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Open AccessFeature PaperTechnical Note

Water Use and Leaf Nutrient Status for Terraced Cherimoya Trees in a Subtropical Mediterranean Environment

IFAPA Centro “Camino de Purchil”. Camino de Purchil s/n, 18004 Granada, Spain
Ayto. de Almuñécar, Plaza de la Constitución 1, 18690 Almuñécar, Spain
IFAPA Centro “Las Torres-Tomejil”, Carretera Sevilla-Alcalá del Río km 12,2, 41200 Alcalá del Río, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Horticulturae 2019, 5(2), 46;
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
PDF [1901 KB, uploaded 23 June 2019]


Water scarcity in many semi-arid agricultural areas, in particular for the Mediterranean basin, is promoting changes in irrigated agriculture, with alternative strategies being introduced for water-use optimization. The coast of Granada and Malaga (Southeast Spain) is an economically important area for subtropical fruit cultivation. This intensively irrigated agriculture is characterized by requiring extra amounts of water and the adoption of sustainable practices to improve agricultural water management. A two-season experiment was conducted to assess (1) the water use in terraced cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. cv. Fino de Jete) orchards under conventional and organic production systems with drainage lysimeters, and (2) the impact on fruit yield and nutritional effects between the two considered production systems. Crop coefficient (Kc) values for cherimoya were 0.60–0.66, 0.64–0.71, and 0.48–0.62 at flowering, fruit set, and fruit growth, respectively. Fruit yield was similar in both systems, ranging from 47.1 for conventional to 44.1 kg tree−1 for organic farming, averaging 13.2 and 12.3 t·ha−1, respectively. No differences between these systems were observed in terms of leaf nutrient status, with variations in the N, P, and K contents during the different phenological stages. The N, P, and K lessen during flowering and fruit growth; the highest levels of these nutrients were fixed at harvest. These patterns were the opposite in Ca and Mg, ascribable to the antagonism between K and both Ca and Mg. Thus, these findings highlight the need to establish the optimal use of irrigation water with respect to crop requirements, thereby encouraging sustainable subtropical farming in terraces. View Full-Text
Keywords: Annona cherimolia Mill.; subtropical farming; water scarcity; leaf-nutrient content Annona cherimolia Mill.; subtropical farming; water scarcity; leaf-nutrient content

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Durán-Zuazo, V.H.; Franco Tarifa, D.; García-Tejero, I.F.; Gutiérrez Gordillo, S.; Cermeño Sacristan, P.; Pertiñez Roldan, J.J. Water Use and Leaf Nutrient Status for Terraced Cherimoya Trees in a Subtropical Mediterranean Environment. Horticulturae 2019, 5, 46.

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