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Horticulturae, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Cycas micronesica has been exploited as a model species for pioneering studies on a group of plants [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Understanding the Impacts of Crude Oil and its Induced Abiotic Stresses on Agrifood Production: A Review
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020047
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
In many parts of the world, the agricultural sector is faced with a number of challenges including those arising from abiotic environmental stresses which are the key factors responsible for most reductions in agrifood production. Crude oil contamination, an abiotic stress factor and [...] Read more.
In many parts of the world, the agricultural sector is faced with a number of challenges including those arising from abiotic environmental stresses which are the key factors responsible for most reductions in agrifood production. Crude oil contamination, an abiotic stress factor and a common environmental contaminant, at toxic levels has negative impacts on plants. Although various attempts have been made to demonstrate the impact of abiotic stresses on crops, the underlying factors responsible for the effects of crude oil and its induced abiotic stresses on the composition of the stressed plants are poorly understood. Hence, this review provides an in-depth examination of the: (1) effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on plants; (2) impact of abiotic environmental stresses on crop quality; (3) mechanistic link between crude oil stress and its induced abiotic stresses; as well as (4) mode of action/plant response mechanism to these induced stresses. The paper clearly reveals the implications of crude oil-induced abiotic stresses arising from the soil-root-plant route and from direct application on plant leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Responses of Plants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperTechnical Note
Water Use and Leaf Nutrient Status for Terraced Cherimoya Trees in a Subtropical Mediterranean Environment
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020046
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
Water scarcity in many semi-arid agricultural areas, in particular for the Mediterranean basin, is promoting changes in irrigated agriculture, with alternative strategies being introduced for water-use optimization. The coast of Granada and Malaga (Southeast Spain) is an economically important area for subtropical fruit [...] Read more.
Water scarcity in many semi-arid agricultural areas, in particular for the Mediterranean basin, is promoting changes in irrigated agriculture, with alternative strategies being introduced for water-use optimization. The coast of Granada and Malaga (Southeast Spain) is an economically important area for subtropical fruit cultivation. This intensively irrigated agriculture is characterized by requiring extra amounts of water and the adoption of sustainable practices to improve agricultural water management. A two-season experiment was conducted to assess (1) the water use in terraced cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. cv. Fino de Jete) orchards under conventional and organic production systems with drainage lysimeters, and (2) the impact on fruit yield and nutritional effects between the two considered production systems. Crop coefficient (Kc) values for cherimoya were 0.60–0.66, 0.64–0.71, and 0.48–0.62 at flowering, fruit set, and fruit growth, respectively. Fruit yield was similar in both systems, ranging from 47.1 for conventional to 44.1 kg tree−1 for organic farming, averaging 13.2 and 12.3 t·ha−1, respectively. No differences between these systems were observed in terms of leaf nutrient status, with variations in the N, P, and K contents during the different phenological stages. The N, P, and K lessen during flowering and fruit growth; the highest levels of these nutrients were fixed at harvest. These patterns were the opposite in Ca and Mg, ascribable to the antagonism between K and both Ca and Mg. Thus, these findings highlight the need to establish the optimal use of irrigation water with respect to crop requirements, thereby encouraging sustainable subtropical farming in terraces. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Hormonal Regulation and Cross-Talk during Non-Climacteric Fruit Development and Ripening
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020045
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Fleshy fruits are characterized by having a developmentally and genetically controlled, highly intricate ripening process, leading to dramatic modifications in fruit size, texture, color, flavor, and aroma. Climacteric fruits such as tomato, pear, banana, and melon show a ripening-associated increase in respiration and [...] Read more.
Fleshy fruits are characterized by having a developmentally and genetically controlled, highly intricate ripening process, leading to dramatic modifications in fruit size, texture, color, flavor, and aroma. Climacteric fruits such as tomato, pear, banana, and melon show a ripening-associated increase in respiration and ethylene production and these processes are well-documented. In contrast, the hormonal mechanism of fruit development and ripening in non-climacteric fruit, such as strawberry, grape, raspberry, and citrus, is not well characterized. However, recent studies have shown that non-climacteric fruit development and ripening, involves the coordinated action of different hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, gibberellins, ethylene, and others. In this review, we discuss and evaluate the recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of non-climacteric fruit development and ripening and their cross-talk by taking grape, strawberry, and raspberry as reference fruit species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulated Abiotic Injury Alters Yields of Southern Interspecific Hybrid Grape Cultivars
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020044
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Climate change, including more volatile weather and longer growing seasons, is causing stress on grapevines (Vitis spp.). A change in harvest timing of wine grapes can have significant consequences. Thus, two methods (crop forcing and complete removal of green tissue) were employed [...] Read more.
Climate change, including more volatile weather and longer growing seasons, is causing stress on grapevines (Vitis spp.). A change in harvest timing of wine grapes can have significant consequences. Thus, two methods (crop forcing and complete removal of green tissue) were employed to simulate abiotic vine injury. The harvest of bunch grapes in Mississippi occurs during July, a very hot month. ‘Miss Blanc’ and ‘Villard Blanc’ had four different crop forcing treatments imposed to determine yield amount and harvest timing. All treatments reduced yield. Harvest was delayed by 50 days, a potentially positive shift that was not enough to escape high temperatures. ‘Villard Blanc’ had no flower or fruit development after crop forcing treatments in May and June. ‘Miss Blanc’ yields were also significantly reduced by these treatments. Removal of green tissue to simulate injury from weather events such as frost, freeze, wind, or hail in both Mississippi and Oklahoma revealed that lost growth could reduce yields from 19% to 81%, which could influence grape grower management decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grape Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Anaerobically-Digested Brewery Wastewater as a Nutrient Solution for Substrate-Based Food Production
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020043
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 2 June 2019
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Abstract
Urban agriculture, due to its location, can play a key role in recycling urban waste streams, promoting nutrient recycling, and increasing sustainability of food systems. This research investigated the integration of brewery wastewater treatment through anaerobic digestion with substrate-based soilless agriculture. An experiment [...] Read more.
Urban agriculture, due to its location, can play a key role in recycling urban waste streams, promoting nutrient recycling, and increasing sustainability of food systems. This research investigated the integration of brewery wastewater treatment through anaerobic digestion with substrate-based soilless agriculture. An experiment was conducted to study the performance of three different crops (mustard greens (Brassica juncea), basil (Ocimum basilicum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown with digested and raw brewery wastewater as fertilizer treatments. Mustard greens and lettuce grown in digested wastewater produced similar yields as the inorganic fertilizer control treatment, while basil had slightly lower yields. In all cases, crops in the digested wastewater treatments produced higher yields than raw wastewater or the no fertilizer control, indicating that nutrients in the brewery wastewater can be recovered for food production and diverted from typical urban waste treatment facilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance and Hydroponic Tomato Crop Quality Characteristics in a Novel Greenhouse Using Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology for Covering Material
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020042
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we evaluated crop productivity and physiology during the hydroponic cultivation of medium-sized and cherry tomato crops, using two experimental greenhouses. Of the greenhouses, one used dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology for covering material, whilst the other, a conventional one (CONV), [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated crop productivity and physiology during the hydroponic cultivation of medium-sized and cherry tomato crops, using two experimental greenhouses. Of the greenhouses, one used dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology for covering material, whilst the other, a conventional one (CONV), was covered using diffusion glass as a control. The effect of the colored lighting that resulted from the DSSC glass filtering on the physiological response of the crops was examined by measuring the plant transpiration rate and leaf chlorophyll content. Furthermore, we evaluated potential differences in the concentration of phytochemical compounds, such as ascorbic acid, lycopene, and quality characteristics. Tomato plants in the DSSC greenhouse presented lower early and total yields, as well as lower chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate values, especially in the medium-sized fruits, as compared to the CONV greenhouse. The DSSC greenhouse showed significantly higher values of bioactive compounds for both the cherry and medium-sized tomato, with increases in the ascorbic acid, lycopene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids concentration, which ranged from 6% to 26%. Finally, for both the hybrids, the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) tests showed circa 10% and 5% increase, respectively, in the DSSC greenhouse. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Light and Microbial Lifestyle: The Impact of Light Quality on Plant–Microbe Interactions in Horticultural Production Systems—A Review
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020041
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
Horticultural greenhouse production in circumpolar regions (>60° N latitude), but also at lower latitudes, is dependent on artificial assimilation lighting to improve plant performance and the profitability of ornamental crops, and to secure production of greenhouse vegetables and berries all year round. In [...] Read more.
Horticultural greenhouse production in circumpolar regions (>60° N latitude), but also at lower latitudes, is dependent on artificial assimilation lighting to improve plant performance and the profitability of ornamental crops, and to secure production of greenhouse vegetables and berries all year round. In order to reduce energy consumption and energy costs, alternative technologies for lighting have been introduced, including light-emitting diodes (LED). This technology is also well-established within urban farming, especially plant factories. Different light technologies influence biotic and abiotic conditions in the plant environment. This review focuses on the impact of light quality on plant–microbe interactions, especially non-phototrophic organisms. Bacterial and fungal pathogens, biocontrol agents, and the phyllobiome are considered. Relevant molecular mechanisms regulating light-quality-related processes in bacteria are described and knowledge gaps are discussed with reference to ecological theories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Dwarf Phenotype Identified in Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Plants Growing on Marang (A. odoratissimus) Rootstocks
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020040
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a tropical fruit tree primarily grown as a staple crop for food security in Oceania. Significant wind damage has driven an interest in developing its dwarf phenotype. The presence of any dwarf breadfruit variety remains unknown. Little [...] Read more.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a tropical fruit tree primarily grown as a staple crop for food security in Oceania. Significant wind damage has driven an interest in developing its dwarf phenotype. The presence of any dwarf breadfruit variety remains unknown. Little is known regarding the growth of the species on rootstocks. Here, we examined the phenotype of breadfruit plants growing on marang (Artocarpus odoratissimus) rootstocks within 18 months after grafting; we identified a rootstock-induced dwarf trait in the species. This dwarf phenotype was characterized by shorter stems, reduced stem thickness and fewer branches, with 73% shorter internode length, 51% fewer and 40% smaller leaves compared to standard size breadfruit plants. The height of breadfruit plants on marang rootstocks was reduced by 49% in 9 months, and 59% in 18 months after grafting. The results suggest marang rootstocks can be applied to breadfruit breeding program for tree vigor control. Further biochemical characterization showed plants on marang rootstocks displayed leaves without change of total chlorophyll content, but with lower total soluble sugars, and stems with reduced activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase, a well-known primary proton pump essential for nutrient transport. The significance of the two parameters in rootstock dwarfing is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Predictive Equations for Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa, cv. Flandria) Root Surface Area Grown in Aquaponic Conditions
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020039
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Aquaponic systems are becoming more prevalent and have led to accurate mass and energy balance models that allow nutrient utilization to be maximized and plant and fish systems to be coupled or complimentary. Such models still do not address the potential of using [...] Read more.
Aquaponic systems are becoming more prevalent and have led to accurate mass and energy balance models that allow nutrient utilization to be maximized and plant and fish systems to be coupled or complimentary. Such models still do not address the potential of using the plant side as both the primary nitrification system and as a sink for the nitrate being produced from the fish system. However, using the plants as the nitrification system for the fish waste requires a better understanding and quantification of the nitrification capacity of the plant system. A series of experiments were conducted using butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria) in deep water culture rafts. Plants were grown under two growing conditions and were evaluated based upon harvestable weight. Treatment 1 (H5) consisted of a standard hydroponic nutrient solution maintained at pH 5.8, while treatment 2 (A7) consisted of an aquaponic waste solution maintained at pH 7.0. The aquaponic conditions were created from a fish rearing system using koi (Cyprinus carpio) that was continuously recirculated between the designated plant tubs and the fish tank with an in-line bead filter to capture and mineralize fish solids. The total root surface area was not significantly different between treatments, but the ratio of root surface area to root fresh weight was different, suggesting that aquaponic roots are finer than hydroponic roots. Predictive equations were developed to correlate root surface area to shoot or root fresh weight, which can be used to design the nitrification component for a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), as part of an integrated aquaponic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Knowledge of Hydroponic and Aquaponic Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Approach to Yield Response of Young Almond Trees to Deficit Irrigation and Biostimulant Applications
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020038
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Water is the most limiting resource in many semi-arid areas of Mediterranean countries. Among the strategies to improve water productivity, the implementation of deficit irrigation (DI) strategies and the introduction of drought-tolerant crops in irrigated areas (such as almond) are being widely studied. [...] Read more.
Water is the most limiting resource in many semi-arid areas of Mediterranean countries. Among the strategies to improve water productivity, the implementation of deficit irrigation (DI) strategies and the introduction of drought-tolerant crops in irrigated areas (such as almond) are being widely studied. Recently, the use of biostimulants to enhance crop tolerance to drought under water-scarcity scenarios is increasing. This work examines the response of three almond cultivars (‘Guara’, ‘Marta’, and ‘Lauranne’) in terms of yield and associated physiological responses in the main phenological stages to biostimulants (HYT® A and HYT® B plus) applied to young trees subjected to different irrigation levels: (i) a full irrigation treatment (FI), irrigated at 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETC); and (ii) sustained-deficit irrigation (SDI75), irrigated at 75% of ETC. Significantly higher yields were obtained with HYT applications in 2 of 3 cultivars; these differences were most evident in the SDI75 treatment. In particular, ‘Guara’ registered the most significant improvements in nut yield when the HYT product was applied (15–20% higher). With regard to crop physiological responses, higher values of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were noted with the HYT application in some cultivars and phenological stages. These results indicated that the use of biostimulants can be a feasible strategy for almond cultivation, especially when SDI is used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Compatibility, Growth Characteristics, and Yield of Tomato Grafted on Potato (‘Pomato’)
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020037
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the grafting compatibility of different varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) scions on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rootstocks to develop a ‘pomato’ plant. In this study three potato varieties; Diamant (P1), Cardinal (P2) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the grafting compatibility of different varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) scions on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rootstocks to develop a ‘pomato’ plant. In this study three potato varieties; Diamant (P1), Cardinal (P2) and Asterix (P3), and two tomato varieties; Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) tomato-2 (T1) and BARI tomato-11 (T2) were used to make the grafted combinations T1P1, T1P2, T1P3, T2P1, T2P2 and T2P3, designated G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, and G6, respectively. Tomato seedlings aged 25 (S1) and 35 days (S2) were selected as scions. Graft compatibility was analyzed based on the growth and yield of the pomato plants. The results revealed that varieties and scion age had a significant effect on the pomato fruit and tuber yield. The initiation of flowering was not affected by the various graft combinations; however, plant height, leaf number, branch number, number of clusters per plant, number of fruit per cluster, number of fruit per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter, single fruit weight and total fruit yield per plant were higher in G5S1 among the combinations. On the other hand, the number of tubers per plant, single tuber weight, and tuber yield per plant were highest for a few combinations. Overall, it was concluded that Cardinal (P2) and Asterix (P3) potato were the most compatible for grafting with BARI tomato-11 (T2) at the scion age of 25 days (S1), based on vegetative growth and fruit and tuber yield of pomato plants. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Relative Salt Tolerance of Four Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020036
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
Salt tolerant ornamental plants can be irrigated with alternative water sources that are typically saline as a sustainable practice for urban landscaping, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the salt tolerance of many ornamentals is not known. An eight-week greenhouse experiment was [...] Read more.
Salt tolerant ornamental plants can be irrigated with alternative water sources that are typically saline as a sustainable practice for urban landscaping, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the salt tolerance of many ornamentals is not known. An eight-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the relative salt tolerance of four perennial ornamentals, ‘Angelina’ (Sedum rupestre), ‘Autumn Joy’ (S. telephium), ‘Blue Spruce’ (S. reflexum), and ‘Blue Daze’ (Evolvulus glomeratus). The plants were grown in pots with potting mix substrate and irrigated with control or saline solutions. The electrical conductivities (EC) of the saline solutions were 5.0 and 10.0 mS/cm. Data collected included relative shoot, root, and total dry weight (DW), visual score, shoot tissue concentrations of Na+, Cl, K+, and Ca2+, and the K+/Na+ ratio. There were significant differences in treatment and varieties for all response variables, and some interactions were also significant, indicating different responses to salinity for the four varieties. Shoot, root, and total DW decreased with increasing salinity for all varieties. Visual score was highest in Autumn Joy and Blue Spruce when treated with EC5 and EC10 and lowest in Angelina and Blue Daze, the latter of which showed symptoms of moderate foliar damage including leaf necrosis, or “burn”, due to salt stress. The concentrations of Na+ and Cl in the shoot tissue increased with increasing salinity while K+ and Ca2+ and the K+/Na+ ratio tended to decrease. Of the four varieties of herbaceous perennial ornamentals evaluated in this study, Autumn Joy and Blue Spruce were considered the most relatively salt tolerant while Angelina and Blue Daze were least tolerant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Rootstock/Scion Combination and Two Irrigation Water Qualities on Cherry Tomato Yield and Postharvest Fruit Quality
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020035
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to evaluate postharvest cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Mill.) yield and fruit quality as affected by grafting and irrigation water quality in the desert region of Israel. Tomato plants (scion cv. Lorka) were grafted onto 3 [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to evaluate postharvest cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Mill.) yield and fruit quality as affected by grafting and irrigation water quality in the desert region of Israel. Tomato plants (scion cv. Lorka) were grafted onto 3 commercial tomato rootstocks (Resistar, Beaufort and TRS2) and were irrigated with 2 water qualities: fresh water (electrical conductivity (EC)-1.6 dS m−1) and salty water (EC-4.0 dS m−1). Fresh water significantly increased fruit yield by an average of 17% and fruit size, regardless of plant grafting and rootstock, but there were no significant differences in fruit size between the water treatments. However, salty water, but not grafting, significantly improved several quality parameters of fruit stored for 12 d at 12 °C followed by 2 d at 20 °C in simulated sea transport of produce from Israel to Europe and marketing. Fruit harvested from plants irrigated with salty water showed higher sweetness, sourness and, especially, better general taste, and significantly reduced off-flavor, compared with those irrigated with fresh water. The combination of ‘Lorka’ on ‘Resistar’ rootstock and resulted in the best external, internal, and sensory quality parameters at the end of storability and marketing simulation, while the lowest-quality parameters were in fruit harvested from ‘Lorka’ on ‘Beaufort’ rootstock. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
LEDs Combined with CHO Sources and CCC Priming PLB Regeneration of Phalaenopsis
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020034
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
Throughout this study, the objective was to determine the most effective carbohydrate (CHO) sources under different light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and the impact of chlorocholine chloride (CCC), for the in vitro regeneration of the protocom-like bodies (PLBs) in Phalaenopsis ‘Fmk02010’. We applied 15 LEDs [...] Read more.
Throughout this study, the objective was to determine the most effective carbohydrate (CHO) sources under different light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and the impact of chlorocholine chloride (CCC), for the in vitro regeneration of the protocom-like bodies (PLBs) in Phalaenopsis ‘Fmk02010’. We applied 15 LEDs combined with three CHO sources and five CCC concentrations in the study. Organogenesis of PLBs was very poor in maltose both for the number of PLBs and their fresh weight (FW) compared to media containing sucrose and trehalose. Sucrose was the best CHO source under the red-white (RW) LED for the in vitro organogenesis of PLBs (PLBs: 54.13; FW: 0.109 g), while trehalose was best under the blue-white (BW) LED (PLBs: 36.33, FW: 0.129 g). The red-blue-white (RBW)-trehalose combination generated a suitable number of PLBs (35.13) with the highest FW (0.167 g). CCC at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mgL−1CCC had no effect on PLB formation or FW, but 10 mg L−1 reduced both. RW-sucrose, BW-trehalose, and RBW-trehalose were the best combinations for PLB organogenesis. The addition of low concentrations of CCC in the plant culture medium are unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Propagation of Fruit, Vegetable and Ornamental Plants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Distribution of Elements along the Rachis of Cycas micronesica Leaves: A Cautionary Note for Sampling Design
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020033
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill trees on the island of Yap were used to determine the influence of position along the leaf rachis on macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations and how leaf age affected the results. The outcomes revealed improvements to sampling protocols for future [...] Read more.
Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill trees on the island of Yap were used to determine the influence of position along the leaf rachis on macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations and how leaf age affected the results. The outcomes revealed improvements to sampling protocols for future cycad leaf research. The concentration of every element except carbon and copper was influenced by leaflet position along the rachis. Most elements exhibited similar patterns for the oldest and youngest leaves on a tree, but the influence of position along the rachis for nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, and boron was highly contrasting for old versus young leaves. The elements with the greatest variability along the rachis were potassium, phosphorus, manganese, and zinc, with the difference in basal and terminal leaflets as great as four-fold. Sampling leaflets at one position on a cycad leaf may generate inaccurate elemental concentration results for most essential nutrients other than carbon and copper. We have added position of sampled leaflets within leaves as a mandatory component of what is recorded and reported for future cycad leaf tissue analyses. Leaflets that span the full length of the rachis should be included in cycad leaf samples that are collected for tissue analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adoption and Impacts of Integrated Pest Management in Bangladesh: Evidence from Smallholder Bitter Gourd Growers
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020032
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Determinants of integrated pest management (IPM) adoption, productivity and efficiency of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) growers in Bangladesh were jointly measured using propensity score matching (PSM), sample selection stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) and inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) techniques. [...] Read more.
Determinants of integrated pest management (IPM) adoption, productivity and efficiency of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) growers in Bangladesh were jointly measured using propensity score matching (PSM), sample selection stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) and inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) techniques. The significant value (P < 0.05) of the selectivity variable (ρ(w,v)) coefficient justifies the use of the sample selection SFPF. The decision to adopt IPM was positively influenced by the training and other farmers’ decisions to adopt. Mean technical efficiency (MTE) was found to be significantly higher for adopters (0.59) compared to non-adopters (0.40). The MTE analysis suggests that arranging more training sessions and making farmers more familiar with the IPM practices would improve the technical efficiency of the growers. Adoption of IPM practices significantly reduced the number pesticide applications, which imply environmental benefits from their adoption. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Serianthes nelsonii Seed Germination and Seedling Behavior are Minimally Influenced by Chemical and Light Treatment
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020031
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
The role of seed imbibition and light during germination are not known for the critically endangered Serianthes nelsonii Merr. Scarified seeds were pre-soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) up to 300 mg/L and nitrate solutions of 3000 mg/L to determine if germination [...] Read more.
The role of seed imbibition and light during germination are not known for the critically endangered Serianthes nelsonii Merr. Scarified seeds were pre-soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) up to 300 mg/L and nitrate solutions of 3000 mg/L to determine if germination was influenced by these treatments. Scarified and imbibed seeds were incubated in high red:far red and low red:far red light to determine the influence of light quality on germination traits. The GA3 and nitrate treatments did not influence germination percentage or timing, but did increase the height of newly emerged seedlings. Moreover, GA3 extended the longevity of cotyledons and shortened the window of time that seedlings required to resume height growth. These growth responses were not sustained, and all seedlings reached heights of 30 cm at a similar number of weeks. The light treatments did not influence any of the germination response traits. The results indicate that imbibing seeds with chemical solutions and providing light in a range of light quality treatments exerted a minimal influence on S. nelsonii seed germination behaviors. Imbibing seeds with water and germinating in darkness is sufficient for achieving the germination of this endangered tree species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Management for Ornamental Plants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Aeroponic Cloning of Capsicum spp.
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020030
Received: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
Aeroponic cloning is a great strategy to maintain desired genotypes by generating a whole new plant from cuttings. While this propagation technique has been demonstrated for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), no protocol has been developed for [...] Read more.
Aeroponic cloning is a great strategy to maintain desired genotypes by generating a whole new plant from cuttings. While this propagation technique has been demonstrated for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), no protocol has been developed for peppers (Capsicum spp.). The ability to clonally propagate different Capsicum holds promise for domestic and industrial growing operations since elite cultivars with desirable traits (e.g., high capsaicin levels, nutrient content, and striped fruit) can be perpetuated without the need of planning a nursery. We tested six Capsicum species for their feasibility of aeroponic cloning by stem cuttings. All domestic species were successfully regenerated under aeroponic conditions but not for Capsicum eximium, a wild species. Of the species analyzed, Capsicum annuum peppers had the fastest node formation (11.6 +/− 0.89 days, P ≤ 0.01) and obtained a larger volume of roots (P ≤ 0.01) after node formation as compared to C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. This study presents a cost-effective strategy to clonally propagate peppers for personal, industrial, and conservation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Propagation of Fruit, Vegetable and Ornamental Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of 1-MCP on Quality and Storability of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020029
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Cherry tomato is a perishable fruit due to its high rate of ethylene production and respiration during ripening. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is known to control ripening and reduce decay of fruit by inhibiting ethylene action. In the present study, the influence of 1-MCP application [...] Read more.
Cherry tomato is a perishable fruit due to its high rate of ethylene production and respiration during ripening. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is known to control ripening and reduce decay of fruit by inhibiting ethylene action. In the present study, the influence of 1-MCP application on quality and storability of ‘Unicorn’ cherry tomato was observed. Fruit at pink and red maturity stages were put in the commercial plastic containers and sealed with 40 μm low density polyethylene (LDPE) film, treated with 1-MCP (0 µL L−1 (control), 0.035 µL L−1 and 0.1 µL L−1), and stored at 10 °C in 85 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). The results indicated that application of 1-MCP at 0.1 µL L−1 significantly affected firmness, cell wall thickness, water soluble pectin, weight loss, surface color, lycopene content and physiological parameters in both pink and red maturity stages compared to 0.035 µL L−1 and control. 1-MCP treatment at 0.1 µL L−1 kept the fruits firmer than 0.035 µL L−1 and the control throughout the storage period for both maturity stages. Cell wall degradation in the control treatment was higher compared to the 0.1 µL L−1 1-MCP treated fruits in both maturity stages throughout the storage period. Results of this study revealed the effectiveness of application of 0.1 µL L−1 1-MCP on quality and shelf life of cherry tomato. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Propagation from Basal Epicormic Meristems Remediates an Aging-Related Disorder in Almond Clones
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020028
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
The asexual propagation of clonal crops has allowed cultivation of superior selections for thousands of years. With time, some clones deteriorate from genetic and epigenetic changes. Non-infectious bud-failure (NBF) in cultivated almond (Prunus dulcis) is a commercially important age-related disorder that [...] Read more.
The asexual propagation of clonal crops has allowed cultivation of superior selections for thousands of years. With time, some clones deteriorate from genetic and epigenetic changes. Non-infectious bud-failure (NBF) in cultivated almond (Prunus dulcis) is a commercially important age-related disorder that results in the failure of new vegetative buds to grow in the spring, with dieback of terminal shoots, witches-brooming of surviving buds, and deformed bark (roughbark). The incidence of NBF increases with clone age, including within individual long-lived trees as well as nursery propagation lineages. It is not associated with any infectious disease agents. Consequently, nursery practices emphasize the establishment of foundation-mother blocks utilizing propagation-wood selected from proven and well-monitored propagation-lineages. Commercial propagation utilizes axillary shoot buds through traditional budding or grafting. This study examines NBF development using basal epicormic buds from individual trees of advanced age as an alternative source of foundation stock. Results show the age-related progression of NBF is suppressed in these epicormic meristems, possibly owing to their unique origins and ontogeny. NBF development in commercial orchards propagated from foundation blocks established from these sources was similarly dramatically suppressed even over the 10- to 20-year expected commercial orchard-life. Foundation-stock stability can be further maintained through appropriate management of propagation source-trees, which requires accurate knowledge of meristem origin and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Propagation of Fruit, Vegetable and Ornamental Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Plant Growth Rates between an NFT Hydroponic System and an NFT Aquaponic System
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5020027
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
A comparison of leafy green plant species’ (lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), rocket (Eruca sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum)) growth rates was performed between an Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)hydroponic [...] Read more.
A comparison of leafy green plant species’ (lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), rocket (Eruca sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum)) growth rates was performed between an Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)hydroponic system, using standard commercial nutrient solution, and an NFT aquaponic system, using fish waste from Grass Carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idella) which provided the majority of the nutrients required by the plants. The results demonstrated that the aquaponic method performed well, and, in many cases, the growth rates produced were similar to those of the hydroponic method. Lettuce growth was compared across three seasons (summer, winter, and spring), and, in all cases, the aquaponically-grown lettuce equalled, or bettered, the hydroponic equivalent. Herb growth was compared over a five-month period (February to June—summer/autumn), and in 17 out of 23 comparisons, the aquaponic method produced results similar to those of the hydroponic method. Thus, while the NFT method may not be the most appropriate technical approach for aquaponic integration, the results suggest that the overall aquaponic method has the potential to produce plant growth rates at least equal to those of standard hydroponics. Full article
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