Special Issue "Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering"

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Panagiotis Mallis

Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine of Hellenic Cord Blood Bank, Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens (BRFAA), Greece
E-Mail
Interests: Tissue Engineered Small Diameter Vascular Grafts; Decellularized human umbilical artery; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells; Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Platelet Rich Plasma

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field, which combines effectively stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cell-free biologic scaffold, while the extracellular matrix (ECM) could be preserved intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for in vitro potential of whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels are being evaluated in order to be used in human clinical trials.

Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, self-renewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scope, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under Good Manufacturing Practices conditions (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds, and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds.

Until now, a remarkable effort has been performed by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of “artificial” tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by combining properly stem cells and biologic scaffolds, thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine.

This Special Issue will accept original research articles and comprehensive reviews that deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.

We look forward to receiving your valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Dr. Panagiotis Mallis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication Optimization of Decellularization Procedure in Rat Esophagus for Possible Development of a Tissue Engineered Construct
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010003
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Current esophageal treatment is associated with significant morbidity. The gold standard therapeutic strategies are stomach interposition or autografts derived from the jejunum and colon. However, severe adverse reactions, such as esophageal leakage, stenosis and infection, accompany the above treatments, which, most times,
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Background: Current esophageal treatment is associated with significant morbidity. The gold standard therapeutic strategies are stomach interposition or autografts derived from the jejunum and colon. However, severe adverse reactions, such as esophageal leakage, stenosis and infection, accompany the above treatments, which, most times, are life threating. The aim of this study was the optimization of a decellularization protocol in order to develop a proper esophageal tissue engineered construct. Methods: Rat esophagi were obtained from animals and were decellularized. The decellularization process involved the use of 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffers for 6 h each, followed by incubation in a serum medium. The whole process involved two decellularization cycles. Then, a histological analysis was performed. In addition, the amounts of collagen, sulphated glycosaminoglycans and DNA content were quantified. Results: The histological analysis revealed that only the first decellularization cycle was enough to produce a cellular and nuclei free esophageal scaffold with a proper extracellular matrix orientation. These results were further confirmed by biochemical quantification. Conclusions: Based on the above results, the current decellularization protocol can be applied successfully in order to produce an esophageal tissue engineered construct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Decellularized Human Umbilical Artery Used as Nerve Conduit
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040100
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Treatment of injuries to peripheral nerves after a segmental defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques, complete recovery of nerve function after repair has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the
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Treatment of injuries to peripheral nerves after a segmental defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques, complete recovery of nerve function after repair has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the decellularized human umbilical artery (hUA) as nerve guidance conduit. A segmental peripheral nerve injury was created in 24 Sprague–Dawley rats. The animals were organized into two experimental groups with different forms of repair: decellularized hUA (n = 12), and autologous nerve graft (n = 12). Sciatic faction index and gastrocnemius muscle values were calculated for functional recovery evaluation. Nerve morphometry was used to analyze nerve regeneration. Results showed that decellularized hUAs after implantation were rich in nerve fibers and characterized by improved Sciatic Functional index (SFI) values. Decellularized hUA may support elongation and bridging of the 10 mm nerve gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of HLA-G Expression in Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Vitrified Wharton’s Jelly Tissue
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040095
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) from Wharton’s Jelly (WJ) tissue express HLA-G, a molecule which exerts several immunological properties. This study aimed at the evaluation of HLA-G expression in MSCs derived from vitrified WJ tissue. Methods: WJ tissue samples were isolated from human
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Background: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) from Wharton’s Jelly (WJ) tissue express HLA-G, a molecule which exerts several immunological properties. This study aimed at the evaluation of HLA-G expression in MSCs derived from vitrified WJ tissue. Methods: WJ tissue samples were isolated from human umbilical cords, vitrified with the use of VS55 solution and stored for 1 year at −196 °C. After 1 year of storage, the WJ tissue was thawed and MSCs were isolated. Then, MSCs were expanded until reaching passage 8, followed by estimation of cell number, cell doubling time (CDT), population doubling (PD) and cell viability. In addition, multilineage differentiation, Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) assay and immunophenotypic analyses were performed. HLA-G expression in MSCs derived from vitrified samples was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR/PCR, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and immunofluorescence. MSCs derived from non-vitrified WJ tissue were used in order to validate the results obtained from the above methods. Results: MSCs were successfully obtained from vitrified WJ tissues retaining their morphological and multilineage differentiation properties. Furthermore, MSCs from vitrified WJ tissues successfully expressed HLA-G. Conclusion: The above results indicated the successful expression of HLA-G by MSCs from vitrified WJ tissues, thus making them ideal candidates for immunomodulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering)
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Graphical abstract

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