool roof coatings are being applied on rooftops to reflect solar irradiance back into the atmosphere. Bifacial photovoltaic modules can receive solar irradiance from the front and rear side. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of reflected irradiance caused by cool roof coating (CRC) on the performance of bifacial photovoltaic (bPV) modules and monofacial photovoltaic (mPV) modules. According to the experiments, cool roof coating is an efficient way to increase the output and efficiency of solar modules. Experimental results show that for cool roof coating based on TiO2 and FC resin with an average albedo of 0.63, the peak power output of the bifacial photovoltaic module is increased by 3.29% and its highest peak power efficiency is 18.1%. A peak power bifacial gain of 15.6% is seen. Due to a 1.3 °C decrease in temperature, the monofacial photovoltaic module power output also increased by 0.24%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 593 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Novel Low-Cost Machine for Evaluating Helmet Performance in Bike Accident Scenarios
by Syed Mujahid Abbas, Haider Ali, Syed Aqib Ali Naqvi, Mohsin Iqbal, Hafiz Hamza Jabbar, Muhammad Azeem and Manzar Masud
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045039 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The increasing mortality rate in bike-related road accidents due to head injuries necessitates stronger helmets. This paper presents a cost-effective machine setup to evaluate helmet behavior during impacts. By employing unique methods to measure impact duration and post-impact energy absorption, this project eliminates [...] Read more.
The increasing mortality rate in bike-related road accidents due to head injuries necessitates stronger helmets. This paper presents a cost-effective machine setup to evaluate helmet behavior during impacts. By employing unique methods to measure impact duration and post-impact energy absorption, this project eliminates the need for high-speed cameras. The results indicate that the developed machine enables scenario-based impact tests directly on helmets, providing valuable insights into collision effects. Validation confirms its effectiveness. The low-cost impact testing machine offers a practical solution for studying helmet performance and addressing the rising concerns surrounding bike accidents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 696 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study of Mixed-Flow Human–Machine Collaborative Disassembly Line Balancing Problem Based on Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm
by Gaofei Wang, Yarong Chen, Jabir Mumtaz and Lixia Zhu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045040 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 382
Abstract
A mixed-flow human–machine collaborative disassembly line balancing problem is introduced, considering the various recycling methods for waste products and the relationship between the attributes of each product part and the corresponding disassembly operator. The problem aims to optimize the number of workstations, balance [...] Read more.
A mixed-flow human–machine collaborative disassembly line balancing problem is introduced, considering the various recycling methods for waste products and the relationship between the attributes of each product part and the corresponding disassembly operator. The problem aims to optimize the number of workstations, balance the idle time, and minimize the disassembly cost. To address this, an Improved Artificial Fish Swarming Algorithm (IAFSA) was designed based on the combination of the problem characteristics, and the IAFSA algorithm was applied to a mixed-flow television (TV) disassembly example and compared with two different algorithms. The solution shows that the proposed algorithm optimizes the proposed algorithm by 14.3%, 52.3%, and 9.8%, respectively, on the three objectives. Finally, the performance of the three algorithms is compared using Non-dominant rate (NR) and Generation distance (GD) metrics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1005 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimizing Waste Collection and Transportation in Islamabad: Efficient Vehicle Routing for Sustainable Waste Management
by Tahiyyah Rashid, Saleem Ullah, Umair Habib, Nusrat Rehman, Usamah Rashid Qureshi and Farzana Jafar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045041 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The municipal solid waste management is key for preserving the environment, protecting public health, and maintaining public cleanliness. Apart from these benefits, developing countries are more attracted to such systems as they offer an economical solution for waste management. This article intends to [...] Read more.
The municipal solid waste management is key for preserving the environment, protecting public health, and maintaining public cleanliness. Apart from these benefits, developing countries are more attracted to such systems as they offer an economical solution for waste management. This article intends to present a cost-effective and optimized waste management solution for Islamabad, Pakistan. The key steps of this research include; 1. acquisition of data; 2. transformation of data into coordinate form; 3. modeling of optimized waste collection routes and transportation; 4. modification of the capacitated vehicle routing algorithm to yield the optimized vehicle routes. The simulations are performed in MATLAB 2017B. Trial results show the efficacy of the recommended method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 817 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Thermal Analysis of Atmospheric Balloons Using Different Coating Materials
by Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad Haroon, Shummaila Rasheed, Fazal Umer Rai and Mohsin Iftikhar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045042 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Atmospheric balloons are the cheapest source utilized by scientists to investigate various research areas. Thermal analyses of atmospheric balloons is usually performed to attain the required thermal equilibrium in the shortest timeframe. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed that numerically solved [...] Read more.
Atmospheric balloons are the cheapest source utilized by scientists to investigate various research areas. Thermal analyses of atmospheric balloons is usually performed to attain the required thermal equilibrium in the shortest timeframe. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed that numerically solved material properties (i.e., ε (emissivity of balloon surface), αV (balloon absorptivity averaged over the visible and near infrared band), εIR (absorptivity averaged over infrared band), αIR (balloon absorptivity averaged over infrared band), etc.) as well as geometric properties (i.e., AC (cross-sectional area), AS (surface area), M (balloon mass), etc.) by incorporating these values in the heat balance equation. An optimized code was engendered in MATLAB, which simultaneously solved input parameters and delivered the required thermal equilibrium in the shortest timeframes. This may serve as a guide to new material generation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1090 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Phase Change Material for the Cooling of Solar Panels—An Experimental Study
by Bilal Hussain, Huzaifa Waseem Malik, Fakhar Ul Hasnain and Muhammad Irfan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045043 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Solar panel efficiency decreases with an increase in the panel surface temperature. This study utilized the Phase Change Material (PCM) based cooling approach along with Aluminum fins to reduce the temperature of the PV panel. The PV panel surface temperature and efficiency are [...] Read more.
Solar panel efficiency decreases with an increase in the panel surface temperature. This study utilized the Phase Change Material (PCM) based cooling approach along with Aluminum fins to reduce the temperature of the PV panel. The PV panel surface temperature and efficiency are the target parameters we investigated. The results were compared with conventional PV panel values at inclination angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° with respect to the ground. The experimental results show that the PV panel efficiency increased by 6.85%, 6.82%, and 4.2% for the inclination angles of 30°, 45°, and 60°, respectively. The corresponding maximum temperature drops were 13.1 °C, 12.9 °C, and 8.5 °C. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 909 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Refrigeration Potential Investigation of Half-Cycle Refrigeration System Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas
by Ghazanfar Ali, Atif Muzaffar, Taqi Ahmad Cheema and Syed Farhad Shah
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045044 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
This study explores the potential of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) with a half-cycle refrigeration process before combustion. The results show significant cooling efficiency, with a 30 L compartment’s temperature dropping from 14.7 °C to 0 °C in 30 min. When using 600 mL [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) with a half-cycle refrigeration process before combustion. The results show significant cooling efficiency, with a 30 L compartment’s temperature dropping from 14.7 °C to 0 °C in 30 min. When using 600 mL of water, its temperature reduced from 12.3 °C to 4.4 °C. The total LPG consumption was 469 g. By extrapolating to a standard 14 kg LPG cylinder, the process could last 14.94 h, cooling 30 drinks from 12.3 °C to 4.4 °C. This study highlights practicality in smaller setups, which is a promising option for energy-efficient cooling using LPG. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 852 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Role of the Pakistan Cement Industry towards the Achievement of Net Zero Goal by Mid-Century: A Review from a Waste Heat Recovery Perspective
by Muhammad Haroon and Abubakr Ayub
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045045 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Owing to high energy-intensive operations, cement production is responsible for global 6–8% of CO2 emissions and, thus, can be a major contributor in the net zero mission. Pakistan’s cement industry can produce 69 million tons of cement per year and has an [...] Read more.
Owing to high energy-intensive operations, cement production is responsible for global 6–8% of CO2 emissions and, thus, can be a major contributor in the net zero mission. Pakistan’s cement industry can produce 69 million tons of cement per year and has an overall share of 5.3% in economy. One ton of cement production releases approximately one ton of carbon dioxide. Therefore, it is necessary to decarbonize this industry. Two strategies can be employed (waste heat utilization and CO2 capturing) for the decarbonization of the cement industry. This comprehensive review article is focused on the waste heat recovery potential and the technologies employed to utilize this potential for the cement industry of Pakistan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1530 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A First Step towards the Performance Enhancement of IC Engines Using a Desmodromic Valve System
by Shummaila Rasheed, Muhammad Haroon, Muhammad Irfan, Zayyan Ibrar, Usama Bin Ramzan and Danish Hanif
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045046 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 488
Abstract
The traditional valve train system consists of a spring mechanism with a specific level of stiffness. When compressing the spring, a significant amount of power is required. However, by replacing the conventional valve spring mechanism with a desmodromic valve system, the stiffness is [...] Read more.
The traditional valve train system consists of a spring mechanism with a specific level of stiffness. When compressing the spring, a significant amount of power is required. However, by replacing the conventional valve spring mechanism with a desmodromic valve system, the stiffness is reduced, leading to improved engine performance. This study analyzed the impact of this replacement on the engine’s performance and overall weight using finite element modeling. A comparative study was also conducted, which revealed that the desmodromic valve system generates a torque of more than 120 Nm, surpassing the 105 Nm produced by the traditional valve system. Furthermore, the weight of the desmo engine only increased by 2.75 kg. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 691 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Method Based on Multi-Fidelity Optimization
by Liuyan Zhong, Yarong Chen and Jabir Mumtaz
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045047 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Aiming at the impact of machine failure on scheduling schemes in actual production, this paper proposes a multi-fidelity optimization approach considering the preventive maintenance of the machine (MOAPMM). The genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a low-fidelity model to generate a number of [...] Read more.
Aiming at the impact of machine failure on scheduling schemes in actual production, this paper proposes a multi-fidelity optimization approach considering the preventive maintenance of the machine (MOAPMM). The genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a low-fidelity model to generate a number of feasible solutions; the feasible solutions are sorted, grouped, and selected as high-quality solutions according to the EOCBA method; the high-fidelity model considering machine preventive maintenance (PM) is constructed by using the FlexSim@ software; and the high-quality solutions are simulated to obtain the optimal scheduling scheme. Experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms approaches that do not consider machine PM in terms of completion time for the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine failure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 2039 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Design and Development of a Solar Dehydrator for Fruits
by Mohammad Javed Hyder, Muhammad Junaid Khan, Muhammad Abdullah Khan and Salman Saeed
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045048 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
An active solar dehydrator is designed for dehydrating fruits and vegetables. The solar collector transfers thermal energy to the drying air. The temperature inside the drying chamber is maintained between 45 °C and 50 °C by a feedback control system. The design is [...] Read more.
An active solar dehydrator is designed for dehydrating fruits and vegetables. The solar collector transfers thermal energy to the drying air. The temperature inside the drying chamber is maintained between 45 °C and 50 °C by a feedback control system. The design is based on the December solar irradiance of Islamabad, which is found to be 572 watts per square meter. The energy required to dry one kilogram of apple and banana is 245 watts and 220 watts, respectively. The dried product from the solar dehydrator is better in terms of quality and taste compared to the product produced by ordinary open sun drying. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 2822 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design Modification and Prototype Development of a Cross-Flow Turbine for a Low/Zero-Head Water Stream
by Asim Ali, Muhammad Zohaib Azam, Muhammad Faiq and Ghulam Asghar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045049 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Low/zero-head cross-flow turbines (LZH-CFT) possess vast potential in the field of renewable energy technology. This research presents a modified design of a cross-flow turbine specifically engineered to harness the untapped hydro-kinetic energy from low/zero-head water resources. Unlike traditional hydro turbines, the LZH-CFT leverages [...] Read more.
Low/zero-head cross-flow turbines (LZH-CFT) possess vast potential in the field of renewable energy technology. This research presents a modified design of a cross-flow turbine specifically engineered to harness the untapped hydro-kinetic energy from low/zero-head water resources. Unlike traditional hydro turbines, the LZH-CFT leverages a cross-flow configuration to utilize the water flows of natural streams, making it an ideal solution for flow channels with low/zero head. The design is modified through ANSYS simulations by varying the rotor’s blade angles (from 0 to 90°) and 60° angle is found optimum. The prototype model of modified design is prepared and tested, which represents 62.5% RPM efficiency and provides double power as compared to the typical cross-flow turbine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1436 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cost Estimation and Parametric Optimization for TIG Welding Joints in Dissimilar Metals Using Linear Regression Algorithm
by Ghulam Ameer Mukhtar, Sana Shehzadi, Abdullah Sajid, Jam Muhammad Talha Laar, Syed Ali Taqi, Rana Muhammad Usman and Fakhar ul Hasnain
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045050 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
This study investigated the use of the linear regression algorithm (LRA) for estimating the cost of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of dissimilar metals, specifically, stainless steel 304 and aluminum 2024. Various cost analysis parameters, including weld time, power cost rate, labor cost, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the use of the linear regression algorithm (LRA) for estimating the cost of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of dissimilar metals, specifically, stainless steel 304 and aluminum 2024. Various cost analysis parameters, including weld time, power cost rate, labor cost, filler rod cost, and shielding gas cost, were considered. LRA was employed to develop a predictive model for welding costs based on these parameters. The model was then used to optimize welding parameters by identifying the combination that minimized overall welding costs. The results demonstrate that LRA effectively identified a more cost-effective parameter set compared to traditional methods. This highlights the potential of LRA in enhancing the cost-effectiveness of TIG welding processes. The findings have practical implications for field engineers and researchers, enabling the identification of optimal parameters for cost estimation and significant cost savings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 887 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Heat Transfer Enhancement in Louvered Fin Flat Tube Radiator Using Hybrid Nanofluids
by Waqar Ali, Abid Hussain, Ahmed Usman, Khalid Mahmood, Muhammad Mubashir Iqbal and Haris Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045051 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 717
Abstract
This research explores the potential of hybrid nanofluids to improve the thermal efficiency of a car’s louvered fin flat-tube radiator. Hybrid nanofluids were prepared by combining distilled water with a 0.1% vol. concentration of SiO2 and MWCNT nanoparticles, using different ratios [...] Read more.
This research explores the potential of hybrid nanofluids to improve the thermal efficiency of a car’s louvered fin flat-tube radiator. Hybrid nanofluids were prepared by combining distilled water with a 0.1% vol. concentration of SiO2 and MWCNT nanoparticles, using different ratios of nanoparticles: 80:20, 50:50, and 20:80. The experimental analysis focused on examining the heat-transfer performance of the radiator. The results clearly demonstrated a significant improvement in the radiator’s thermal performance when using hybrid nanofluids. These nanofluids effectively enhanced the rate and coefficient of heat transfer. Notably, an increase of 15.6% in the Nusselt number was observed with the SiO2–MWCNT 20:80 water containing a 0.1% volumetric concentration of nanoparticles. Overall, the findings highlight the promising application of hybrid nanofluids in boosting the thermal efficacy of car radiators. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 7786 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of Battery Thermal Management System of Lithium-Ion Cells Using PCM
by Sarmad Ali and Muhammad Mahabat Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045052 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
Experimental analysis of the effect of a lithium-ion battery thermal management system using natural convection and phase change material (PCM) at 3 C discharge rate. The cells are placed in a 2 × 2 square configuration in an acrylic housing with the capability [...] Read more.
Experimental analysis of the effect of a lithium-ion battery thermal management system using natural convection and phase change material (PCM) at 3 C discharge rate. The cells are placed in a 2 × 2 square configuration in an acrylic housing with the capability to contain PCM. The experimental setup simulates lithium-ion batteries using ceramic heaters, producing the heat energy per unit volume as produced in a lithium-ion cell. The system placed in natural convection instantly heats up to 45 °C in 305 s. On the other hand, the system, when placed in phase change material, shows that a temperature of 45 °C is achieved in 1490 s. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 547 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Ability of Process Parameters to Reduce Defects during the Drilling of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) and Aluminum Stack
by Muhammad Waseem, Salman Hussain, Muhammad Waqas Hanif and Muhammad Jawad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045053 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 402
Abstract
The effects of drilling process parameters, such as drill diameter and feed rate, on the delamination of holes has been examined while drilling Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastics and aluminum (CFRP/Al2219-T6). The stack method was employed while drilling in order to reduce the defects in the [...] Read more.
The effects of drilling process parameters, such as drill diameter and feed rate, on the delamination of holes has been examined while drilling Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastics and aluminum (CFRP/Al2219-T6). The stack method was employed while drilling in order to reduce the defects in the drilling process and enhance the quality of the holes produced. A total of nine experiments were performed using the central composite design. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that feed rate and drill size have significant effects on the delamination of holes. The experimental results show that the minimum delamination value (1.018) was obtained at a feed rate of 26.5 mm/min and with a drill diameter of 6.5 mm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1984 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Shape Memory-Based Smart Extra Ocular Muscles for Ophthalmological Studies
by Zainab Ali and Jahan Zeb Gul
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045054 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Vision relies on precise eye movements controlled by six extraocular muscles (EOMs). Training kits and functional eye models are crucial for ophthalmological studies. The study investigates the potential of shape memory material (SMM) in ophthalmology, focusing on eye model mechanics and four thermally [...] Read more.
Vision relies on precise eye movements controlled by six extraocular muscles (EOMs). Training kits and functional eye models are crucial for ophthalmological studies. The study investigates the potential of shape memory material (SMM) in ophthalmology, focusing on eye model mechanics and four thermally actuated smart EOMs. SMM was chosen over other actuators because of its high-power density (36 W/kg), high actuation forces (100 gf), and high displacements (200%). Finite element method (FEM) simulation on a 3D eye model was performed to analyze the thermo-mechanical properties of smart muscle, revealing the shape memory effect and super elasticity which result in the four eye movements of elevation, depression, adduction, and abduction. FEM simulation, compared to the eye model prototype, yielded a 16 mm deformation in smart muscle with a thermal actuation of 313 K (40 °C). FEM analysis, while combining smart muscle with the eye model, resulted in a 6.8517 mm deformation in the simulation. Prototype deformation was acquired as 7.262 mm. The successful actuation of the eye using thermally actuated smart muscles proves its potential for ophthalmology kits. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 918 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Analysis of a Super-Insulated Pipe for the Transportation of Liquid Nitrogen (LN2)
by Danish Bin Nisar, Maaz Ahmed, Ali Mohsin Hussain, Muzaffar Ali and Hafiz Sohaib Muhammad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 45(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023045055 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 387
Abstract
In this study, a super-insulated pipe incorporating Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) and vacuum is numerically analyzed to overcome the challenges faced during the transportation of cryogenic fluids like nitrogen. A super-insulated pipe incorporating an inner process pipe of SS 304 L insulated by twenty-four [...] Read more.
In this study, a super-insulated pipe incorporating Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) and vacuum is numerically analyzed to overcome the challenges faced during the transportation of cryogenic fluids like nitrogen. A super-insulated pipe incorporating an inner process pipe of SS 304 L insulated by twenty-four consecutive layers has been used. Each layer consists of aluminized mylar (as a radiation shield) and dacron netting (as a spacer material). High vacuum (10−9 torr) is applied and numerically analyzed at multiple flow rates, i.e., 250 LPH, 500 LPH and 1000 LPH. The results show a gradual increase in temperature along the flow direction from 77 K to 79 K at the most. Moreover, the temperature increases with the increase in the length of the pipe and decreases with the increase in the flow rate of LN2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop