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Bioengineering, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessReview Noble Metal Nanoparticles Applications: Recent Trends in Food Control
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010010 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Scientific research in the nanomaterials field is constantly evolving, making it possible to develop new materials and above all to find new applications. Therefore, nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for different applications: nanomedicine, drug delivery, sensors, optoelectronics and food control. This review explores the
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Scientific research in the nanomaterials field is constantly evolving, making it possible to develop new materials and above all to find new applications. Therefore, nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for different applications: nanomedicine, drug delivery, sensors, optoelectronics and food control. This review explores the recent trend in food control of using noble metallic nanoparticles as determination tools. Two major uses of NPs in food control have been found: the determination of contaminants and bioactive compounds. Applications were found for the determination of mycotoxins, pesticides, drug residues, allergens, probable carcinogenic compounds, bacteria, amino acids, gluten and antioxidants. The new developed methods are competitive for their use in food control, demonstrated by their validation and application to real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Functionalized Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessReview Brain Organoids—A Bottom-Up Approach for Studying Human Neurodevelopment
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010009
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Brain organoids have recently emerged as a three-dimensional tissue culture platform to study the principles of neurodevelopment and morphogenesis. Importantly, brain organoids can be derived from human stem cells, and thus offer a model system for early human brain development and human specific
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Brain organoids have recently emerged as a three-dimensional tissue culture platform to study the principles of neurodevelopment and morphogenesis. Importantly, brain organoids can be derived from human stem cells, and thus offer a model system for early human brain development and human specific disorders. However, there are still major differences between the in vitro systems and in vivo development. This is in part due to the challenge of engineering a suitable culture platform that will support proper development. In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences of human brain organoid systems in comparison to embryonic development. We then describe how organoids are used to model neurodevelopmental diseases. Finally, we describe challenges in organoid systems and how to approach these challenges using complementary bioengineering techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organs-on-Chips)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Plasma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Isolated by Different Methods: A Comparison Study
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010008
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane structures released by cells that act as potent mediators of intercellular communication. The study of EV biology is important, not only to strengthen our knowledge of their physiological roles, but also to better understand their involvement in
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Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane structures released by cells that act as potent mediators of intercellular communication. The study of EV biology is important, not only to strengthen our knowledge of their physiological roles, but also to better understand their involvement in several diseases. In the field of biomedicine they have been studied as a novel source of biomarkers and drug delivery vehicles. The most commonly used method for EV enrichment in crude pellet involves serial centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. Recently, different protocols and techniques have been developed to isolate EV that imply less time and greater purification. Here we carry out a comparative analysis of three methods to enrich EV from plasma of healthy controls: ultracentrifugation, ExoQuickTM precipitation solution (System Biosciences), and Total Exosome Isolation kit (Invitrogen). Our results show that commercial precipitation reagents are more efficient and enable higher EV enrichment factors compared with traditional ultracentrifugation, although subsequent imaging analysis is not possible with some of them. We hope that this work will contribute to the current research on isolation techniques to assist the progress of clinical applications with diagnostic or therapeutic objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Extracellular Vesicle Quantification and Characterization: Common Methods and Emerging Approaches
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010007
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of small membrane vesicles that carry information about cells by which they are secreted. Growing interest in the role of EVs in intercellular communication, but also in using their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in (bio) medical
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of small membrane vesicles that carry information about cells by which they are secreted. Growing interest in the role of EVs in intercellular communication, but also in using their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in (bio) medical applications, demands for accurate assessment of their biochemical and physical properties. In this review, we provide an overview of available technologies for EV analysis by describing their working principles, assessing their utility in EV research and summarising their potential and limitations. To emphasise the innovations in EV analysis, we also highlight the unique possibilities of emerging technologies with high potential for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Bioengineering in 2018
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010006
Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview Mobile Microfluidics
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010005
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
Microfluidics platforms can program small amounts of fluids to execute a bio-protocol, and thus, can automate the work of a technician and also integrate a large part of laboratory equipment. Although most microfluidic systems have considerably reduced the size of a laboratory, they
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Microfluidics platforms can program small amounts of fluids to execute a bio-protocol, and thus, can automate the work of a technician and also integrate a large part of laboratory equipment. Although most microfluidic systems have considerably reduced the size of a laboratory, they are still benchtop units, of a size comparable to a desktop computer. In this paper, we argue that achieving true mobility in microfluidics would revolutionize the domain by making laboratory services accessible during traveling or even in daily situations, such as sport and outdoor activities. We review the existing efforts to achieve mobility in microfluidics, and we discuss the conditions mobile biochips need to satisfy. In particular, we show how we adapted an existing biochip for mobile use, and we present the results when using it during a train ride. Based on these results and our systematic discussion, we identify the challenges that need to be overcome at technical, usability and social levels. In analogy to the history of computing, we make some predictions on the future of mobile biochips. In our vision, mobile biochips will disrupt how people interact with a wide range of healthcare processes, including medical testing and synthesis of on-demand medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Microfluidics in Biology)
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Open AccessReview Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles in Skin Repair
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010004
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
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Abstract
Stem cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely studied because of their excellent therapeutic potential. EVs from different types of stem cell can improve vascularization as well as aid in the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The skin is a complex organ
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Stem cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely studied because of their excellent therapeutic potential. EVs from different types of stem cell can improve vascularization as well as aid in the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The skin is a complex organ that is susceptible to various types of injury. Strategies designed to restore epithelial tissues’ integrity with stem cell EVs have shown promising results. Different populations of stem cell EVs are able to control inflammation, accelerate skin cell migration and proliferation, control wound scarring, improve angiogenesis, and even ameliorate signs of skin aging. However, large-scale production of such stem cell EVs for human therapy is still a challenge. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the potential of stem cell EVs in skin wound healing and skin rejuvenation, as well as challenges of their use in therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication Optimization of Decellularization Procedure in Rat Esophagus for Possible Development of a Tissue Engineered Construct
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010003
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Current esophageal treatment is associated with significant morbidity. The gold standard therapeutic strategies are stomach interposition or autografts derived from the jejunum and colon. However, severe adverse reactions, such as esophageal leakage, stenosis and infection, accompany the above treatments, which, most times,
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Background: Current esophageal treatment is associated with significant morbidity. The gold standard therapeutic strategies are stomach interposition or autografts derived from the jejunum and colon. However, severe adverse reactions, such as esophageal leakage, stenosis and infection, accompany the above treatments, which, most times, are life threating. The aim of this study was the optimization of a decellularization protocol in order to develop a proper esophageal tissue engineered construct. Methods: Rat esophagi were obtained from animals and were decellularized. The decellularization process involved the use of 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffers for 6 h each, followed by incubation in a serum medium. The whole process involved two decellularization cycles. Then, a histological analysis was performed. In addition, the amounts of collagen, sulphated glycosaminoglycans and DNA content were quantified. Results: The histological analysis revealed that only the first decellularization cycle was enough to produce a cellular and nuclei free esophageal scaffold with a proper extracellular matrix orientation. These results were further confirmed by biochemical quantification. Conclusions: Based on the above results, the current decellularization protocol can be applied successfully in order to produce an esophageal tissue engineered construct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Feature Extraction of Shoulder Joint’s Voluntary Flexion-Extension Movement Based on Electroencephalography Signals for Power Assistance
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010002
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) has been considered as an effective way to help and support both the disabled rehabilitation and healthy individuals’ daily lives to use their brain activity information instead of their bodies. In order to reduce costs and control exoskeleton robots better,
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Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) has been considered as an effective way to help and support both the disabled rehabilitation and healthy individuals’ daily lives to use their brain activity information instead of their bodies. In order to reduce costs and control exoskeleton robots better, we aim to estimate the necessary torque information for a subject from his/her electroencephalography (EEG) signals when using an exoskeleton robot to perform the power assistance of the upper limb without using external torque sensors nor electromyography (EMG) sensors. In this paper, we focus on extracting the motion-relevant EEG signals’ features of the shoulder joint, which is the most complex joint in the human’s body, to construct a power assistance system using wearable upper limb exoskeleton robots with BMI technology. We extract the characteristic EEG signals when the shoulder joint is doing flexion and extension movement freely which are the main motions of the shoulder joint needed to be assisted. Independent component analysis (ICA) is used to extract the source information of neural components, and then the average method is used to extract the characteristic signals that are fundamental to achieve the control. The proposed approach has been experimentally verified. The results show that EEG signals begin to increase at 300–400 ms before the motion and then decrease at the beginning of the generation of EMG signals, and the peaks appear at about one second after the motion. At the same time, we also confirmed the relationship between the change of EMG signals and the EEG signals on the time dimension, and these results also provide a theoretical basis for the delay parameter in the linear model which will be used to estimate the necessary torque information in future. Our results suggest that the estimation of torque information based on EEG signals is feasible, and demonstrate the potential of using EEG signals via the control of brain-machine interface to support human activities continuously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosignal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle A Three-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict the Interstitial Concentration of Talaporfin Sodium in the Myocardium for Photodynamic Therapy: A Method Combining Measured Fluorescence and Analysis of the Compartmental Origin of the Fluorescence
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010001
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
To evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy occurring in the interstitial space of the myocardium, we estimated the interstitial concentration of talaporfin sodium in the canine myocardium by constructing a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model based on measured changes in talaporfin sodium plasma concentration and
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To evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy occurring in the interstitial space of the myocardium, we estimated the interstitial concentration of talaporfin sodium in the canine myocardium by constructing a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model based on measured changes in talaporfin sodium plasma concentration and myocardial fluorescence. Differential rate equations of talaporfin sodium concentration in the plasma, interstitial space, and cell compartment were developed with individual compartment volume, concentration, and rate constants. Using measured volume ratios based on histological examinations, we defined that the myocardial fluorescence consisted of the linear addition of fluorescence generated from these three compartments. The rate constants were obtained by fitting to minimize the sum of the squared errors between the measured talaporfin sodium concentrations and the calculated concentrations divided by the number of data points using the conjugate gradient method in MATLAB. We confirmed that this fitting operation may be appropriate, because a coefficient of determination between the measured talaporfin sodium changes and the calculated concentrations using our equations was 0.99. Consequently, to estimate the interstitial concentration in the canine myocardium, we propose a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model construction methodology using measured changes in talaporfin sodium plasma concentration and changes in myocardial fluorescence. Full article
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