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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 206 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Currently, poverty, climate change, environmental pollution, and the depletion of natural resources have generated great concerns about sustainability. To achieve sustainability, human participation is essential. Understanding consumer perceptions and attitudes toward food sustainability is key. The attitude of consumers toward sustainability is understood differently in each country, even within the same food category. The lowest educational level and older generations have the least knowledge and concern about food sustainability and its related issues. To achieve a sustainable future, public awareness is increasingly necessary. Consequently, segmenting training campaigns according to the group to which they are directed will provide a greater impact and, therefore, greater awareness. View this paper
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19 pages, 385 KiB  
Review
Biochemical, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Yoghurts Made from Mixing Milks of Different Mammalian Species
by Oumayma Boukria, El Mestafa El Hadrami, Aysha Sameen, Amna Sahar, Sipper Khan, Jasur Safarov, Shakhnoza Sultanova, Françoise Leriche and Abderrahmane Aït-Kaddour
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111722 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4592
Abstract
Among developed countries, bovine milk production makes a major contribution towards the economy. Elevating consumer demand for functional foods has triggered a niche for non-bovine milk-based products. Mixing milks from different species can be a strategy to increase the consumption of non-bovine milk [...] Read more.
Among developed countries, bovine milk production makes a major contribution towards the economy. Elevating consumer demand for functional foods has triggered a niche for non-bovine milk-based products. Mixing milks from different species can be a strategy to increase the consumption of non-bovine milk and enable consumers and dairy companies to benefit from their nutritional and technological advantages. Thus, this review aimed to gather the most important research on yoghurts derived from processing mixtures of milks of different species. We discuss the impact of milk mixtures (i.e., species and milk ratio) on nutritional, physicochemical, sensory, rheological and microbiological properties of yoghurts. More specifically, this paper only highlights studies that have provided a clear comparison between yoghurts processed from a mixture of two milk species and yoghurts processed from a single species of milk. Finally, certain limitations and future trends are discussed, and some recommendations are suggested for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
15 pages, 1315 KiB  
Article
Influence of Processing Temperature on Membrane Performance and Characteristics of Process Streams Generated during Ultrafiltration of Skim Milk
by Ritika Puri, Upendra Singh and James A. O’Mahony
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111721 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3528
Abstract
The effects of processing temperature on filtration performance and characteristics of retentates and permeates produced during ultrafiltration (UF) of skim milk at 5, 20, and 50 °C were investigated. The results indicate that despite higher flux at 50 °C, UF under these conditions [...] Read more.
The effects of processing temperature on filtration performance and characteristics of retentates and permeates produced during ultrafiltration (UF) of skim milk at 5, 20, and 50 °C were investigated. The results indicate that despite higher flux at 50 °C, UF under these conditions resulted in greater fouling and rapid flux decline in comparison with 5 and 20 °C. The average casein micelle diameter was higher in retentate produced at 5 and 20 °C. The retentate analysed at 5 °C displayed higher viscosity and shear thinning behaviour as compared to retentate analysed at 20 and 50 °C. Greater permeation of calcium and phosphorus was observed at 5 and 20 °C in comparison with 50 °C, which was attributed to the inverse relationship between temperature and solubility of colloidal calcium phosphate. Permeation of α-lactalbumin was observed at all processing temperatures, with permeation of β-lactoglobulin also evident during UF at 50 °C. All UF retentates were shown to have plasmin activity, while lower activity was measured in retentate produced at 5 °C. The findings revealed that UF processing temperature influences the physicochemical, rheological, and biochemical properties of, and thereby govern the resulting quality and functionality of, retentate- and permeate-based dairy ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technology in Food Processing)
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13 pages, 1467 KiB  
Article
Heavy Metals Contamination in Shellfish: Benefit-Risk Evaluation in Central Italy
by Francesca Barchiesi, Raffaella Branciari, Mario Latini, Rossana Roila, Giuseppe Lediani, Giovanni Filippini, Giampiero Scortichini, Arianna Piersanti, Elena Rocchegiani and David Ranucci
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111720 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4149
Abstract
Seafood is a source of nutrients in human diet but also of environmental contaminants and its consumption could pose a risk to consumers’ health. A survey regarding the exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury through the consumption of bivalve mollusks, gastropods and sea [...] Read more.
Seafood is a source of nutrients in human diet but also of environmental contaminants and its consumption could pose a risk to consumers’ health. A survey regarding the exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury through the consumption of bivalve mollusks, gastropods and sea urchins collected on Italian coasts was carried out among central Italian population over a period of three years. A limited number of samples exceeds the threshold set by legislation (6 samples) and the average level of contamination was low in all the species considered. The contribution Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was higher for cadmium (9.17%) than lead (1.44%) and mercury (0.20%). The benefit-risk evaluation suggests that the bivalve mollusks and sea urchins consumption (Benefit Risk Quotient < 1) could be increased without health detrimental effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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14 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Glucosinolates and the Sensory Characteristics of Steamed-Pureed Turnip (Brassica Rapa subsp. Rapa L.)
by Nurfarhana Diana Mohd Nor, Stella Lignou, Luke Bell, Carmel Houston-Price, Kate Harvey and Lisa Methven
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111719 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3322
Abstract
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are phytochemical compounds that can be found in Brassica vegetables. Seven separate batches of steamed-pureed turnip were assessed for GSL content using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and for sensory attributes by sensory profiling (carried out by a trained sensory panel). [...] Read more.
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are phytochemical compounds that can be found in Brassica vegetables. Seven separate batches of steamed-pureed turnip were assessed for GSL content using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and for sensory attributes by sensory profiling (carried out by a trained sensory panel). Twelve individual GSLs, which included 7 aliphatic, 4 indole and 1 arylaliphatic GSL, were identified across all batches. There were significant differences in individual GSL content between batches, with gluconasturtiin as the most abundant GSL. The total GSL content ranged from 16.07 to 44.74 μmol g−1 dry weight (DW). Sensory profiling concluded there were positive correlations between GSLs and bitter taste and negative correlations between GSLs (except glucobrassicanapin) and sweet taste. The batches, which had been purchased across different seasons, all led to cooked turnip that contained substantial levels of GSLs which were subsequently all rated as bitter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Glucosinolates in Food Products)
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16 pages, 4616 KiB  
Article
Physical Stability of Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stabilized by Gelatin from Saithe (Pollachius virens) Skin
by Pauline Henriet, Flemming Jessen, Mar Vall-llosera, Rodolphe Marie, Mastaneh Jahromi, Mohammad Amin Mohammadifar, Hanne Lilian Stampe-Villadsen, Heidi Olander Petersen, Jens J. Sloth, Karin Loft Eybye, Greta Jakobsen and Federico Casanova
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111718 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the physical stability of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized with gelatin from saithe (Pollachius virens) skin obtained with three different extraction protocols compared to two commercial fish skin gelatins. We first investigated [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the physical stability of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized with gelatin from saithe (Pollachius virens) skin obtained with three different extraction protocols compared to two commercial fish skin gelatins. We first investigated the gelatin powder composition, and then produced the O/W emulsions at pH 3 by mechanical dispersion followed by an ultrasonication process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) profiles for commercial samples indicated that extensive and unspecific hydrolysis of collagen occurred during the production process, whereas gelatin extracted from saithe fish skin showed typical electrophoresis patterns of type I collagen, with the presence of γ- and β-chains. Emulsions obtained with commercial samples presented high physical stability over 7 days, with particle size of ~200 nm. However, emulsions obtained with saithe fish skin presented particle size between 300 and 450 nm. Slight differences were observed in viscosity, with values between ~1 and ~4 mPa·s. Interfacial tension measurements presented values between 13 and 17 mN·m−1 with three different regimes for all the systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology and Biophysics with Applications in Food Science)
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12 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
First Nation-Wide Analysis of Food Safety and Acceptability Data in Lebanon
by Samer Kharroubi, Nivin A. Nasser, Marwa Diab El-Harakeh, Abdallah Alhaj Sulaiman and Issmat I. Kassem
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111717 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6666
Abstract
The challenges to food safety in Lebanon are numerous and have coalesced to pose a serious public health concern. This is evident in well-documented food poisoning outbreaks and adulteration cases. In response, the Lebanese government initiated an unprecedented food safety campaign (2015–2017) that [...] Read more.
The challenges to food safety in Lebanon are numerous and have coalesced to pose a serious public health concern. This is evident in well-documented food poisoning outbreaks and adulteration cases. In response, the Lebanese government initiated an unprecedented food safety campaign (2015–2017) that aimed to test food samples that were randomly collected from foodservices and industries across the country. The data were made available publicly, but they were never analyzed to prioritize and determine high risk foods and most prevalent contaminants nationally or across governorates. To answer these questions, we performed an in-depth statistical analysis of the data, which included 11,625 individual food samples. Our analysis showed that water (55% of tested water samples), spices (49.3%), red meat (34.4%), poultry (30.9%) and dairy (28.3%) were the main foods associated with the highest rejection rates. The most common biological contaminants detected in rejected foods were sulfate-reducing bacteria (34.7%), Escherichia coli (32.1%), coliforms (19.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.8%), and Salmonella (11.6%). We conclude that Lebanon needs rigorous and sustainable programs to monitor the quality and safety of foods. Given the lack of resources, we recommend putting emphasis on extensive outreach programs that aim at enhancing food safety knowledge from farm to fork. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food)
22 pages, 306 KiB  
Review
The Role of Fruit by-Products as Bioactive Compounds for Intestinal Health
by Mohamed Aymen Chaouch and Stefania Benvenuti
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111716 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 6422
Abstract
The fruit processing industry generates large amounts of wastes (pomace, seeds, peels) that causes negative environmental impact with considerable treatment expenses. Nevertheless, various studies demonstrated that these by-products are still rich in bioactive compounds, especially dietary fibres and phenolic compounds, thus leading to [...] Read more.
The fruit processing industry generates large amounts of wastes (pomace, seeds, peels) that causes negative environmental impact with considerable treatment expenses. Nevertheless, various studies demonstrated that these by-products are still rich in bioactive compounds, especially dietary fibres and phenolic compounds, thus leading to significant chemical, physical and biological properties. These characteristics make fruits by-products a good source for new supplements in food products having important effect on intestinal function. Thus, the aim of this review is to evaluate the different bioactive compounds isolated from fruit by-products and to analyse their application in various formulations for the food and nutraceutical industries. In consideration of the biological properties of these compounds, their role in the functioning and action on intestine and gut flora was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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18 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Sprayed Bioactive Fruit Extracts in Counteracting Protein Oxidation in Lamb Cutlets Subjected to a High-Oxygen MAP
by D. Morcuende, C. Vallejo-Torres, S. Ventanas, S. L. Martínez, S. C. Ruiz and M. Estévez
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111715 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
High-oxygen packaging atmosphere (High-Ox-MAP) promotes meat protein oxidation and leads to texture deterioration. This study was conceived to assess the extent to which sprayed fruit extracts could inhibit the oxidative damage to proteins in lamb cutlets subjected to High-Ox-MAP (10 days/4 °C) and [...] Read more.
High-oxygen packaging atmosphere (High-Ox-MAP) promotes meat protein oxidation and leads to texture deterioration. This study was conceived to assess the extent to which sprayed fruit extracts could inhibit the oxidative damage to proteins in lamb cutlets subjected to High-Ox-MAP (10 days/4 °C) and subsequent roasting (10 min/180 °C). Extracts from oaknut (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota; QI), rose hips (Rosa canina L.; RC), common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.; CM) and strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.; AU) were characterized for bioactive compounds (phenolic subclasses, tocopherols and ascorbic acid) and in vitro bioactivities. While the four fruits showed relevant antioxidant potential, CM had the highest phenolics and tocopherol content and that was reflected in efficient antiradical activity. The in vitro activity of this fruit to inhibit meat protein oxidation was, however, lower than that displayed by the other fruits. Taking the results altogether, CM was also found to be most efficient in protecting lamb cutlets from lipid oxidation. All fruits were able to inhibit thiols oxidation except RC, which seemed to reduce protein thiols. Among fruits, QI was the most efficient in protecting lamb cutlets against protein carbonylation as a plausible involvement of ellagitannins. The inhibition of protein oxidation by QI was reflected in significantly lower instrumental hardness in cooked lamb cutlets. Spraying lamb cutlets with extracts from QI, RC and CM improved consumers’ purchase intention after chilled storage. This antioxidant strategy seems to be a feasible and efficient solution to the pro-oxidative effects caused by High-Ox-MAP in red meat. Full article
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10 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Egg Products on Lipid Oxidation of Biscuits
by Vito Verardo, Maria Cristina Messia, Emanuele Marconi and Maria Fiorenza Caboni
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111714 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Egg products are one of the main ingredients used in bakery industries, and they contain cholesterol. Cholesterol suffers several chemical changes during the food processes, allowing some potentially toxic compounds called cholesterol oxidized products (COPs). Thus, the aim of this work was to [...] Read more.
Egg products are one of the main ingredients used in bakery industries, and they contain cholesterol. Cholesterol suffers several chemical changes during the food processes, allowing some potentially toxic compounds called cholesterol oxidized products (COPs). Thus, the aim of this work was to study the evolution of lipid oxidation from eggs to egg products, and to evaluate the influence of egg products on COPs formation in biscuits formulated with them. The results confirmed that spray-drying technology improves the cholesterol oxidation 2.6 times compared to pasteurized eggs. Biscuit samples showed a COPs content that is strictly related to the egg products used. Samples formulated with spray-dried eggs noticed lower amounts of COPs compared to those formulated with pasteurized eggs. It is important to stress that COPs composition was different between the two samples, underlining that the kinetic of COPs formation is dependent on the type of egg products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oils and Bioactive Lipids: Quality, Stability, and Funcitionality)
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11 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Amplification of Vitamin D2 in the White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by UV-B Irradiation and Jet-Milling for Its Potential Use as a Functional Ingredient
by Tae-Yeong Heo, Ye-Na Kim, Il Bum Park and Dong-Un Lee
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111713 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
The objective of this study was to amplify vitamin D2 in white button mushrooms using ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation and to prepare a vitamin D2-fortified superfine mushroom powder through jet milling. Mushrooms irradiated with UV-B for 30 min had a vitamin [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to amplify vitamin D2 in white button mushrooms using ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiation and to prepare a vitamin D2-fortified superfine mushroom powder through jet milling. Mushrooms irradiated with UV-B for 30 min had a vitamin D2 concentration of 8.19 μg/g, an amount about 400 times greater than that of the control (0.02 μg/g). The vitamin D2-fortified mushrooms were then freeze-dried and conventionally ground or jet-milled to obtain coarse (Dv50 = 231 μm), fine (Dv50 = 106.3 μm), and superfine (Dv50 = 7.1 μm) powders. The vitamin D2 content was retained during the preparation of the powders. The physical characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and hydration properties. The superfine powder of vitamin D2-amplified mushrooms was suitable for use as a functional ingredient because its roughness was significantly reduced, and it had a neutral aroma and taste as determined by descriptive analysis. Full article
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18 pages, 438 KiB  
Article
Trends and Dietary Assessment According to Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Korean Elderly People: Analysis Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998, 2008, and 2018
by Yong-Seok Kwon, Jihye Ryu, Yuyeong Yang, Yoo-Kyoung Park and Sohye Kim
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111712 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
The study aimed to examine the 20-year trends in fruit and non-starch/unsalted vegetable intake among the Korean elderly aged 65 years or older based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. A total of 3722 elderly citizens aged 65 [...] Read more.
The study aimed to examine the 20-year trends in fruit and non-starch/unsalted vegetable intake among the Korean elderly aged 65 years or older based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. A total of 3722 elderly citizens aged 65 years or older who participated in the dietary survey (24-h recall of dietary intake) of the 1998, 2008, and 2018 NHANES were selected as the subjects of this study. Fruit and non-starchy/unsalted vegetable intake increased by approximately 86.53 g over the past 20 years, from 268.27 g in 1998 to 355.8 g in 2018. In particular, 65–74-year-olds had an increased intake by approximately 130.38 g over the past 20 years, from 277.34 g in 1998 to 407.72 g in 2018. In addition, snacks intake significantly increased over the past 20 years (p for trend < 0.001). Intake according to daily meal cooking location increased by approximately 130 g over the past 20 years, from 64.50 g in 1998 to 123.39 g in 2008, and to 198.01 g in 2018. The annual proportion of the total elderly population who meet the amount of vegetable food intake recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO)/World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) (400 g or more fruits and non-starchy vegetables) increased by approximately 11.28%p (percentage points) over the past 20 years, from 21.78% in 1998 to 24.63% in 2008, and to 33.06% in 2018. The results of this study suggest that more fundamental measures are required to increase the fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake among the elderly. Furthermore, it is thought that the results of this study can be used as basic data in establishing dietary policy. In addition, it is thought that it can be used in developing nutrition education and dietary guidelines for enhancing fruit and vegetable intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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15 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Lactoferrin Isolation and Hydrolysis from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Milk and the Antibacterial Activity of Deer Lactoferrin and Its Hydrolysates
by Ye Wang, Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit, Susan L. Mason and James D. Morton
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111711 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3128
Abstract
Lactoferrin (Lf) and other whey proteins have been isolated from red deer milk for the first time using a three-step anion and cation exchange chromatography protocol. The separated deer Lf was subject to in vitro gastric and duodenal digestions to generate peptides. The [...] Read more.
Lactoferrin (Lf) and other whey proteins have been isolated from red deer milk for the first time using a three-step anion and cation exchange chromatography protocol. The separated deer Lf was subject to in vitro gastric and duodenal digestions to generate peptides. The purity of the deer Lf and its hydrolysis products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The antibacterial activity of the deer Lf and its hydrolysates were investigated and was compared to cow counterpart. Gastric and duodenal digested deer Lf had strong bactericidal activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 280 µM and 402 µM, respectively. These results suggest that deer milk contains bioactive whey proteins and can generate bioactive peptides, which can benefit human health by inhibiting food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Full article
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17 pages, 3418 KiB  
Article
Protection of Galacto-Oligosaccharide against E. coli O157 Colonization through Enhancing Gut Barrier Function and Modulating Gut Microbiota
by Yan Zou, Jin Wang, Yuanyifei Wang, Bo Peng, Jingmin Liu, Bowei Zhang, Huan Lv and Shuo Wang
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111710 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3361
Abstract
Galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) has been added to infant formula as prebiotics and can bring many benefits to human health. This study proved the effect of GOS in prevention and alleviation against E. coli O157 invasion and colonization and the mechanism behind this was explored [...] Read more.
Galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) has been added to infant formula as prebiotics and can bring many benefits to human health. This study proved the effect of GOS in prevention and alleviation against E. coli O157 invasion and colonization and the mechanism behind this was explored in a mice model. The results showed that the expression of Muc2 and Occlaudin were both significantly down-regulated (p < 0.05) by E. coli O157 infection, while GOS alleviated this phenomenon, which means that GOS can reduce the colonization of E. coli O157 by enhancing the gut barrier function. Through the determination of inflammatory cytokines, we found that GOS can relieve inflammation caused by pathogens. At the same time, GOS can promote the growth of probiotics such as Akkermansia, Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides, thus modulating microorganism environments and improving short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in the intestine. This study provides an explanation for the mechanism behind the protection of GOS against pathogen infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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19 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Developing an Automatic Color Determination Procedure for the Quality Assessment of Mangos (Mangifera indica) Using a CCD Camera and Color Standards
by Khanitta Ratprakhon, Werner Neubauer, Katharina Riehn, Jan Fritsche and Sascha Rohn
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111709 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4767
Abstract
Color is one of the key sensory characteristics in the evaluation of the quality of mangos (Mangifera indica) especially with regard to determining the optimal level of ripeness. However, an objective color determination of entire fruits can be a challenging task. [...] Read more.
Color is one of the key sensory characteristics in the evaluation of the quality of mangos (Mangifera indica) especially with regard to determining the optimal level of ripeness. However, an objective color determination of entire fruits can be a challenging task. Conventional evaluation methods such as colorimetric or spectrophotometric procedures are primarily limited to a homogenous distribution of the color. Accordingly, a direct assessment of the mango quality with regard to color requires more pronounced color determination procedures. In this study, the color of the peel and the pulp of the mango cultivars “Nam Dokmai”, “Mahachanok”, and “Kent” was evaluated and categorized into various levels of ripeness using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in combination with a computer vision system and color standards. The color evaluation process is based on a transformation of the RGB (red, green, and blue) color space values into the HSI (hue, saturation, and intensity) color system and the Natural Color Standard (NCS). The results showed that for pulp color codes, 0560-Y20R and 0560-Y40R can be used as appropriate indicators for the ripeness of the cultivars “Nam Dokmai” and “Mahachanok”. The peels of these two mango cultivars present two distinct colors (1050-Y40R and 1060-Y40R), which can be used to determine the fruit maturity during the post-ripening process. However, in the case of the cultivar “Kent”, peel color detection was not an applicable approach for determining ripeness; thus, the determination of the pulp color with the color code 0550-Y20R gave promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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19 pages, 12211 KiB  
Article
Origin Determination of Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) on a Worldwide and Regional Level by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics
by Torben Segelke, Kristian von Wuthenau, Anita Kuschnereit, Marie-Sophie Müller and Markus Fischer
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111708 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3417
Abstract
To counteract food fraud, this study aimed at the differentiation of walnuts on a global and regional level using an isotopolomics approach. Thus, the multi-elemental profiles of 237 walnut samples from ten countries and three years of harvest were analyzed with inductively coupled [...] Read more.
To counteract food fraud, this study aimed at the differentiation of walnuts on a global and regional level using an isotopolomics approach. Thus, the multi-elemental profiles of 237 walnut samples from ten countries and three years of harvest were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the resulting element profiles were evaluated with chemometrics. Using support vector machine (SVM) for classification, validated by stratified nested cross validation, a prediction accuracy of 73% could be achieved. Leave-one-out cross validation was also applied for comparison and led to less satisfactory results because of the higher variations in sensitivity for distinct classes. Prediction was still possible using only elemental ratios instead of the absolute element concentrations; consequently, a drying step is not mandatory. In addition, the isotopolomics approach provided the classification of walnut samples on a regional level in France, Germany, and Italy, with accuracies of 91%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The ratio of the model’s accuracy to a random sample distribution was calculated, providing a new parameter with which to evaluate and compare the performance of classification models. The walnut cultivar and harvest year had no observable influence on the origin differentiation. Our results show the high potential of element profiling for the origin authentication of walnuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques for Food Authentication: Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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11 pages, 1702 KiB  
Article
Plant-Based (Hemp, Pea and Rice) Protein–Maltodextrin Combinations as Wall Material for Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa) Oil
by Marcin Andrzej Kurek and Anubhav Pratap-Singh
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111707 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4651
Abstract
Conscious consumers have created a need for constant development of technologies and food ingredients. This study aimed to examine the properties of emulsions and spray-dried microcapsules prepared from hempseed oil by employing a combination of maltodextrin with hemp, pea, and rice protein as [...] Read more.
Conscious consumers have created a need for constant development of technologies and food ingredients. This study aimed to examine the properties of emulsions and spray-dried microcapsules prepared from hempseed oil by employing a combination of maltodextrin with hemp, pea, and rice protein as carrier materials. Oil content in the microcapsules was varied at two levels: 10 and 20%. Increasing oil load caused a decrease in viscosity of all samples. Consistency index of prepared emulsions was calculated according to Power Law model, with the lowest (9.2 ± 1.3 mPa·s) and highest values (68.3 ± 1.1 mPa·s) for hemp and rice protein, respectively, both at 10% oil loading. The emulsion stability ranged from 68.2 ± 0.7% to 88.1 ± 0.9%. Color characteristics of the microcapsules were defined by high L* values (from 74.65 ± 0.03 to 83.06 ± 0.03) and low a* values (−1.02 ± 0.015 to 0.12 ± 0.005), suggesting that the materials were able to coat the greenish color of the hemp seed oil acceptably. The highest encapsulation efficiency was observed in samples with rice protein, while the lowest was with hemp protein. Combination of maltodextrin and proteins had a preventive effect on the oxidative stability of hempseed oil. Oil release profile fitted well with the Higuchi model, with hempseed oil microencapsulated with pea protein–maltodextrin combination at 10% oil loading depicting lowest oil release rates and best oxidative stability. Full article
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31 pages, 11875 KiB  
Article
Leuconostoc citreum TR116 as a Microbial Cell Factory to Functionalise High-Protein Faba Bean Ingredients for Bakery Applications
by Andrea Hoehnel, Jürgen Bez, Aylin W. Sahin, Aidan Coffey, Elke K. Arendt and Emanuele Zannini
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111706 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4969
Abstract
Grain legumes, such as faba beans, have been investigated as promising ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread. However, a detrimental effect on technological bread quality was often reported. Furthermore, considerable amounts of antinutritional compounds present in faba beans are a [...] Read more.
Grain legumes, such as faba beans, have been investigated as promising ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread. However, a detrimental effect on technological bread quality was often reported. Furthermore, considerable amounts of antinutritional compounds present in faba beans are a subject of concern. Sourdough-like fermentation can positively affect baking performance and nutritional attributes of faba bean flours. The multifunctional lactic acid bacteria strain Leuconostoc citreum TR116 was employed to ferment two faba bean flours with different protein contents (dehulled flour (DF); high-protein flour (PR)). The strain’s fermentation profile (growth, acidification, carbohydrate metabolism and antifungal phenolic acids) was monitored in both substrates. The fermentates were applied in regular wheat bread by replacing 15% of wheat flour. Water absorption, gluten aggregation behaviour, bread quality characteristics and in vitro starch digestibility were compared to formulations containing unfermented DF and PR and to a control wheat bread. Similar microbial growth, carbohydrate consumption as well as production of lactic and acetic acid were observed in both faba bean ingredients. A less pronounced pH drop as well as a slightly higher amount of antifungal phenolic acids were measured in the PR fermentate. Fermentation caused a striking improvement of the ingredients’ baking performance. GlutoPeak measurements allowed for an association of this observation with an improved gluten aggregation. Given its higher potential to improve protein quality in cereal products, the PR fermentate seemed generally more promising as functional ingredient due to its positive impact on bread quality and only moderately increased starch digestibility in bread. Full article
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12 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
Use of Almond Skins to Improve Nutritional and Functional Properties of Biscuits: An Example of Upcycling
by Antonella Pasqualone, Barbara Laddomada, Fatma Boukid, Davide De Angelis and Carmine Summo
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111705 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 6432
Abstract
Upcycling food industry by-products has become a topic of interest within the framework of the circular economy, to minimize environmental impact and the waste of resources. This research aimed at verifying the effectiveness of using almond skins, a by-product of the confectionery industry, [...] Read more.
Upcycling food industry by-products has become a topic of interest within the framework of the circular economy, to minimize environmental impact and the waste of resources. This research aimed at verifying the effectiveness of using almond skins, a by-product of the confectionery industry, in the preparation of functional biscuits with improved nutritional properties. Almond skins were added at 10 g/100 g (AS10) and 20 g/100 g (AS20) to a wheat flour basis. The protein content was not influenced, whereas lipids and dietary fiber significantly increased (p < 0.05), the latter meeting the requirements for applying “source of fiber” and “high in fiber” claims to AS10 and AS20 biscuits, respectively. The addition of almond skins altered biscuit color, lowering L* and b* and increasing a*, but improved friability. The biscuits showed sensory differences in color, odor and textural descriptors. The total sum of single phenolic compounds, determined by HPLC, was higher (p < 0.05) in AS10 (97.84 µg/g) and AS20 (132.18 µg/g) than in control (73.97 µg/g). The antioxidant activity showed the same trend as the phenolic. The p-hydroxy benzoic and protocatechuic acids showed the largest increase. The suggested strategy is a practical example of upcycling when preparing a health-oriented food product. Full article
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21 pages, 970 KiB  
Review
Critical Analysis of Pork QMRA Focusing on Slaughterhouses: Lessons from the Past and Future Trends
by Ammar Hdaifeh, Tahreem Khalid, Géraldine Boué, Enda Cummins, Sandrine Guillou, Michel Federighi and Vincent Tesson
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111704 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7326
Abstract
Foodborne microbial diseases have a significant impact on public health, leading to millions of human illnesses each year worldwide. Pork is one of the most consumed meat in Europe but may also be a major source of pathogens introduced all along the farm-to-fork [...] Read more.
Foodborne microbial diseases have a significant impact on public health, leading to millions of human illnesses each year worldwide. Pork is one of the most consumed meat in Europe but may also be a major source of pathogens introduced all along the farm-to-fork chain. Several quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) have been developed to assess human health risks associated with pork consumption and to evaluate the efficiency of different risk reduction strategies. The present critical analysis aims to review pork QMRA. An exhaustive search was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) methodology. It resulted in identification of a collection of 2489 papers including 42 on QMRA, after screening. Among them, a total of 29 studies focused on Salmonella spp. with clear concern on impacts at the slaughterhouse, modeling the spreading of contaminations and growth at critical stages along with potential reductions. Along with strict compliance with good hygiene practices, several potential risk mitigation pathways were highlighted for each slaughterhouse step. The slaughterhouse has a key role to play to ensure food safety of pork-based products but consideration of the whole farm-to-fork chain is necessary to enable better control of bacteria. This review provides an analysis of pork meat QMRA, to facilitate their reuse, and identify gaps to guide future research activities. Full article
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17 pages, 561 KiB  
Review
Cyclospora Cayetanensis—Major Outbreaks from Ready to Eat Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
by Agni Hadjilouka and Dimitris Tsaltas
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111703 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4531
Abstract
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian protozoan that causes cyclosporiasis, a severe gastroenteric disease, especially for immunocompromised patients, children, and the elderly. The parasite is considered as an emerging organism and a major contributor of gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the global prevalence of cyclosporiasis morbidity [...] Read more.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian protozoan that causes cyclosporiasis, a severe gastroenteric disease, especially for immunocompromised patients, children, and the elderly. The parasite is considered as an emerging organism and a major contributor of gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the global prevalence of cyclosporiasis morbidity and mortality has not been assessed, global concern has arisen since diarrheal illness and gastroenteritis significantly affect both developing countries and industrialized nations. In the last two decades, an increasing number of foodborne outbreaks has been associated with the consumption of fresh produce that is difficult to clean thoroughly and is consumed without processing. Investigations of these outbreaks have revealed the necessity to increase the awareness in clinicians of this infection, since this protozoan is often ignored by surveillance systems, and to establish control measures to reduce contamination of fresh produce. In this review, the major cyclosporiasis outbreaks linked to the consumption of ready to eat fresh fruits and vegetables are presented. Full article
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21 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
Environmentally Friendly Hydrothermal Processing of Melon by-Products for the Recovery of Bioactive Pectic-Oligosaccharides
by Xiana Rico, Beatriz Gullón and Remedios Yáñez
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111702 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3614
Abstract
Melon by-products, that currently lack high value-added applications, could be a sustainable source of bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides and antioxidants. In this work, melon peels were extracted with water to remove free sugars, and the water-insoluble solids (WISs) were subjected to hydrothermal [...] Read more.
Melon by-products, that currently lack high value-added applications, could be a sustainable source of bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides and antioxidants. In this work, melon peels were extracted with water to remove free sugars, and the water-insoluble solids (WISs) were subjected to hydrothermal processing. The effect of temperature on the composition of the obtained liquors and their total phenolic content was evaluated. The selected liquors were also characterized by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC–PAD), and its phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–MS/MS). In addition, the spent solids from the hydrothermal treatment were characterized and their potential use was assessed. At the optimal conditions of 140 °C (severity 2.03), the total oligosaccharide yield accounted for 15.24 g/100 g WIS, of which 10.07 g/100 g WIS were oligogalacturonides. The structural characterization confirmed the presence of partially methyl esterified oligogalacturonides with a wide range of polymerization degrees. After precipitation, 16.59 g/100 g WIS of pectin were recovered, with a galacturonic acid content of 55.41% and high linearity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery of High Value-Added Compounds from Food By-Product)
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16 pages, 273 KiB  
Review
Food Ingredients and Active Compounds against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review
by Charis M. Galanakis, Turki M.S. Aldawoud, Myrto Rizou, Neil J. Rowan and Salam A. Ibrahim
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111701 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 171 | Viewed by 17800
Abstract
As media reports have noted, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated market mainstreaming of immune-boosting food bioactives, supplements, and nutraceuticals. However, most studies reporting on the potential of bioactives against COVID-19 transmission have been uploaded as preprints with little opportunity to revise content for [...] Read more.
As media reports have noted, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated market mainstreaming of immune-boosting food bioactives, supplements, and nutraceuticals. However, most studies reporting on the potential of bioactives against COVID-19 transmission have been uploaded as preprints with little opportunity to revise content for benefit and impact. The current review discusses current best evidence and information underpinning the role of food ingredients and bioactive compounds in supporting immune functions in humans and animals, specifically in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 disease. Up to now, some evidence from randomized population and clinical trials has suggested that vitamin D levels may be linked to COVID-19 transmission and severity. Numerous theoretical studies have pointed to polyphenols and particularly flavonoids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is also inconclusive evidence to support the future use of β-glucan to address COVID-19 due in part to variability in immune response arising from heterogeneity in polysaccharide branch and chain length for different sources and the absence of a standardized extraction method. To confirm the promising outcomes and hypotheses for bioactive compounds, more randomized and controlled clinical studies are needed. The results of such studies would have a profound effect on the prospects of food supplements and nutraceuticals as potential prophylaxis against COVID-19 and serve to help consumers to protect themselves during the post-lockdown recovery era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
13 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
Non-Destructive Luminescence-Based Screening Tool for Listeria monocytogenes Growth on Ham
by Shannon D. Rezac, Cristina Resendiz-Moctezuma, Dustin D. Boler, Matthew J. Stasiewicz and Michael J. Miller
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111700 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen often associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in RTE meats. However, the search for optimum antimicrobial treatments is ongoing. The present study developed a rapid, non-destructive preliminary screening tool for large-scale [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen often associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in RTE meats. However, the search for optimum antimicrobial treatments is ongoing. The present study developed a rapid, non-destructive preliminary screening tool for large-scale evaluation of antimicrobials utilizing a bioluminescent L. monocytogenes with a model meat system. Miniature hams were produced, surface treated with antimicrobials nisin (at 0–100 ppm) and potassium lactate sodium diacetate (at 0–3.5%) and inoculated with bioluminescent L. monocytogenes. A strong correlation (r = 0.91) was found between log scale relative light units (log RLU, ranging from 0.00 to 3.35) read directly from the ham surface and endpoint enumeration on selective agar (log colony forming units (CFU)/g, ranging from 4.7 to 8.3) when the hams were inoculated with 6 log CFU/g, treated with antimicrobials, and L. monocytogenes were allowed to grow over a 12 d refrigerated shelf life at 4 °C. Then, a threshold of 1 log RLU emitted from a ham surface was determined to separate antimicrobial treatments that allowed more than 2 log CFU/g growth of L. monocytogenes (from 6 log CFU/g inoculation to 8 log CFU/g after 12 d). The proposed threshold was utilized in a luminescent screening of antimicrobials with days-to-detect growth monitoring of luminescent L. monocytogenes. Significantly different (p < 0.05) plate counts were found in antimicrobial treated hams that had reached a 1 log RLU increase (8.1–8.5 log(CFU/g)) and the hams that did not reach the proposed light threshold (5.3–7.5 log(CFU/g)). This confirms the potential use of the proposed light threshold as a qualitative tool to screen antimicrobials with less than or greater than a 2 log CFU/g increase. This screening tool can be used to prioritize novel antimicrobials targeting L. monocytogenes, alone or in combination, for future validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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13 pages, 1240 KiB  
Communication
Chilean Salmon Sushi: Genetics Reveals Product Mislabeling and a Lack of Reliable Information at the Point of Sale
by Valentina Prida, Maritza Sepúlveda, Claudio Quezada-Romegialli, Chris Harrod, Daniel Gomez-Uchida, Beatriz Cid and Cristian B. Canales-Aguirre
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111699 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4893
Abstract
Species diagnosis is essential to assess the level of mislabeling or misnamed seafood products such as sushi. In Chile, sushi typically includes salmon as the main ingredient, but species used are rarely declared on the menu. In order to identify which species are [...] Read more.
Species diagnosis is essential to assess the level of mislabeling or misnamed seafood products such as sushi. In Chile, sushi typically includes salmon as the main ingredient, but species used are rarely declared on the menu. In order to identify which species are included in the Chilean sushi market, we analyzed 84 individual sushi rolls sold as “salmon” from sushi outlets in ten cities across Chile. Using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol (PCR-RFLP), we identified mislabeled and misnamed products. Atlantic salmon was the most common salmonid fish used in sushi, followed by coho salmon, rainbow trout, and Chinook salmon. We found a total of 23% and 18% of the products were mislabeled and misnamed, respectively. In 64% of cases, the salesperson selling the product could not identify the species. We also identified the use of wild-captured Chinook salmon samples from a naturalized population. Our results provide a first indication regarding species composition in Chilean sushi, a quantification of mislabeling and the level of misinformation declared by sales people to consumers. Finally, considering that Chinook salmon likely originates from a non-licensed origin and that sushi is an uncooked product, proper identification in the food production chain may have important consequences for the health of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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14 pages, 9199 KiB  
Article
Effect of Barley Antifreeze Protein on Dough and Bread during Freezing and Freeze-Thaw Cycles
by Xiangli Ding, Tingting Li, Hui Zhang, Chengran Guan, Jianya Qian and Xiaoyan Zhou
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111698 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3276
Abstract
In order to verify the cryoprotective effect of an antifreeze protein (BaAFP-1) obtained from barley on bread dough, the effect of BaAFP-1 on the rheological properties, microstructure, fermentation, and baking performance including the proofing time and the specific volume of bread dough and [...] Read more.
In order to verify the cryoprotective effect of an antifreeze protein (BaAFP-1) obtained from barley on bread dough, the effect of BaAFP-1 on the rheological properties, microstructure, fermentation, and baking performance including the proofing time and the specific volume of bread dough and bread crumb properties during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles were analysed. BaAFP-1 reduced the rate of decrease in storage modulus and loss modulus values during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles. It influenced the formation and the shape of ice formed during freezing and inhibited ice recrystallization during freeze-thaw. BaAFP-1 maintained gas production ability and gas retention properties, protected gluten network and the yeast cells from deterioration caused by ice formation and ice crystals recrystallisation in dough samples during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw treatment. It slow down the increase rate of hardness of bread crumb. The average area of pores in bread crumbs decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as the total number of pores increased (p < 0.05), and the addition of BaAFP-1 inhibited this deterioration. These results confirmed the cryoprotective activity of BaAFP-1 in bread dough during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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20 pages, 10583 KiB  
Article
Quantifications of Oleocolloid Matrices Made of Whey Protein and Oleogels
by Clifford Park, Rafael Jimenez-Flores and Farnaz Maleky
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111697 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3814
Abstract
Consumer demand for high protein content and plant-based fat has necessitated novel approaches to healthy food products. In response to this need, oleogels (OG) (structured liquid oils) emerged as a possible means of not only replacing saturated and trans fats but also delivering [...] Read more.
Consumer demand for high protein content and plant-based fat has necessitated novel approaches to healthy food products. In response to this need, oleogels (OG) (structured liquid oils) emerged as a possible means of not only replacing saturated and trans fats but also delivering food protein. Nevertheless, an in-depth view of the structure of networks made of OG and protein is deficient. Hence, the objective of this study is developing oleocolloid (OC) (whey protein and rice bran wax OG) and hydro-oleocolloid (HOC) (OC + water) matrices with varying protein content (2.5–7.5%) to characterize their structural properties. Thermal analysis of the matrices via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) documented the effects of hydrophobic interactions on the protein structure and its stability. Whey protein denaturation temperature increased from 74.9 °C to 102.8 °C in the presence of high oleic soybean oil. The effects of vegetable oil on WPI structure was also verified by FTIR spectroscopy. Data analysis revealed slight structural changes of the WPI secondary structure in the hydrophobic oil medium and the α-helix and β-sheet proportion in the emulsion medium was significantly altered. Similar analysis was performed in OC and HOC networks to quantify possible interactions between protein and rice bran wax. Results indicated that the protein was denatured during the thermal and mechanical conditions required for the oleogelation process, while it did not affect the systems’ solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic patterns of the oleogels. However, DSC analysis showed different onset of melting for OC and HOC samples due to colloidal interactions between the protein and the lipid phase. The role of these chemistry was confirmed by microscopy analyses where OC and HOC matrices displayed notably different microstructural properties. The observed differences in the structural properties between OC and HOC matrices indicate the different colloidal interactions mediated by oleogelation process and the liquid medium type (oil vs. emulsion). Full article
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21 pages, 1674 KiB  
Article
Novel Biodegradable Starch Film for Food Packaging with Antimicrobial Chicory Root Extract and Phytic Acid as a Cross-Linking Agent
by Andrzej Jaśkiewicz, Grażyna Budryn, Agnieszka Nowak and Magdalena Efenberger-Szmechtyk
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111696 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3756
Abstract
The aim of the study was to obtain and evaluate the properties of biodegradable starch film with the addition of phytic acid (0.05%) as a cross-linking agent and chicory root extract (1–5%) as an antimicrobial agent. To prepare biodegradable film, extracts from chicory [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to obtain and evaluate the properties of biodegradable starch film with the addition of phytic acid (0.05%) as a cross-linking agent and chicory root extract (1–5%) as an antimicrobial agent. To prepare biodegradable film, extracts from chicory root obtained with water or methanol were used. The content of bioactive compounds (sesquiterpene lactones and total polyphenols) was evaluated in chicory extracts. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) using the microculture method. The extracts acted as bacteriostatic agents, decreasing the growth rate (µmax), and extending the lag phase (tlag). The most sensitive bacterium in terms of film bacteriostatic activity was P. fluorescens; all extracts, irrespective of the solvent used, decreased its µmax value. S. aureus was the least sensitive. The obtained films were tested for their properties as food packaging (color, thickness, permeability, mechanical strength). Phytic acid improved the tensile strength and barrier properties of the films. The antimicrobial activity of the films was studied by the disk diffusion method against Gram-negative (P. fluorescens, E. coli) and Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) bacteria, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger). The growth-inhibiting activity of each obtained film was observed for all tested microorganisms, and the most beneficial effect was observed for films with the 5% level of added extracts obtained with water. The growth-inhibiting activity for fungi, in particular for the yeast C. albicans, was low. Full article
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12 pages, 1558 KiB  
Article
Stability and Antiglycoxidant Potential of Bilberry Anthocyanins in Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract Model
by Didier Fraisse, Alexis Bred, Catherine Felgines and François Senejoux
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111695 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Anthocyanins from Vaccinium myrtillus fruits have been reported in vitro to exert potent radical scavenging and antiglycation activities. However, the physiological relevance of such properties remains unclear given the potential susceptibility of anthocyanin derivatives to digestive conditions. A simulated gastrointestinal tract model was [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins from Vaccinium myrtillus fruits have been reported in vitro to exert potent radical scavenging and antiglycation activities. However, the physiological relevance of such properties remains unclear given the potential susceptibility of anthocyanin derivatives to digestive conditions. A simulated gastrointestinal tract model was thus implemented to assess the impact of gastric and intestinal phases on the chemical integrity of bilberry anthocyanins and their antiglycoxidant effects. Results demonstrated that the investigated activities as well as total and individual anthocyanin contents were marginally affected by gastric conditions. By contrast, with recoveries ranging from 16.1 to 41.2%, bilberry anthocyanins were shown to be highly sensitive to the intestinal phase. Of major interest, a much better preservation was observed for radical scavenging and antiglycation activities as attested by recovery rates ranging from 79.1 to 86.7%. Consistently with previous observations, the present study confirms the moderate bioaccessibility of anthocyanin constituents. It does however provide valuable information supporting the persistence of substantial radical scavenging and antiglycation activities at each step of the digestion process. Taken together, these data indicate that digestive conditions might not abolish the potential positive effects of bilberry consumption on both oxidative and carbonyl stresses. Full article
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9 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
“Burrata di Andria” PGI Cheese: Physicochemical and Microbiological Features
by Alessandro Di Cerbo, Dino Miraglia, Leonardo Marino, Roberta Stocchi, Anna Rita Loschi, Stefano Fisichella, Natalina Cammertoni, Laura Menchetti, Silvana Farneti, David Ranucci, Raffaella Branciari and Stefano Rea
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111694 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7552
Abstract
In the last century, the exponential increase of industrial food production led to the disappearance of “Italian traditional niche products”. However, national regulations allowed the preservation of several of these products, including the burrata cheese. Twenty-one samples from three different batches of “Burrata [...] Read more.
In the last century, the exponential increase of industrial food production led to the disappearance of “Italian traditional niche products”. However, national regulations allowed the preservation of several of these products, including the burrata cheese. Twenty-one samples from three different batches of “Burrata di Andria” Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) were purchased from dairy factories of the PGI consortium. Moisture value of PGI Burrata cheese was significantly higher than that before the PGI release. Moreover, a significantly lower NaCl value was detected in PGI raw milk Burrata cheeses with respect to non-PGI ones, while an opposite situation was detected in pasteurized milk Burrata cheeses. As for pH, in all PGI products lower values were observed with respect to non-PGI products, which resulted significant only in pasteurized ones. No Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus were detected, while nine samples were positive for a nonpathogenic strain of Yersinia enterocolitica. Total viable count (TVC) and Escherichia coli resulted significantly lower in pasteurized than in raw milk PGI Burrata cheese samples. Although samples analyzed can be considered microbiologically safe, these were borderline and/or unsatisfactory for E. Coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) according to process hygiene criteria established by European regulation. Therefore, different strategies should be adopted to improve products hygiene in the considered dairy factories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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14 pages, 2194 KiB  
Article
Nutritional and Functional Properties of Fermented Mixed Grains by Solid-State Fermentation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 245
by Su Jin Heo, Ah-Jin Kim, Min-Ju Park, Kimoon Kang and Do Yu Soung
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111693 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
Fermented foods have several advantages, including increased nutritional value, improved bioavailability, and functional health properties. We examined that these outcomes were also observed in fermented mixed grains (FMG) containing wheat germ, wheat bran, oats, brown rice, barley, quinoa, and lentils following solid-state fermentation [...] Read more.
Fermented foods have several advantages, including increased nutritional value, improved bioavailability, and functional health properties. We examined that these outcomes were also observed in fermented mixed grains (FMG) containing wheat germ, wheat bran, oats, brown rice, barley, quinoa, and lentils following solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 245. The metabolic profile during fermentation was screened using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). The amino acids were quantitatively measured for the validation of the changes in metabolites. The activity of enzymes (e.g., amylase, protease, and fibrinolysis) and antioxidant capacity was also assessed to elucidate the functionality of FMG. The essential amino acid contents gradually increased as fermentation progressed. As the metabolites involved in the urea cycle and polyamine pathway were changed by fermentation, arginine was used as a substance to produce citrulline, ornithine, and agmatine. FMG showed dramatic increases in enzyme activity. FMG incubated for 36 h also displayed higher total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging ability than MG. The data suggest that FMG produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 245 possess improved nutritional and functional quality, leading to their potential use as dietary supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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