Topical Collection "Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Wassana Yantasee
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Collection Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Interests: nanomedicine; RNAi; drug delivery; nanobiotechnology; cancer; fibrosis; metal chelation; pharmaceutical; immunotherapy

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoparticles have garnered intense interest as a therapeutic platform to treat a broad range of diseases, including cancer, metabolic, cardiovascular, skin, renal, inflammatory, and infectious disease. Well-designed nanoparticles can enhance the efficacy of traditional therapeutics through enhanced solubility, prolonged circulation or drug release, targeted delivery to disease sites, and reduced toxicity. Nanoparticles can be formulated for systemic, dermal, oral, and inhalation applications and optimized to overcome the delivery barriers of emerging therapeutics such as oligonucleotides, mRNA, and DNA with the potential to be safer than viral vector counterparts. Nevertheless, like any emerging technology, further advances in research are required to overcome the technological and regulatory barriers if nanoparticles are to fulfil their immense potential for human applications.

In order to offer a publication platform for researchers working in the nanotherapeutic field, the MDPI journal, Bioengineering, is dedicating a Topical Collection to Nanoparticles in Therapeutic Applications and is asking for your valuable contribution. The Issue will focus on nanoparticle development and applications in broad ranges of diseases and delivery routes. Research toward increased understanding of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicity, stability, and manufacturability of nanoparticles is also highly relevant.

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this Issue of Bioengineering.

Prof. Dr. Wassana Yantasee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Bioengineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

Article
Design Strategy for Nanostructured Arrays of Metallodielectric Cuboids to Systematically Tune the Optical Response and Eliminate Spurious Bulk Effects in Plasmonic Biosensors
Bioengineering 2022, 9(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9020063 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Plasmonic biosensors are a powerful tool for studying molecule adsorption label-free and with high sensitivity. Here, we present a systematic study on the optical properties of strictly regular nanostructures composed of metallodielectric cuboids with the aim to deliberately tune their optical response and [...] Read more.
Plasmonic biosensors are a powerful tool for studying molecule adsorption label-free and with high sensitivity. Here, we present a systematic study on the optical properties of strictly regular nanostructures composed of metallodielectric cuboids with the aim to deliberately tune their optical response and improve their biosensing performance. In addition, the patterns were tested for their potential to eliminate spurious effects from sensor response, caused by refractive index changes in the bulk solution. Shifts in the plasmonic spectrum are exclusively caused by the adsorbing molecules. For this purpose, nanopatterns of interconnected and separated cubes with dimensions ranging from 150 to 600 nm have been fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) using electron-beam lithography followed by metallization with gold. It is shown that a small lateral pattern size, a high aspect ratio, and short connection lengths are favorable to generate extinction spectra with well-separated and pronounced peaks. Furthermore, for selected nanostructures, we have been able to identify reflection angles for which the influence of the bulk refractive index on the position of the plasmonic peaks is negligible. It is shown that sensor operation under these angles enables monitoring of in situ biomolecule adsorption with high sensitivity providing a promising tool for high-throughput applications. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020, 2019, 2018

Article
Characterization, Cytotoxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Effect Evaluation of Nanocapsules Containing Nicotine
Bioengineering 2021, 8(11), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8110172 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
(1) Background: Nanotechnology is an emerging field that can be applied in the biomedical area. In this study, Eudragit nanocapsules (NCs) containing nicotine were produced. Nicotine is the main alkaloid found in tobacco and has anti-inflammatory properties. NCs containing nicotine may be used [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Nanotechnology is an emerging field that can be applied in the biomedical area. In this study, Eudragit nanocapsules (NCs) containing nicotine were produced. Nicotine is the main alkaloid found in tobacco and has anti-inflammatory properties. NCs containing nicotine may be used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of inflammation in the central nervous system. (2) Methods: Nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial deposition of the pre-formed polymer method and characterized in terms of zeta potential, diameter, polydispersity index, pH, encapsulation efficiency (EE), stability and sustained release profile. In vitro tests with the PC12 cell line were performed, such as MTT, LIVE/DEAD and ELISA assays, to verify their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects. (3) Results: The nanocapsules presented satisfactory values of the characterization parameters; however, poor encapsulation was obtained for nicotine (8.17% ± 0.47). The in vitro tests showed that the treatment with nanocapsules reduced cell viability, which suggests that the Eudragit or the amount of polymer on top of the cells may be detrimental to them, as the cells were able to survive when treated with bulk nicotine. ELISA showed an increment in the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β, corroborating the hypothesis that NCs were toxic to the cells because of the increase in the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. (4) Conclusions: This study demonstrates that NCs of Eudragit present toxicity. It is therefore necessary to improve NC formulation to obtain better values for the encapsulation efficiency and reduce toxicity of these nanodevices. Full article
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Systematic Review
Carbon Nanotube-Based Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering—Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis
Bioengineering 2021, 8(6), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8060080 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is currently the top global cause of death, however, research into new therapies is in decline. Tissue engineering is a solution to this crisis and in combination with the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have drawn recent attention as a [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is currently the top global cause of death, however, research into new therapies is in decline. Tissue engineering is a solution to this crisis and in combination with the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have drawn recent attention as a biomaterial, could facilitate the development of more dynamic and complex in vitro models. CNTs’ electrical conductivity and dimensional similarity to cardiac extracellular proteins provide a unique opportunity to deliver scaffolds with stimuli that mimic the native cardiac microenvironment in vitro more effectively. This systematic review aims to evaluate the use and efficacy of CNTs for cardiac tissue scaffolds and was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Three databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Papers resulting from these searches were then subjected to analysis against pre-determined inclusion and quality appraisal criteria. From 249 results, 27 manuscripts met the criteria and were included in this review. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were most commonly used in the experiments, with multi-walled CNTs being most common in tissue scaffolds. Immunofluorescence was the experimental technique most frequently used, which was employed for the staining of cardiac-specific proteins relating to contractile and electrophysiological function. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2019, 2018

Article
Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Drugs in Shell-by-Shell Coated Nanoparticles for Radio—and Chemotherapy—An In Vitro Study
Bioengineering 2020, 7(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering7040126 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Our research objective was to develop novel drug delivery vehicles consisting of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by a bilayer shell that allows the reversible embedment of hydrophobic drugs. The first shell is formed by covalent binding of hydrophobic [...] Read more.
Our research objective was to develop novel drug delivery vehicles consisting of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by a bilayer shell that allows the reversible embedment of hydrophobic drugs. The first shell is formed by covalent binding of hydrophobic phosphonic acid at the metal oxide surface. The second shell composed of amphiphilic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate emerges by self-aggregation driven by hydrophobic interactions between the dodecylbenzene moiety and the hydrophobic first shell. The resulting double layer provides hydrophobic pockets suited for the intake of hydrophobic drugs. The nanoparticles were loaded with the anticancer drugs quercetin and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Irradiation with X-rays was observed to release the potential anticancer drugs into the cytoplasm. In Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-10 A cells, quercetin and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin acted as antioxidants by protecting the non-tumorigenic cells from harmful radiation effects. In contrast, these agents increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in cancerous MCF-7 cells. Quercetin and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin were shown to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in cancer cells by determining an increase in TUNEL-positive cells and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential after irradiation. After X-ray irradiation, the survival fraction of MCF-7 cells with drug-loaded nanoparticles considerably decreased, which demonstrates the excellent performance of the double-layer stabilized nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles. Full article
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Review
Biomimetic Nanocarriers for Cancer Target Therapy
Bioengineering 2020, 7(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering7030111 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Nanotechnology offers innovative tools for the design of biomimetic nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy. These nano-systems present several advantages such as cargo’s protection and modulation of its release, inclusion of stimuli-responsive elements, and enhanced tumoral accumulation. All together, these nano-systems suffer low therapeutic [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology offers innovative tools for the design of biomimetic nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy. These nano-systems present several advantages such as cargo’s protection and modulation of its release, inclusion of stimuli-responsive elements, and enhanced tumoral accumulation. All together, these nano-systems suffer low therapeutic efficacy in vivo because organisms can recognize and remove foreign nanomaterials. To overcome this important issue, different modifications on nanoparticle surfaces were exploited in order to reach the desired therapeutic efficacy eliciting, also, the response of immune system against cancer cells. For this reason, more recently, a new strategy involving cell membrane-covered nanoparticles for biomedical application has been attracting increasing attention. Membranes from red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, tumor, and stem cells, have been exploited as biomimetic coatings of nanoparticles for evading clearance or stimulated immune system by maintaining in the same way their targeting capability. In this review, the use of different cell sources as coating of biomimetic nanocarriers for cancer therapy is discussed. Full article
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Review
Progress in Delivery of siRNA-Based Therapeutics Employing Nano-Vehicles for Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Bioengineering 2020, 7(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering7030091 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3147
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) accounts for a high number of deaths in males with no available curative treatments. Patients with PCa are commonly diagnosed in advanced stages due to the lack of symptoms in the early stages. Recently, the research focus was directed toward [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) accounts for a high number of deaths in males with no available curative treatments. Patients with PCa are commonly diagnosed in advanced stages due to the lack of symptoms in the early stages. Recently, the research focus was directed toward gene editing in cancer therapy. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) intervention is considered as a powerful tool for gene silencing (knockdown), enabling the suppression of oncogene factors in cancer. This strategy is applied to the treatment of various cancers including PCa. The siRNA can inhibit proliferation and invasion of PCa cells and is able to promote the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents. However, the off-target effects of siRNA therapy remarkably reduce its efficacy in PCa therapy. To date, various carriers were designed to improve the delivery of siRNA and, among them, nanoparticles are of importance. Nanoparticles enable the targeted delivery of siRNAs and enhance their potential in the downregulation of target genes of interest. Additionally, nanoparticles can provide a platform for the co-delivery of siRNAs and anti-tumor drugs, resulting in decreased growth and migration of PCa cells. The efficacy, specificity, and delivery of siRNAs are comprehensively discussed in this review to direct further studies toward using siRNAs and their nanoscale-delivery systems in PCa therapy and perhaps other cancer types. Full article
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Article
Modulation of the Microtubule Network for Optimization of Nanoparticle Dynamics for the Advancement of Cancer Nanomedicine
Bioengineering 2020, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering7020056 - 14 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2675
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promise in both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. NPs are mainly transported along cellular microtubules (MTs). Docetaxel (DTX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that can manipulate the cellular MT network to maximize its clinical benefit. However, the effect of DTX [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promise in both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. NPs are mainly transported along cellular microtubules (MTs). Docetaxel (DTX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that can manipulate the cellular MT network to maximize its clinical benefit. However, the effect of DTX on NP behaviour has not yet been fully elucidated. We used gold NPs of diameters 15 and 50 nm at a concentration of 0.2 nM to investigate the size dependence of NP behaviour. Meanwhile, DTX concentrations of 0, 10 and 50 nM were used to uphold clinical relevance. Our study reveals that a concentration of 50 nM DTX increased NP uptake by ~50% and their retention by ~90% compared to cells treated with 0 and 10 nM DTX. Smaller NPs had a 20-fold higher uptake in cells treated with 50 nM DTX vs. 0 and 10 nM DTX. With the treatment of 50 nm DTX, the cells became more spherical in shape, and NPs were redistributed closer to the nucleus. A significant increase in NP uptake and retention along with their intracellular distribution closer to the nucleus with 50 nM DTX could be exploited to target a higher dose to the most important target, the nucleus in both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018

Article
A Multidisciplinary Approach toward High Throughput Label-Free Cytotoxicity Monitoring of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Bioengineering 2019, 6(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6020052 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4712
Abstract
This paper focuses on cytotoxicity examination of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using different methods, including impedance spectroscopy. Recent advances of SPIONs for clinical and research applications have triggered the need to understand their effects in cells. Despite the great advances in adapting [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on cytotoxicity examination of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using different methods, including impedance spectroscopy. Recent advances of SPIONs for clinical and research applications have triggered the need to understand their effects in cells. Despite the great advances in adapting various biological and chemical methods to assess in-vitro toxicity of SPIONs, less attention has been paid on the development of a high throughput label-free screening platform to study the interaction between the cells and nanoparticles including SPIONs. In this paper, we have taken the first step toward this goal by proposing a label-free impedimetric method for monitoring living cells treated with SPIONs. We demonstrate the effect of SPIONs on the adhesion, growth, proliferation, and viability of neuroblastoma 2A (N2a) cells using impedance spectroscopy as a label-free method, along with other standard microscopic and cell viability testing methods as control methods. Our results have shown a decreased viability of the cells as the concentration of SPIONs increases with percentages of 59%, 47%, and 40% for 100 µg/mL (C4), 200 µg/mL (C5), 300 µg/mL (C6), respectively. Although all SPIONs concentrations have allowed the growth of cells within 72 h, C4, C5, and C6 showed slower growth compared to the control (C1). The growth and proliferation of N2a cells are faster in the absence or low concentration of SPIONS. The percent coefficient of variation (% CV) was used to compare cell concentrations obtained by TBDE assay and a Scepter cell counter. Results also showed that the lower the SPIONs concentration, the lower the impedance is expected to be in the sensing electrodes without the cells. Meanwhile, the variation of surface area (∆S) was affected by the concentration of SPIONs. It was observed that the double layer capacitance was almost constant because of the higher attachment of cells, the lower surface area coated by SPIONs. In conclusion, impedance changes of electrodes exposed to the mixture of cells and SPIONs offer a wide dynamic range (>1 MΩ using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance electrodes) suitable for cytotoxicity studies. Based on impedance based, viability testing and microscopic methods’ results, SPIONs concentrations higher than 100 ug/mL and 300 ug/mL cause minor and major effects, respectively. We propose that a high throughput impedance-based label-free platform provides great advantages for studying SPIONs in a cell-based context, opening a window of opportunity to design and test the next generation of SPIONs with reduced toxicity for biomedical or medical applications. Full article
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Communication
Lanthanide-Loaded Nanoparticles as Potential Fluorescent and Mass Probes for High-Content Protein Analysis
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010023 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3685
Abstract
Multiparametric and high-content protein analysis of single cells or tissues cannot be accomplished with the currently available flow cytometry or imaging techniques utilizing fluorophore-labelled antibodies, because the number of spectrally resolvable fluorochromes is limited. In contrast, mass cytometry can resolve more signals by [...] Read more.
Multiparametric and high-content protein analysis of single cells or tissues cannot be accomplished with the currently available flow cytometry or imaging techniques utilizing fluorophore-labelled antibodies, because the number of spectrally resolvable fluorochromes is limited. In contrast, mass cytometry can resolve more signals by exploiting lanthanide-tagged antibodies; however, only about 100 metal reporters can be attached to an antibody molecule. This makes the sensitivity of lanthanide-tagged antibodies substantially lower than fluorescent reporters. A new probe that can carry more lanthanide molecules per antibody is a desirable way to enhance the sensitivity needed for the detection of protein with low cellular abundance. Herein, we report on the development of new probes utilizing mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) with hydroxyl, amine, or phosphonate functional groups. The phosphonated MSNPs proved to be best at loading lanthanides for up to 1.4 × 106 molecules per particle, and could be loaded with various lanthanide elements (Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, and Lu) at relatively similar molar extents. The modified MSNPs can also load a fluorescent dye, allowing bimodal mass and fluorescence-based detection. We achieved specificity of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles (at 1.4 × 103 antibodies per nanoparticle) for targeting proteins on the cell surface. The new materials can potentially be used as mass cytometry probes and provide a method for simultaneous monitoring of a large host of factors comprising the tumor microenvironment (e.g., extracellular matrix, cancer cells, and immune cells). These novel probes may also benefit personalized medicine by allowing for high-throughput analysis of multiple proteins in the same specimen. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

Article
GSK461364A, a Polo-Like Kinase-1 Inhibitor Encapsulated in Polymeric Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040083 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3982
Abstract
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a common primary brain cancer with a poor prognosis and a median survival of less than 14 months. Current modes of treatment are associated with deleterious side effects that reduce the life span of the patients. Nanomedicine enables site-specific [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a common primary brain cancer with a poor prognosis and a median survival of less than 14 months. Current modes of treatment are associated with deleterious side effects that reduce the life span of the patients. Nanomedicine enables site-specific delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients and facilitates entrapment inside the tumor. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) inhibitors have shown promising results in tumor cells. GSK461364A (GSK) is one such targeted inhibitor with reported toxicity issues in phase 1 clinical trials. We have demonstrated in our study that the action of GSK is time dependent across all concentrations. There is a distinct 15−20% decrease in cell viability via apoptosis in U87-MG cells dosed with GSK at low concentrations (within the nanomolar and lower micromolar range) compared to higher concentrations of the drug. Additionally, we have confirmed that PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) containing GSK have shown significant reduction in cell viability of tumor cells compared to their free equivalents. Thus, this polymeric nanoconstruct encapsulating GSK can be effective even at low concentrations and could improve the effectiveness of the drug while reducing side effects at the lower effective dose. This is the first study to report a PLK-1 inhibitor (GSK) encapsulated in a nanocarrier for cancer applications. Full article
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