Special Issue "Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration"

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dan Simionescu

AIMBE Fellow, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: regenerative medicine; stem cells; biological scaffolds; bioreactors; biomaterials; biocompatibility
Guest Editor
Dr. Christopher DeBorde

Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mitral valve tissue engineering
Guest Editor
Dr. Agneta Simionescu

Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cardiovascular tissue engineering in diabetes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tissue regeneration is slowly becoming a new cornerstone for the medicine of the future. Loosely defined, this field encompasses efforts to integrate the various areas of medical physiology with stem cell biology and engineering for the sole purpose of restoring tissues which otherwise do not have the natural capacity to regenerate.

One major challenge in tissue regeneration is cell sourcing. Among the different options, mesencymal stem cells (MSCs) have been tested in a variety of in vitro, preclinical and clinical scenarios. MSCs are an attractive cell source because they can be readily obtained from patients (autologous) or healthy volunteers (allogenic); in vitro MSCs are easily propagated and manipulated. MSCs have multiple functions, and research into harnessing these capabilities revealed that MSCs are self-propagating cytokine factories also capable of differentiation into a variety of target cells. Despite initial enthusiasm, scientists are still pondering the advantages and limitations of MSCs, use of autologous versus allogenic MSCs, their ability to support tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo, their true potential for differentiation, their phenotypic stability after differentiation, effectiveness of MSCs collected from patients affected by genetic or metabolic diseases. We also do not understand well enough what kind of scaffolds MSCs actually need, if at all, and what is the effect of synthetic or natural 3D scaffolds on MSC behavior. Thus it is apparent that opportunities for tissue regeneration abound, however in most applications, tissue regeneration is not a “one size fits all” type of therapy.

This is an exciting field which also comes with ample challenges related to the patient’s medical condition and age, metabolic or genetic deficiencies, as well as technical challenges associated with lack of adequate scaffold biomechanics, insufficient vascularity, vulnerability of stem cells, inefficient seeding methods, lack of sophisticated bioreactors and imperfect animal models, among others.

The current Special Issue provides a platform for dissemination and critical evaluation of opportunities and challenges in tissue regeneration using MSCs. It is our belief that your valuable contributions will help advance the field further by providing novel opportunities, approaches and solutions to these challenges.

We are very excited to serve as Guest Editors for this Special Issue and look forward to receiving your manuscripts.

Prof. Dr. Dan Simionescu
Dr. Christopher deBorde
Dr. Agneta Simionescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Bioengineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-4
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Human Neonatal Thymus Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Chronic Right Ventricle Pressure Overload
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010015
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
PDF Full-text (2019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Right ventricle (RV) failure secondary to pressure overload is associated with a loss of myocardial capillary density and an increase in oxidative stress. We have previously found that human neonatal thymus mesenchymal stem cells (ntMSCs) promote neovascularization, but the ability of ntMSCs to [...] Read more.
Right ventricle (RV) failure secondary to pressure overload is associated with a loss of myocardial capillary density and an increase in oxidative stress. We have previously found that human neonatal thymus mesenchymal stem cells (ntMSCs) promote neovascularization, but the ability of ntMSCs to express the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is unknown. We hypothesized that ntMSCs express and secrete SOD3 as well as improve survival in the setting of chronic pressure overload. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared SOD3 expression in ntMSCs to donor-matched bone-derived MSCs and evaluated the effect of ntMSCs in a rat RV pressure overload model induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). The primary outcome was survival, and secondary measures were an echocardiographic assessment of RV size and function as well as histological studies of the RV. We found that ntMSCs expressed SOD3 to a greater degree as compared to bone-derived MSCs. In the PAB model, all ntMSC-treated animals survived to the study endpoint whereas control animals had significantly decreased survival. Treatment animals had significantly less RV fibrosis and increased RV capillary density as compared to controls. We conclude that human ntMSCs demonstrate a therapeutic effect in a model of chronic RV pressure overload, which may in part be due to their antioxidative, antifibrotic, and proangiogenic effects. Given their readily available source, human ntMSCs may be a candidate cell therapy for individuals with congenital heart disease and a pressure-overloaded RV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Intrinsic Self-Organising Properties of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Models with Endothelial Cells
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040092
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are typically characterised by their ability to differentiate into skeletal (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic) lineages. MSCs also appear to have additional non-stem cell functions in coordinating tissue morphogenesis and organising vascular networks through interactions with endothelial cells (ECs). However, [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are typically characterised by their ability to differentiate into skeletal (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic) lineages. MSCs also appear to have additional non-stem cell functions in coordinating tissue morphogenesis and organising vascular networks through interactions with endothelial cells (ECs). However, suitable experimental models to examine these apparently unique MSC properties are lacking. Following previous work, we have developed our 3D in vitro co-culture models to enable us to track cellular self-organisation events in heterotypic cell spheroids combining ECs, MSCs and their differentiated progeny. In these systems, MSCs, but not related fibroblastic cell types, promote the assembly of ECs into interconnected networks through intrinsic mechanisms, dependent on the relative abundance of MSC and EC numbers. Perturbation of endogenous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling significantly increased EC network length, width and branching. When MSCs were pre-differentiated towards an osteogenic or chondrogenic lineage and co-cultured as mixed 3D spheroids, they segregated into polarised osseous and chondral regions. In the presence of ECs, the pre-differentiated MSCs redistributed to form a central mixed cell core with an outer osseous layer. Our findings demonstrate the intrinsic self-organising properties of MSCs, which may broaden their use in regenerative medicine and advance current approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Peripheral Blood and Cord Blood Platelet Lysates in Isolation and Expansion of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Bioengineering 2018, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5010019
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The in vitro isolation and expansion of MSCs involve the use of foetal bovine serum (FBS). However, many concerns have been raised regarding the safety of this product. In [...] Read more.
Background: Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The in vitro isolation and expansion of MSCs involve the use of foetal bovine serum (FBS). However, many concerns have been raised regarding the safety of this product. In this study, alternative additives derived either from peripheral or cord blood were tested as an FBS replacement. Methods: Platelet lysates (PL) from peripheral and cord blood were used for the expansion of MSCs. The levels of growth factors in peripheral blood (PB) and cord blood (CB) PLs were determined using the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM). Finally, the cell doubling time (CDT), tri-lineage differentiation and phenotypic characterization of the MSCs expanded with FBS and PLs were determined. Results: MSCs treated with culture media containing FBS and PB-PL, were successfully isolated and expanded, whereas MSCs treated with CB-PL could not be maintained in culture. Furthermore, the MRM analysis yielded differences in growth factor levels between PB-PL and CB-PL. In addition, the MSCs were successfully expanded with FBS and PB-PL and exhibited tri-lineage differentiation and stable phenotypic characteristics. Conclusion: PB-PL could be used as an alternative additive for the production of MSCs culture medium applied to xenogeneic-free expansion and maintenance of MSCs in large scale clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Augmentation of Dermal Wound Healing by Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells (ASC)
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040091
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line of defense against physical and biological damage. Thus, the skin is equipped to self-repair and regenerates after trauma. Skin regeneration after damage comprises a tightly spatial-temporally regulated process [...] Read more.
The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line of defense against physical and biological damage. Thus, the skin is equipped to self-repair and regenerates after trauma. Skin regeneration after damage comprises a tightly spatial-temporally regulated process of wound healing that involves virtually all cell types in the skin. Wound healing features five partially overlapping stages: homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation, re-epithelization, and finally resolution or fibrosis. Dysreguled wound healing may resolve in dermal scarring. Adipose tissue is long known for its suppressive influence on dermal scarring. Cultured adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) secrete a plethora of regenerative growth factors and immune mediators that influence processes during wound healing e.g., angiogenesis, modulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. In clinical practice, ASCs are usually administered as part of fractionated adipose tissue i.e., as part of enzymatically isolated SVF (cellular SVF), mechanically isolated SVF (tissue SVF), or as lipograft. Enzymatic isolation of SVF obtained adipose tissue results in suspension of adipocyte-free cells (cSVF) that lack intact intercellular adhesions or connections to extracellular matrix (ECM). Mechanical isolation of SVF from adipose tissue destructs the parenchyma (adipocytes), which results in a tissue SVF (tSVF) with intact connections between cells, as well as matrix. To date, due to a lack of well-designed prospective randomized clinical trials, neither cSVF, tSVF, whole adipose tissue, or cultured ASCs can be indicated as the preferred preparation procedure prior to therapeutic administration. In this review, we present and discuss current literature regarding the different administration options to apply ASCs (i.e., cultured ASCs, cSVF, tSVF, and lipografting) to augment dermal wound healing, as well as the available indications for clinical efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration)
Bioengineering EISSN 2306-5354 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top