Next Article in Journal
Human Neonatal Thymus Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Chronic Right Ventricle Pressure Overload
Previous Article in Journal
Extracellular Vesicles from the Protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii: Their Role in Pathogenesis, Environmental Adaptation and Potential Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010014

Ear Reconstruction Simulation: From Handcrafting to 3D Printing

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence, via di Santa Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy
2
Department of Plastic Surgery, Meyer Children’s Hospital, Viale Gaetano Pieraccini, 24, 50139 Firenze; Italy
3
Office of International Relations and the Promotion of Innovation, Meyer Children’s Hospital, Viale Gaetano Pieraccini, 24, 50139 Firenze, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [3251 KB, uploaded 6 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Microtia is a congenital malformation affecting one in 5000 individuals and is characterized by physical deformity or absence of the outer ear. Nowadays, surgical reconstruction with autologous tissue is the most common clinical practice. The procedure requires a high level of manual and artistic techniques of a surgeon in carving and sculpting of harvested costal cartilage of the patient to recreate an auricular framework to insert within a skin pocket obtained at the malformed ear region. The aesthetic outcomes of the surgery are highly dependent on the experience of the surgeon performing the surgery. For this reason, surgeons need simulators to acquire adequate technical skills out of the surgery room without compromising the aesthetic appearance of the patient. The current paper aims to describe and analyze the different materials and methods adopted during the history of autologous ear reconstruction (AER) simulation to train surgeons by practice on geometrically and mechanically accurate physical replicas. Recent advances in 3D modelling software and manufacturing technologies to increase the effectiveness of AER simulators are particularly described to provide more recent outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Computer-Aided Design (CAD); additive manufacturing; microtia; autologous ear reconstruction; simulation; training; image-processing; costal cartilage; silicone rubbers Computer-Aided Design (CAD); additive manufacturing; microtia; autologous ear reconstruction; simulation; training; image-processing; costal cartilage; silicone rubbers
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mussi, E.; Furferi, R.; Volpe, Y.; Facchini, F.; McGreevy, K.S.; Uccheddu, F. Ear Reconstruction Simulation: From Handcrafting to 3D Printing. Bioengineering 2019, 6, 14.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Bioengineering EISSN 2306-5354 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top