Non-bovine Milk: Novel Sources and Recent Advances in Their Nutrition, Safety, Functionality and Acceptability

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 April 2021) | Viewed by 29175

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Current non-bovine milk production trends suggest that a wide range of animal- and plant-derived milk and milk-like products will become available to consumers in the future. It is important for consumers and industry to gain more insights into the macro- and micronutrient composition of these non-bovine milks and their contribution to nutrition and health. Due to rapid changes in consumer milk consumption trends and the emergence of novel non-bovine milk industries (with production based on small ruminants and plants), information on unique aspects of these products in terms of bioavailability of natural compounds and biologically active compounds that support health and wellbeing is still scarce. This Special Issue welcomes novel and rigorous research contributions in any of the following topics:

  • Novel information on macro- and micronutrients of non-bovine milks;
  • Safety of non-bovine milks;
  • Health aspects of non-bovine milks (human and animal intervention studies to examine their impact on bone, mood, brain health, etc.);
  • Nutritional effects in infants, adults and senior subjects (metabolism, diet and weight managements, bone health, growth, etc.)

Dr. Alaa El-Din A Bekhit
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • non-bovine milk
  • macro and micro nutrients
  • safety
  • health aspects
  • nutritional effects

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
Non-Bovine Milk: Sources and Future Prospects
by Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed and Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131967 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
Milk is the first food that mammals are exposed to [...] Full article

Research

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16 pages, 13138 KiB  
Article
Amino Acid Sequences of Lactoferrin from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Milk and Antimicrobial Activity of Its Derived Peptides Lactoferricin and Lactoferrampin
by Ye Wang, James D. Morton, Alaa EL-Din A. Bekhit, Alan Carne and Susan L. Mason
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061305 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
Although the bioactivities of bovine lactoferrin have been extensively investigated, little is known about deer milk lactoferrin bioactivity and its amino acid sequence. This research investigated the amino acid sequence of deer lactoferrin and the antimicrobial activities of two lactoferrin-encrypted peptides; lactoferricin (Lfcin) [...] Read more.
Although the bioactivities of bovine lactoferrin have been extensively investigated, little is known about deer milk lactoferrin bioactivity and its amino acid sequence. This research investigated the amino acid sequence of deer lactoferrin and the antimicrobial activities of two lactoferrin-encrypted peptides; lactoferricin (Lfcin) and lactoferrampin (Lfampin). Deer lactoferrin was found to have a molecular weight of 77.1 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.99, which are similar to that of bovine lactoferrin, 78 kDa and pI 7.9. Deer lactoferrin contains 707 amino acids, one amino acid less than bovine lactoferrin, and has 92% homology with bovine lactoferrin. Deer lactoferricin exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25922 and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356. The antimicrobial activities of deer and bovine Lfcin and Lfampin were compared. Based on MIC, deer Lfcin was found to be a more effective inhibitor of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 than bovine Lfcin, but bovine Lfcin and Lfampin were more effective against E. coli ATCC 25922 than deer Lfcin and Lfampin. The deer Lfcin sequence differed at seven amino acids from bovine Lfcin and this decreased the net positive charge and increased the hydrophobicity. Deer Lfampin contained two differences in amino acid sequence compared to bovine Lfampin which decreased the net positive charge. These amino acid sequence differences likely account for differences in antibacterial activity. Positive charge and hydrophobic residues provide the amphipathic character of these helical peptides, and are considered important for binding of antimicrobial peptides. In silico modelling of deer Lfcin indicated an identical α-helical structure compared to bovine Lfcin. Full article
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14 pages, 12875 KiB  
Article
Adjustment of Whey:Casein Ratio from 20:80 to 60:40 in Milk Formulation Affects Food Intake and Brainstem and Hypothalamic Neuronal Activation and Gene Expression in Laboratory Mice
by Erin L. Wood, David G. Christian, Mohammed Arafat, Laura K. McColl, Colin G. Prosser, Elizabeth A. Carpenter, Allen S. Levine, Anica Klockars and Pawel K. Olszewski
Foods 2021, 10(3), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030658 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
Adjustment of protein content in milk formulations modifies protein and energy levels, ensures amino acid intake and affects satiety. The shift from the natural whey:casein ratio of ~20:80 in animal milk is oftentimes done to reflect the 60:40 ratio of human milk. Studies [...] Read more.
Adjustment of protein content in milk formulations modifies protein and energy levels, ensures amino acid intake and affects satiety. The shift from the natural whey:casein ratio of ~20:80 in animal milk is oftentimes done to reflect the 60:40 ratio of human milk. Studies show that 20:80 versus 60:40 whey:casein milks differently affect glucose metabolism and hormone release; these data parallel animal model findings. It is unknown whether the adjustment from the 20:80 to 60:40 ratio affects appetite and brain processes related to food intake. In this set of studies, we focused on the impact of the 20:80 vs. 60:40 whey:casein content in milk on food intake and feeding-related brain processes in the adult organism. By utilising laboratory mice, we found that the 20:80 whey:casein milk formulation was consumed less avidly and was less preferred than the 60:40 formulation in short-term choice and no-choice feeding paradigms. The relative PCR analyses in the hypothalamus and brain stem revealed that the 20:80 whey:casein milk intake upregulated genes involved in early termination of feeding and in an interplay between reward and satiety, such as melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), oxytocin (OXT), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R). The 20:80 versus 60:40 whey:casein formulation intake differently affected brain neuronal activation (assessed through c-Fos, an immediate-early gene product) in the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and supraoptic nucleus. We conclude that the shift from the 20:80 to 60:40 whey:casein ratio in milk affects short-term feeding and relevant brain processes. Full article
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15 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Lactoferrin Isolation and Hydrolysis from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Milk and the Antibacterial Activity of Deer Lactoferrin and Its Hydrolysates
by Ye Wang, Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit, Susan L. Mason and James D. Morton
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111711 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3127
Abstract
Lactoferrin (Lf) and other whey proteins have been isolated from red deer milk for the first time using a three-step anion and cation exchange chromatography protocol. The separated deer Lf was subject to in vitro gastric and duodenal digestions to generate peptides. The [...] Read more.
Lactoferrin (Lf) and other whey proteins have been isolated from red deer milk for the first time using a three-step anion and cation exchange chromatography protocol. The separated deer Lf was subject to in vitro gastric and duodenal digestions to generate peptides. The purity of the deer Lf and its hydrolysis products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The antibacterial activity of the deer Lf and its hydrolysates were investigated and was compared to cow counterpart. Gastric and duodenal digested deer Lf had strong bactericidal activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 280 µM and 402 µM, respectively. These results suggest that deer milk contains bioactive whey proteins and can generate bioactive peptides, which can benefit human health by inhibiting food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Full article
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13 pages, 698 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Texture Properties of an Aged Mexican Manchego-Style Cheese Produced from Hair Sheep Milk
by Jesús Alberto Mezo-Solís, Víctor Manuel Moo-Huchin, Adriana Sánchez-Zarate, Manuel Gonzalez-Ronquillo, Raciel Javier Estrada-León, Rodrigo Ibáñez, Paula Toro-Mujica, Alfonso J. Chay-Canul and Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111666 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and texture changes of the Manchego-style cheese produced from hair sheep (Pelibuey) throughout 180 days of ripening, as well as consumer’s acceptance. Cheese pH was constant from 1 to 180 days of ripening. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and texture changes of the Manchego-style cheese produced from hair sheep (Pelibuey) throughout 180 days of ripening, as well as consumer’s acceptance. Cheese pH was constant from 1 to 180 days of ripening. Moisture, water activity, fat, elasticity and hardness decreased from day 1 to day 180, while protein, trichloroacetic acid-soluble N and free amino acid increased. Cheese lightness decreased as ripening time increased, while elasticity and hardness decreased. Principal Component Analysis was useful in discriminating cheeses according to their physicochemical composition and that allowed cheeses to be classified in two groups according to their ripening time and this resulted in those with less than 60 days and those with more than 90 days of ripening. Compared with cheeses ripened at 1 and 90 days, aged cheeses at 180 days reduced scores for appearance, color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptance. Overall, Manchego-style cheeses from hair sheep had the usual ripened-cheese physicochemical changes. Full article
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14 pages, 534 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Supplementation of a Diet Low in Calcium and Phosphorus with Either Sheep Milk or Cow Milk on the Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Bone using A Rat Model
by Keegan Burrow, Wayne Young, Niels Hammer, Sarah Safavi, Mario Scholze, Michelle McConnell, Alan Carne, David Barr, Malcolm Reid and Alaa El-Din Bekhit
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081070 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
This study assessed the effect of cow milk (CM) and sheep milk (SM) consumption on the micro-structure, mechanical function, and mineral composition of rat femora in a male weanling rat model. Male weanling rats were fed a basal diet with a 50% reduction [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effect of cow milk (CM) and sheep milk (SM) consumption on the micro-structure, mechanical function, and mineral composition of rat femora in a male weanling rat model. Male weanling rats were fed a basal diet with a 50% reduction in calcium and phosphorus content (low Ca/P-diet) supplemented with either SM or CM. Rats were fed for 28 days, after which the femora were harvested and stored. The femora were analyzed by μ-CT, three-point bending, and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The addition of either milk to the low Ca/P-diet significantly increased (p < 0.05) trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface density, trabecular number, cortical bone volume, and maximum force, when compared to rats that consumed only the low Ca/P-diet. The consumption of either milk resulted in a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in trabecular pattern factor, and cortical bone surface to volume ratio when compared to rats that consumed only the low Ca/P-diet. The results were achieved with a lower consumption of SM compared to that of CM (p < 0.05). This work indicates that SM and CM can help overcome the effects on bone of a restriction in calcium and phosphorus intake. Full article
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Review

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27 pages, 2382 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Composition, Nutritional Value, and Functional Properties of Camel Milk Fat
by Ibrahim A. Bakry, Lan Yang, Mohamed A. Farag, Sameh A. Korma, Ibrahim Khalifa, Ilaria Cacciotti, Noha I. Ziedan, Jun Jin, Qingzhe Jin, Wei Wei and Xingguo Wang
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092158 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 6424
Abstract
Recently, camel milk (CM) has been considered as a health-promoting icon due to its medicinal and nutritional benefits. CM fat globule membrane has numerous health-promoting properties, such as anti-adhesion and anti-bacterial properties, which are suitable for people who are allergic to cow’s milk. [...] Read more.
Recently, camel milk (CM) has been considered as a health-promoting icon due to its medicinal and nutritional benefits. CM fat globule membrane has numerous health-promoting properties, such as anti-adhesion and anti-bacterial properties, which are suitable for people who are allergic to cow’s milk. CM contains milk fat globules with a small size, which accounts for their rapid digestion. Moreover, it also comprises lower amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids concurrent with higher levels of essential fatty acids than cow milk, with an improved lipid profile manifested by reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. In addition, it is rich in phospholipids, especially plasmalogens and sphingomyelin, suggesting that CM fat may meet the daily nutritional requirements of adults and infants. Thus, CM and its dairy products have become more attractive for consumers. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive review of CM fat’s composition and nutritional properties. The overall goal is to increase knowledge related to CM fat characteristics and modify its unfavorable perception. Future studies are expected to be directed toward a better understanding of CM fat, which appears to be promising in the design and formulation of new products with significant health-promoting benefits. Full article
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19 pages, 577 KiB  
Review
Current Perspective of Sialylated Milk Oligosaccharides in Mammalian Milk: Implications for Brain and Gut Health of Newborns
by Madalyn Hobbs, Marefa Jahan, Seyed A. Ghorashi and Bing Wang
Foods 2021, 10(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020473 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4832
Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component after lactose and lipids of breast milk. All mammal milk contains soluble oligosaccharides, including neutral milk oligosaccharides (NMOs) without sialic acid (Sia) moieties and acidic oligosaccharides or sialylated milk oligosaccharides (SMOs) with [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component after lactose and lipids of breast milk. All mammal milk contains soluble oligosaccharides, including neutral milk oligosaccharides (NMOs) without sialic acid (Sia) moieties and acidic oligosaccharides or sialylated milk oligosaccharides (SMOs) with Sia residues at the end of sugar chains. The structural, biological diversity, and concentration of milk oligosaccharides in mammalian milk are significantly different among species. HMOs have multiple health benefits for newborns, including development of immune system, modification of the intestinal microbiota, anti-adhesive effect against pathogens, and brain development. Most infant formulas lack oligosaccharides which resemble HMOs. Formula-fed infants perform poorly across physical and psychological wellbeing measures and suffer health disadvantages compared to breast-fed infants due to the differences in the nutritional composition of breast milk and infant formula. Of these milk oligosaccharides, SMOs are coming to the forefront of research due to the beneficial nature of Sia. This review aims to critically discuss the current state of knowledge of the biology and role of SMOs in human milk, infant formula milks, and milk from several other species on gut and brain health of human and animal offspring. Full article
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