Special Issue "Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. María Carmen Blanco-López

Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: Lateral flow immunoassays, nanomaterials for biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, signal amplification system based on organic/inorganic nanoparticles, biosensors for small biological nanovesicles (exosomes)
Guest Editor
Dr. Esther Serrano-Pertierra

University of Oviedo, Spain
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous structures with great potential as a source of biomarkers. They are released by all types of cells into the extracellular environment. To date, EVs have been isolated from different body fluids; however, the elucidation of their biogenesis and roles are still a challenge. Since they are not associated to a single disease, it could be considered that the biomedical research in this field is still at the initial steps. They have been acknowledged as target for diagnosis and prognosis of several diseases, through their protein and RNA cargo. Understanding the EV targeting would open the paths for novel therapeutic routes. Progress in the field is currently limited by the available techniques for their characterization and quantification. The last meeting of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles 2018 has highlighted the need for strong bioengineering solutions for their isolation and analysis. Specific challenges include establishing the heterogeneity of EV population, simplification of the analytical protocols and single EV analysis.

This Special Issue focuses on updated techniques recently developed to meet these objectives. It is expected that the availability of new methods and platforms would speed up biological research and trigger medical applications.

Dr. María Carmen Blanco-López
Dr. Esther Serrano-Pertierra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Plasma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Isolated by Different Methods: A Comparison Study
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010008
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane structures released by cells that act as potent mediators of intercellular communication. The study of EV biology is important, not only to strengthen our knowledge of their physiological roles, but also to better understand their involvement in [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane structures released by cells that act as potent mediators of intercellular communication. The study of EV biology is important, not only to strengthen our knowledge of their physiological roles, but also to better understand their involvement in several diseases. In the field of biomedicine they have been studied as a novel source of biomarkers and drug delivery vehicles. The most commonly used method for EV enrichment in crude pellet involves serial centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. Recently, different protocols and techniques have been developed to isolate EV that imply less time and greater purification. Here we carry out a comparative analysis of three methods to enrich EV from plasma of healthy controls: ultracentrifugation, ExoQuickTM precipitation solution (System Biosciences), and Total Exosome Isolation kit (Invitrogen). Our results show that commercial precipitation reagents are more efficient and enable higher EV enrichment factors compared with traditional ultracentrifugation, although subsequent imaging analysis is not possible with some of them. We hope that this work will contribute to the current research on isolation techniques to assist the progress of clinical applications with diagnostic or therapeutic objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Extracellular Vesicles in the Oviduct: Progress, Challenges and Implications for the Reproductive Success
Bioengineering 2019, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6020032
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
The oviduct is the anatomical part of the female reproductive tract where the early reproductive events take place, from gamete transport, fertilization and early embryo development to the delivery of a competent embryo to the uterus, which can implant and develop to term. [...] Read more.
The oviduct is the anatomical part of the female reproductive tract where the early reproductive events take place, from gamete transport, fertilization and early embryo development to the delivery of a competent embryo to the uterus, which can implant and develop to term. The success of all these events rely upon a two-way dialogue between the oviduct (lining epithelium and secretions) and the gametes/embryo(s). Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as major components of oviductal secretions and pointed to as mediators of the gamete/embryo-maternal interactions. EVs, comprising exosomes and microvesicles, have emerged as important agents of cell-to-cell communication by the transfer of biomolecules (i.e., mRNAs, miRNAs, proteins) that can modulate the activities of recipient cells. Here, we provide the current knowledge of EVs in the oviductal environment, from isolation to characterization, and a description of the EVs molecular content and associated functional aspects in different species. The potential role of oviductal EVs (oEVs) as modulators of gamete/embryo-oviduct interactions and their implications in the success of early reproductive events is addressed. Lastly, we discuss current challenges and future directions towards the potential application of oEVs as therapeutic vectors to improve pregnancy disorders, infertility problems and increase the success of assisted reproductive technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessReview Extracellular Vesicles from the Protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii: Their Role in Pathogenesis, Environmental Adaptation and Potential Applications
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010013
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous compartments of distinct cellular origin and biogenesis, displaying different sizes and include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. The EVs have been described in almost every living organism, from simple unicellular to higher evolutionary scale multicellular organisms, such as [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous compartments of distinct cellular origin and biogenesis, displaying different sizes and include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. The EVs have been described in almost every living organism, from simple unicellular to higher evolutionary scale multicellular organisms, such as mammals. Several functions have been attributed to these structures, including roles in energy acquisition, cell-to-cell communication, gene expression modulation and pathogenesis. In this review, we described several aspects of the recently characterized EVs of the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, a free-living amoeba (FLA) of emerging epidemiological importance, and compare their features to other parasites’ EVs. These A. castellanii EVs are comprised of small microvesicles and exosomes and carry a wide range of molecules involved in many biological processes like cell signaling, carbohydrate metabolism and proteolytic activity, such as kinases, glucanases, and proteases, respectively. Several biomedical applications of these EVs have been proposed lately, including their use in vaccination, biofuel production, and the pharmaceutical industry, such as platforms for drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Extracellular Vesicle Quantification and Characterization: Common Methods and Emerging Approaches
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010007
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of small membrane vesicles that carry information about cells by which they are secreted. Growing interest in the role of EVs in intercellular communication, but also in using their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in (bio) medical [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of small membrane vesicles that carry information about cells by which they are secreted. Growing interest in the role of EVs in intercellular communication, but also in using their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in (bio) medical applications, demands for accurate assessment of their biochemical and physical properties. In this review, we provide an overview of available technologies for EV analysis by describing their working principles, assessing their utility in EV research and summarising their potential and limitations. To emphasise the innovations in EV analysis, we also highlight the unique possibilities of emerging technologies with high potential for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles in Skin Repair
Bioengineering 2019, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6010004
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stem cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely studied because of their excellent therapeutic potential. EVs from different types of stem cell can improve vascularization as well as aid in the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The skin is a complex organ [...] Read more.
Stem cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely studied because of their excellent therapeutic potential. EVs from different types of stem cell can improve vascularization as well as aid in the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The skin is a complex organ that is susceptible to various types of injury. Strategies designed to restore epithelial tissues’ integrity with stem cell EVs have shown promising results. Different populations of stem cell EVs are able to control inflammation, accelerate skin cell migration and proliferation, control wound scarring, improve angiogenesis, and even ameliorate signs of skin aging. However, large-scale production of such stem cell EVs for human therapy is still a challenge. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the potential of stem cell EVs in skin wound healing and skin rejuvenation, as well as challenges of their use in therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: From Biology to Biomedical Applications)
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