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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 177 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Processing and preservation of foods modifies their composition. These changes are reflected in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Variation in Nutrient Composition of Seafood from North West Africa: Implications for Food and Nutrition Security
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101516 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Fish and seafood may play an important role for nutrition and food security as they contain essential vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. The aim of this study was to describe the nutrient composition, including fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, in [...] Read more.
Fish and seafood may play an important role for nutrition and food security as they contain essential vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. The aim of this study was to describe the nutrient composition, including fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, in commonly consumed fish species (fillet- and whole fish samples) sampled off the Northwest African coast. Furthermore, we assessed the species’ contributions to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) values from the World Health Organization (WHO). Samples of commercially important fish species (Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Trachurus trachurus, Pagellus acarne) were collected using trawling on the R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in May 2017 and analyzed for nutrients at the Institute of Marine Research as individual and composite samples. All the analyzed fish species were good dietary sources of several vitamins and minerals and whole fish were substantially more nutrient dense than fillet samples, especially with regard to vitamin A, iodine, zinc, calcium, and iron. Including 100 g of sardine or anchovy (whole fish) in the diet, would contribute substantially to the RNI for vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin A, EPA and DHA as well as the minerals iodine, zinc, and calcium. This study shows that fish consumed with skin, bone, and viscera may be very nutrient dense and important for local food and nutrition security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Accumulation of Phenolic Acids during Storage over Differently Handled Fresh Carrots
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101515 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Carrots contain a significant content of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids. Technological processing of carrots inflicts wounding stress and induces accumulation of these compounds, especially caffeic acid derivatives, in the periderm tissue. In this study, the effect of minimal processing (polishing, washing, peeling, [...] Read more.
Carrots contain a significant content of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids. Technological processing of carrots inflicts wounding stress and induces accumulation of these compounds, especially caffeic acid derivatives, in the periderm tissue. In this study, the effect of minimal processing (polishing, washing, peeling, and grating) on the retention of soluble phenolic acids in carrots was monitored during cold storage. Storage for up to 4 weeks and 24 h was used for whole and grated carrot samples, respectively. Total phenolic acid levels found in differently processed carrots varied greatly at the beginning of the storage period and on dry weight basis they ranged from 228 ± 67.9 mg/kg (grated carrot) to 996 ± 177 mg/kg (machine washed). In each case, processing followed by storage induced phenolic acid accumulation in the carrots. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks at +8 °C), untreated and machine-washed carrots contained ca. 4-fold more phenolic acids than at day 0. Similarly, polished carrots contained 9-fold and peeled carrots 31-fold more phenolic acids than at day 0. The phenolic acid content in grated carrot doubled after 24 h storage at +4 °C. Individual phenolic acids were characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. MS data strongly suggest the presence of daucic acid conjugates of phenolic acids in carrot. Storage time did not have statistically similar effect on all compounds and generally in a way that dicaffeoyldaucic acid had the highest increase. This research provides important information for primary production, packaging, catering, the fresh-cut industry and consumers regarding the selection of healthier minimally processed carrots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Antiproliferative Effect and Mediation of Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells Induced by Djulis Husk and Its Bioactive Compounds
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101514 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
The antiproliferative effect and mediation of apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells induced by djulis husk and its bioactive compounds was investigated. The ethanolic extracts of djulis husk (EEDH) at 50, 250, and 500 µg/mL induced remarkable cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. By flow [...] Read more.
The antiproliferative effect and mediation of apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells induced by djulis husk and its bioactive compounds was investigated. The ethanolic extracts of djulis husk (EEDH) at 50, 250, and 500 µg/mL induced remarkable cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. By flow cytometry analysis, EEDH slowed down the cell cycle at the Sub-G0 phase after 24 h of incubation. Moreover, all EEDH treatment induced an apoptotic response in HepG2 cells. EEDH-induced apoptosis was associated with the attenuation of mitochondrial transmembrane potentials (ΔΨm), an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage, as well as an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. According to the HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, quercetin and kaempferol derivatives and another sixteen compounds were present in EEDH. Quercetin and kaempferol at 25–150 μM showed antiproliferative action and induced apoptosis on HepG2 cells, which may in part account for the anticancer activity of EEDH. Overall, EEDH may be a potent chemopreventive agent due to apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Health Effects)
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Open AccessArticle
Enrichment of Olive Fruits in Antioxidant Content by Pre-Harvest Salicylic Acid Treatment
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101513 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 246
Abstract
We here study the effect of the pre-harvest application of salicylic acid at two different concentrations on the olive phenolic composition. Influence of the cultivar and harvesting day were considered. As a result, the total phenol content increased significantly, particularly when using 200 [...] Read more.
We here study the effect of the pre-harvest application of salicylic acid at two different concentrations on the olive phenolic composition. Influence of the cultivar and harvesting day were considered. As a result, the total phenol content increased significantly, particularly when using 200 mg mL−1 of salicylic acid. However, the free radical scavenging activity was cultivar dependent. For instance, when the olives were harvested on day 3 and treated with 200 mg mL−1 of salicylic acid, the antioxidant activity decreased from 161 to 278 µg mL−1 for Arbequina, whereas it increased from 397 to 258 µg mL−1 for Picual. Generally speaking, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol contents enhanced with the application of 200 mg mL−1 of salicylic acid. The results found suggest that exogenous salicylic acid is an interesting agronomic practice to enrich olive fruits in antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasound-Combined Sterilization Technology: An Effective Sterilization Technique Ensuring the Microbial Safety of Grape Juice and Significantly Improving Its Quality
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101512 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 225
Abstract
: The effects of ultrasound (US), thermosonication (TS), ultrasound combined with nisin (USN), TS combined with nisin (TSN), and conventional thermal sterilization (CTS) treatments on the inactivation of microorganisms in grape juice were evaluated. TS, TSN, and CTS treatments provided the desirable bactericidal [...] Read more.
: The effects of ultrasound (US), thermosonication (TS), ultrasound combined with nisin (USN), TS combined with nisin (TSN), and conventional thermal sterilization (CTS) treatments on the inactivation of microorganisms in grape juice were evaluated. TS, TSN, and CTS treatments provided the desirable bactericidal and enzyme inactivation, and nisin had a synergistic lethal effect on aerobic bacteria in grape juice while not having any obvious effect on the mold and yeast. Compared with CTS, the sensory characteristics of grape juice treated with TS and TSN are closer to that of fresh juice, its microbial safety is ensured, and the physicochemical properties are basically unchanged. More importantly, the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of juice treated with TS and TSN were significantly increased, and the total anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were largely retained. Taken together, these findings suggest that TS and TSN has great potential application value and that it can ensure microbial safety and improve the quality of grape juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Characterization of Quinoa Polysaccharide and Its Inhibitory Effects on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101511 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Quinoa is a kind of nutritious food crop with anti-obesity activity, however, the mechanism is not unclear. In this study, we separated and purified bioactive polysaccharide from quinoa (denoted SQWP-2). The chemical structural was characterized and its effect on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation was [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a kind of nutritious food crop with anti-obesity activity, however, the mechanism is not unclear. In this study, we separated and purified bioactive polysaccharide from quinoa (denoted SQWP-2). The chemical structural was characterized and its effect on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation was evaluated. The molecular weight of SQWP-2 was found to be 7.49 × 103 Da, and the polysaccharide consisted of fructose and glucose. The Glc-(1→, Fru-(2→, →4)-Glcp-(1→, and →4,6)-Glcp-(1→ glycosidic linkages were identified in SQWP-2 through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed the monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkage content, and a suggestion of the structural formula is provided. In Western Blotting and RT-PCR assays, treatment with SQWP-2 significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 differentiation by suppressing PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1C and AP2 expression. Quinoa polysaccharide isolated here could represent an anti-obesity agent once the structures and differentiation inhibition are definitively characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of the Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Gastrointestinal In Vitro Digests of Infant Biscuits Formulated with Bovine Milk Proteins Positively Affect In Vitro Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101510 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Infant biscuits (IBs) are part of complementary feeding from weaning up to the age of five years. They normally contain bovine milk proteins, which can influence bone development. This potential effect was investigated using experimental baked IBs, which were prepared from doughs containing [...] Read more.
Infant biscuits (IBs) are part of complementary feeding from weaning up to the age of five years. They normally contain bovine milk proteins, which can influence bone development. This potential effect was investigated using experimental baked IBs, which were prepared from doughs containing different type of dairy proteins: milk protein concentrate (IB1), whey protein isolate (IB2), and skimmed milk powder (IB3). Dairy protein-free (IB0) and gluten-free (IB4) biscuits were also formulated. The in vitro gastrointestinal digests of IBs (IBDs) were tested on a co-culture of Caco-2/HT-29 70/30 cells as an in vitro model of human small intestine. None of the IBDs influenced cell viability and monolayer integrity, while IBD0 and IBD4 increased Peptide-YY production. The basolateral contents of Transwell plates seeded with Caco-2/HT-29 70/30 co-culture, mimicking metabolized IBDs (MIBDs), were tested on Saos-2 cells, an in vitro model of human osteoblast-like cells. After incubation, MIBD0, lacking dairy proteins, decreased the cell viability, while MIBD2, containing whey protein isolate, increased both the viability and the number of cells. MIBD2 and MIBD4, the latter containing both casein and whey proteins, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone differentiation marker. These results highlight that IBs containing dairy proteins positively affect bone development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting the Sensory Panel to Grade Virgin Olive Oils: An In-House-Validated Screening Tool by Volatile Fingerprinting and Chemometrics
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101509 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
The commercial category of virgin olive oil is currently assigned on the basis of chemical-physical and sensory parameters following official methods. Considering the limited number of samples that can be analysed daily by a sensory panel, an instrumental screening tool could be supportive [...] Read more.
The commercial category of virgin olive oil is currently assigned on the basis of chemical-physical and sensory parameters following official methods. Considering the limited number of samples that can be analysed daily by a sensory panel, an instrumental screening tool could be supportive by reducing the assessors’ workload and improving their performance. The present work aims to in-house validate a screening strategy consisting of two sequential binary partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models that was suggested to be successful in a proof-of-concept study. This approach is based on the volatile fraction fingerprint obtained by HS-SPME–GC–MS from more than 300 virgin olive oils from two crop seasons graded by six different sensory panels into extra virgin, virgin or lampante categories. Uncertainty ranges were set for the binary classification models according to sensitivity and specificity by means of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, aiming to identify boundary samples. Thereby, performing the screening approach, only the virgin olive oils classified as uncertain (23.3%) would be assessed by a sensory panel, while the rest would be directly classified into a given commercial category (78.9% of correct classification). The sensory panel’s workload would be reduced to less than one-third of the samples. A highly reliable classification of samples would be achieved (84.0%) by combining the proposed screening tool with the reference method (panel test) for the assessment of uncertain samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crosslinked Recombinant-Ara h 1 Catalyzed by Microbial Transglutaminase: Preparation, Structural Characterization and Allergic Assessment
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101508 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
As the one of the major allergens in peanut, the allergenicity of Ara h 1 is influenced by its intrinsic structure, which can be modified by different processing. However, molecular information in this modification has not been clarified to date. Here, we detected [...] Read more.
As the one of the major allergens in peanut, the allergenicity of Ara h 1 is influenced by its intrinsic structure, which can be modified by different processing. However, molecular information in this modification has not been clarified to date. Here, we detected the influence of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) catalyzed cross-linking on the recombinant peanut protein Ara h 1 (rAra h 1). Electrophoresis and spectroscopic methods were used to analysis the structural changes. The immunoreactivity alterations were characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and degranulation test. Structural features of cross-linked rAra h 1 varied at different reaction stages. Hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds were the main molecular forces in polymers induced by heating and reducing. In MTG-catalyzed cross-linking, ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bonds were formed, thus inducing a relatively stable structure in polymers. MTG catalyzed cross-linking could modestly but significantly reduce the immunoreactivity of rAra h 1. Decreased content of conserved secondary structures led to a loss of protection of linear epitopes. Besides, the reduced surface hydrophobic index and increased steric hindrance of rAra h 1 made it more difficult to bind with antibodies, thus hindering the subsequent allergic reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Biological, Textural, and Physicochemical Parameters of Panela Cheese Added with Probiotics
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101507 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Biological, physicochemical and textural parameters of a Panela cheese with and without probiotics (LSB-c and C-c) were analyzed during 15 days of storage at 4 °C. Changes in cohesiveness, hardness, springiness, and chewiness were measured by texture profile analysis. Additionally, moisture, pH, nitrogenous [...] Read more.
Biological, physicochemical and textural parameters of a Panela cheese with and without probiotics (LSB-c and C-c) were analyzed during 15 days of storage at 4 °C. Changes in cohesiveness, hardness, springiness, and chewiness were measured by texture profile analysis. Additionally, moisture, pH, nitrogenous fractions (nitrogen soluble in pH 4.6, non-protein nitrogen, 70% ethanol-soluble nitrogen, and water-soluble extract) were evaluated. The peptide profile of nitrogenous fractions was also analyzed. Finally, biological activity was evaluated by ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), as well as the Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. Analysis of variance showed significant differences for most of the evaluated parameters. By principal component analysis (PCA), two groups were separated, one corresponding to LSB-c and the other corresponding to C-c. The separation was given mostly by hardness, chewiness, and ABTS of all nitrogenous fractions. LSB-c showed higher biological activities than C-c. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: New Frontiers in Acrylamide Study in Foods—Formation, Analysis and Exposure Assessment
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101506 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Acrylamide is a chemical contaminant that naturally originates during the thermal processing of many foods. Since 2002, worldwide institutions with competencies in food safety have promoted activities aimed at updating knowledge for a revaluation of the risk assessment of this process contaminant. The [...] Read more.
Acrylamide is a chemical contaminant that naturally originates during the thermal processing of many foods. Since 2002, worldwide institutions with competencies in food safety have promoted activities aimed at updating knowledge for a revaluation of the risk assessment of this process contaminant. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ruled in 2015 that the presence of acrylamide in foods increases the risk of developing cancer in any age group of the population. Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 establishes recommended mitigation measures for the food industry and reference levels to reduce the presence of acrylamide in foods and, consequently, its harmful effects on the population. This Special Issue explores recent advances on acrylamide in foods, including a novel insight on its chemistry of formation and elimination, effective mitigation strategies, conventional and innovative monitoring techniques, risk/benefit approaches and exposure assessment, in order to enhance our understanding for this process contaminant and its dietary exposure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Preservative Agents on Quality Attributes of Dry-Cured Fermented Sausages
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101505 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Enterococcus faecium SE920, Debaryomyces hansenii FHSCC 253H, Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922, producer of the antifungal protein PgAFP, and this protein itself have previously been proposed to control toxigenic molds in dry-cured meat products. However, their effects on the usual microbial population, and the [...] Read more.
Enterococcus faecium SE920, Debaryomyces hansenii FHSCC 253H, Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922, producer of the antifungal protein PgAFP, and this protein itself have previously been proposed to control toxigenic molds in dry-cured meat products. However, their effects on the usual microbial population, and the sensory characteristics of these foods, have not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of the inoculation of these protective cultures, and their impact on the quality of dry-cured fermented sausages. These microorganisms were co-inoculated with a native desirable population (Penicillium nalgiovense, P. chrysogenum, D. hansenii, and Staphylococcus vitulinus) in a dry-cured fermented sausage (salchichón)-based medium in the presence and absence of PgAFP. Macroscopically, the biocontrol candidates did not produce relevant changes in the growth of the native population, enabling their coexistence. However, PgAFP causes the alteration of the hyphae structure in desirable molds. Thus, PgAFP was discarded for use on the surface of raw dry-cured fermented sausages (salchichón) in the pilot plant. The used biocontrol agents did not negatively affect the physico-chemical parameters of the dry-cured fermented sausages (salchichón) after ripening, which showed the typical volatile profile and odor. Thus, the application of E. faecium SE920, D. hansenii FHSCC 253H, and P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 as protective cultures against toxigenic molds during the ripening of dry-cured fermented sausages does not modify their typical sensorial quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Safety and Microbial Analysis)
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Open AccessReview
Detection of Bacterial Pathogens and Antibiotic Residues in Chicken Meat: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101504 - 20 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Detection of pathogenic microbes as well as antibiotic residues in food animals, especially in chicken, has become a matter of food security worldwide. The association of various pathogenic bacteria in different diseases and selective pressure induced by accumulated antibiotic residue to develop antibiotic [...] Read more.
Detection of pathogenic microbes as well as antibiotic residues in food animals, especially in chicken, has become a matter of food security worldwide. The association of various pathogenic bacteria in different diseases and selective pressure induced by accumulated antibiotic residue to develop antibiotic resistance is also emerging as the threat to human health. These challenges have made the containment of pathogenic bacteria and early detection of antibiotic residue highly crucial for robust and precise detection. However, the traditional culture-based approaches are well-comprehended for identifying microbes. Nevertheless, because they are inadequate, time-consuming and laborious, these conventional methods are not predominantly used. Therefore, it has become essential to explore alternatives for the easy and robust detection of pathogenic microbes and antibiotic residue in the food source. Presently, different monitoring, as well as detection techniques like PCR-based, assay (nucleic acid)-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)-based, aptamer-based, biosensor-based, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based and electronic nose-based methods, have been developed for detecting the presence of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic residues. The current review intends to summarize the different techniques and underline the potential of every method used for the detection of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic residue in chicken meat. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysis of By-Products from Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Chemical and Functional Characterization
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101503 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Valorization of seabass and seabream by-products is becoming increasingly relevant, as marketing of these species moves from selling whole fish to filleting for convenience products. With this aim, we optimized for the first time the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) by enzymatic [...] Read more.
Valorization of seabass and seabream by-products is becoming increasingly relevant, as marketing of these species moves from selling whole fish to filleting for convenience products. With this aim, we optimized for the first time the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis from filleting by-products of these commercially relevant aquaculture species, isolating fish oil at the same time. On the whole, both fish yielded similar amounts of protein, but frames and trimmings (FT) were the best source, followed by heads and viscera. In vitro antioxidant and antihypertensive activities showed similar figures for both species, placing FPHs from FT as the most active. Molecular weights ranged from 1381 to 2023 Da, corresponding to the lowest values of FT, in line with the higher hydrolysis degrees observed. All FPHs reached high digestibility (>86%) and displayed an excellent amino acid profile in terms of essential amino acids and flavor, making them suitable as food additives and supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Associated Judgment Applied during Post-Mortem Inspection of Swine Carcasses in Portugal
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101502 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) it is often a suppurative lesion that, in Portugal, represents the main cause of total condemnation of slaughtered finishing pigs. Based on the EU Meat Inspection legislation, meat from generalized VO cases presenting signs of pyemia should be declared unfit [...] Read more.
Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) it is often a suppurative lesion that, in Portugal, represents the main cause of total condemnation of slaughtered finishing pigs. Based on the EU Meat Inspection legislation, meat from generalized VO cases presenting signs of pyemia should be declared unfit for human consumption. For that reason, the main objective of this study is to establish a classification scheme to differentiate between localized and generalized VO cases using macroscopic findings and validate it based on the presence of pyemia. To assist in, a combination of macroscopic characteristics of gross lesions (e.g., presence of pyaemia-related lesions (PRL), acute/chronic characteristics of VO) was used to create a classification scheme to differentiate between localized and generalized VO cases. The scheme was applied to 40 VO cases that had been totally condemned in an undifferentiated way. In those 40 cases, histopathological analysis was used to validate acute/chronic macro-criteria, and microbiological analysis was performed to identify the pyemia cases. From the 40 selected VO cases, 20 were macroscopically classified as chronic and 20 as acute. Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ = 0.80; p < 0.001), revealed a substantial agreement between macroscopic and histopathology classification. Microbiological analyses identified 13 pyemia cases (13/40; 32.5%). Among those, 12 were macroscopically classified as acute, this association being highly significant (p < 0.001). By using the proposed VO classification scheme, 14 possible cases out of 40 could have been spared from total condemnation. This scheme can be used to harmonize the classification of VO and meat inspection decisions in Portuguese abattoirs. The output would lead to avoidance of unnecessary carcasses condemnation (food waste/economic losses), under an evidence-based approach, without compromising food safety and public health as demanded by the EU Meat Inspection legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Safety and Microbial Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Compositional Changes in Over-Oxidized Fish Oils
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101501 - 20 Oct 2020
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Abstract
A recent study has reported that the administration during gestation of a highly rancid hoki liver oil, obtained by oxidation through sustained exposure to oxygen gas and incident light for 30 days, causes newborn mortality in rats. This effect was attributed to lipid [...] Read more.
A recent study has reported that the administration during gestation of a highly rancid hoki liver oil, obtained by oxidation through sustained exposure to oxygen gas and incident light for 30 days, causes newborn mortality in rats. This effect was attributed to lipid hydroperoxides formed in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oil, while other chemical changes in the damaged oil were overlooked. In the present study, the oxidation condition employed to damage the hoki liver oil was replicated, and the extreme rancidity was confirmed. A detailed analysis of temporal chemical changes resulting from the sustained oxidative challenge involved measures of eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) omega-3 oil oxidative quality (peroxide value, para-anisidine value, total oxidation number, acid value, oligomers, antioxidant content, and induction time) as well as changes in fatty acid content, volatiles, isoprostanoids, and oxysterols. The chemical description was extended to refined anchovy oil, which is a more representative ingredient oil used in omega-3 finished products. The present study also analyzed the effects of a different oxidation method involving thermal exposure in the dark in contact with air, which is an oxidation condition that is more relevant to retail products. The two oils had different susceptibility to the oxidation conditions, resulting in distinct chemical oxidation signatures that were determined primarily by antioxidant protection as well as specific methodological aspects of the applied oxidative conditions. Unique isoprostanoids and oxysterols were formed in the over-oxidized fish oils, which are discussed in light of their potential biological activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing, Preservation and Analysis of Seafood Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Intake of a Snack Containing Dietary Fiber on Postprandial Glucose Levels
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101500 - 20 Oct 2020
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Abstract
To examine the effects of the intake of a snack containing dietary fiber under free-living conditions on postprandial glucose levels in older adults, nine healthy older adults aged 76.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error) completed two crossover trials: 1) regular snack [...] Read more.
To examine the effects of the intake of a snack containing dietary fiber under free-living conditions on postprandial glucose levels in older adults, nine healthy older adults aged 76.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error) completed two crossover trials: 1) regular snack (BISCUIT) intake and 2) intake of snacks with a high dietary fiber content (DF-BISCUIT). In both trials, each participant consumed either BISCUIT or DF-BISCUIT between lunch and dinner time for 1 week. During the intervention, the blood glucose levels of all the subjects were observed using a continuous glucose monitoring system. Lower 24 h blood glucose levels were yielded in the DF-BISCUIT than the BISCUIT trials. Moreover, compared to the BISCUIT trials, the blood glucose levels after dinner and areas under the curve (AUCs) were significantly decreased in the DF-BISCUIT treatments. The blood glucose levels and AUCs after the intake of the next day’s breakfast were suppressed in the DF-BISCUIT treatments compared to those in the BISCUIT trials. Our data indicate that the intake of snacks with a high dietary fiber content under free-living conditions is an effective way to restrain postprandial glucose levels and that the effect lasts until breakfast the next day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Statistical Workflow for Screening Protein Extracts Based on Their Nutritional Composition and Digestibility: Application to Elderly
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101499 - 20 Oct 2020
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Abstract
The objective of the study is to develop a workflow to screen protein extracts and identify their nutritional potential as high quality nutritional culinary aids for recipes for the elderly. Twenty-seven protein extracts of animal, vegetable, and dairy origin were characterized. We studied [...] Read more.
The objective of the study is to develop a workflow to screen protein extracts and identify their nutritional potential as high quality nutritional culinary aids for recipes for the elderly. Twenty-seven protein extracts of animal, vegetable, and dairy origin were characterized. We studied their fate by monitoring static in vitro digestion, mimicking the physiological digestion conditions of the elderly. At the end of the gastric and intestinal phase, global measurements of digestibility and antioxidant bioactivities were performed. The statistical analysis workflow developed allowed: (i) synthesizing the compositional and nutritional information of each protein extract by creating latent variables, and (ii) comparing them. The links between variables and similarities between protein extracts were visualized using a heat map. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed reducing the 48 quantitative variables into 15 qualitative latent variables (clusters). The application of the k-means method on each cluster enable to classify the protein extracts by level. This defined level was used as categorical value. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed groups of protein extracts with varied patterns. This workflow allowed the comparison/hierarchization between protein extracts and the creation of a tool to select the most interesting ones on the basis of their nutritional quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities of Food Digestion)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Monitoring of Volatile Compounds Losses in the Oven during Baking and Toasting of Gluten-Free Bread Doughs: A PTR-MS Evidence
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101498 - 20 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Losses of volatile compounds during baking are expected due to their evaporation at the high temperatures of the oven, which can lead to a decrease in the aroma intensity of the final product, which is crucial for gluten-free breads that are known for [...] Read more.
Losses of volatile compounds during baking are expected due to their evaporation at the high temperatures of the oven, which can lead to a decrease in the aroma intensity of the final product, which is crucial for gluten-free breads that are known for their weak aroma. Volatiles from fermentation and lipids oxidation are transferred from crumb to crust, and they flow out to the air together with Maillard and caramelisation compounds from the crust. In this study, the release to the oven of volatile compounds from five gluten-free breads (quinoa, teff and rice flours, and corn and wheat starches) and wheat bread during baking and toasting was measured in real-time using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Baking showed different volatile release patterns that are described by bell-shaped curves, plateaus and exponential growths. Flour-based breads had the higher overall volatile release during baking, but also high ratios in the final bread, while starch-based breads showed high pyrazine releases due to moisture losses. Meanwhile, toasting promoted the release of volatile compounds from the bread matrix, but also the additional generation of volatiles from Maillard reaction and caramelisation. Interestingly, gluten-free breads presented higher losses of volatiles during baking than wheat bread, which could partially explain their weaker aroma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Industrial Processing on Pesticide Multiresidues Transfer from Raw Tomatoes to Processed Products
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101497 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Pesticides are broadly used to improve food safety, although they can lead to adverse health effects on consumers. Various food processing approaches, at the industrial or domestic level, have been found to highly reduce the amount of pesticide residues in most food materials. [...] Read more.
Pesticides are broadly used to improve food safety, although they can lead to adverse health effects on consumers. Various food processing approaches, at the industrial or domestic level, have been found to highly reduce the amount of pesticide residues in most food materials. In this work, samples of raw tomatoes were collected directly from the field and processed at the industrial level to produce purée, triple concentrated paste, fine pulp, and diced tomatoes. A multiresidue method based on a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged e Safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) for the assessment of 116 pesticides residues, was used. The analytical method has been validated according to SANTE indications. The recovery yields ranged from 75.5% to 115.3%, repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 3.4% to 18.3%, while reproducibility (RSDwR) ranged from 5.4% to 19.8%. The limit of quantifications (LOQs) ranged from 2.35 µg kg−1 for benthiavalicarb to 6.49 µg kg−1 for allethrin. A total of 159 raw tomato samples were collected from the field. The analysis showed the presence of 46 pesticides with azoxystrobin and chlorantraniliprole the most represented. On the other hand, all industrially processed samples showed values ≤ LOD, confirming that post-harvest processes can lead to a decrease in pesticide residues from agricultural commodities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Small Increase in Carbon Dioxide Pressure during Fermentation on Wine Aroma
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101496 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 212
Abstract
The present study tested the effect of a slight increase in pressure (from 0 to 1 bar) during the fermentation on the wine aroma profile. Fermentations were carried out with a commercial dry yeast on Sangiovese juice in the absence of berry skins. [...] Read more.
The present study tested the effect of a slight increase in pressure (from 0 to 1 bar) during the fermentation on the wine aroma profile. Fermentations were carried out with a commercial dry yeast on Sangiovese juice in the absence of berry skins. The wine samples fermented under slight overpressure conditions were found to be significantly different from the control samples produced at atmospheric pressure in relation to several chemical compounds. Concentrations of many esters (i.e., isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl dodecanoate, and ethyl tetradecanoate), and acids (i.e., hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and decanoic acid) increased, while concentrations of two acids (i.e., isobutyric and isovaleric acid) decreased. These differences, notably the higher concentration of esters, are usually associated with a more intense fruity attribute. Triangular sensory tests revealed that the significant chemical differences were also perceivable; hence, introducing a slight pressure increase during the alcoholic fermentation could be a useful tool in managing the aroma profile of wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine, Brewing, Analysis and Grape-Derived Products)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Visual Design Cues Impacting Food Choice: A Review and Future Research Agenda
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101495 - 19 Oct 2020
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Abstract
This review aims to tackle the challenge of understanding how visual design cues can affect behavioural outcomes in a food context. The review answers two key questions: (1) What are the effects of the most important visual design cues on behavioural outcomes and [...] Read more.
This review aims to tackle the challenge of understanding how visual design cues can affect behavioural outcomes in a food context. The review answers two key questions: (1) What are the effects of the most important visual design cues on behavioural outcomes and how can they be explained? (2) What are the research gaps in this area? We start from a comprehensive taxonomy of visual design cues delineating the most important visual design cues. Next, we evaluate the extant research based on a structured, narrative literature review on visual design cues in the food domain. We differentiate between object processed and spatially processed visual design cues in food choice contexts and show how they affect behavioural outcomes through a range of psychological processes (attention, affective-, cognitive- and motivational reactions, food perceptions and attitudes). We end with recommendations which take into account the current food store context, the state-of-art in measuring psychological processes and behavioural outcomes and the specific food-, person- and context-related moderators. This review offers guidance for research to untangle the complexity of the effect of visual design cues in a food choice context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Visuals Affect Food Choice?)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Viable Lactobacillus johnsonii JNU3402 Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101494 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
In this study, the role of non-viable Lactobacillus johnsonii JNU3402 (NV-LJ3402) in diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To determine whether NV-LJ3402 exhibits a protective effect against diet-induced obesity, 7-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, [...] Read more.
In this study, the role of non-viable Lactobacillus johnsonii JNU3402 (NV-LJ3402) in diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To determine whether NV-LJ3402 exhibits a protective effect against diet-induced obesity, 7-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, an HFD, or an HFD with NV-LJ3402 for 14 weeks. NV-LJ3402 administration was associated with a significant reduction in body weight gain and in liver, epididymal, and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue weight in HFD-fed mice. Concomitantly, NV-LJ3402 administration to HFD-fed mice also decreased the triglyceride levels in the plasma and metabolic tissues and slightly improved insulin resistance. Furthermore, NV-LJ3402 enhanced gene programming for energy dissipation in the WATs of HFD-fed mice as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) transcriptional activity, suggesting that the PPARγ pathway plays a key role in mediating the anti-obesity effect of NV-LJ3402 in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, NV-LJ3402 administration in HFD-fed mice enhanced mitochondrial levels and function in WATs and also increased the body temperature upon cold exposure. Together, these results suggest that NV-LJ3402 could be safely used to develop dairy products that ameliorate diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Microorganisms in Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimisation of Sequential Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil and Pigment from Lemon Peels Waste
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101493 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 241
Abstract
In this work, a cascade approach to obtain different valuable fractions from lemon peels waste was optimised using microwave-assisted processes. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) with a Clevenger apparatus was firstly used to obtain the lemon essential oil (LEO). The remaining residue was then submitted [...] Read more.
In this work, a cascade approach to obtain different valuable fractions from lemon peels waste was optimised using microwave-assisted processes. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) with a Clevenger apparatus was firstly used to obtain the lemon essential oil (LEO). The remaining residue was then submitted to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to extract the lemon pigment (LP). A Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the influence of ethanol concentration, temperature and time in LP extraction in terms of extraction yield and colour intensity. Optimal extraction conditions for LP were 80% (v/v) ethanol, 80 °C and 50 min, with a liquid-to-solid ratio of 1:10. The obtained yields for LEO and LP were around 2 wt.% and 6 wt.%, respectively. The composition of LEO was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID), and limonene (65.082 wt.%), β-pinene (14.517 wt.%) and γ-terpinene (9.743 wt.%) were mainly identified. LP was purified by using different Amberlite adsorption resins (XAD4, XAD7HP and XAD16N), showing XAD16N the best adsorption capacity. Enrichment factors of 4.3, 4.5 and 5.0 were found for eriocitrin, diosmin and hesperidin, respectively, which were detected as the main components in LP by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS) analysis, with final concentrations of 4.728 wt.%, 7.368 wt.% and 2.658 wt.%, respectively. Successful antimicrobial capacity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was obtained for LEO. The results from this work showed the potential of applying a cascading approach based on microwave-assisted processes to valorise lemon wastes, obtaining natural pigments and antimicrobials to be applied in food, cosmetic and polymer industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Technological Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Bakery Products Enriched with Brewers’ Spent Grains
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101492 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Nowadays, brewers’ spent grains (BSG) is considered the most abundant and low-cost brewing by-products, presenting a great potential as a functional food ingredient. Since BSG is rich in dietary fiber and protein, it can be a raw material of interest in bakery products. [...] Read more.
Nowadays, brewers’ spent grains (BSG) is considered the most abundant and low-cost brewing by-products, presenting a great potential as a functional food ingredient. Since BSG is rich in dietary fiber and protein, it can be a raw material of interest in bakery products. However, blending wheat flour with BSG can affect dough rheology and the structural and sensorial properties of products. In this context, BSG flour at different levels (0%, 5%, and 10%) was used to enrich three commercial soft wheat flours, and to develop new formulations for bakery products (bread, breadsticks and pizza). As expected, the enrichment caused a significant increase of proteins, dietary fibers, lipids, and ash related to the BSG enrichment level. Significant changes in dough rheological properties (e.g., higher water absorption, lower development time and stability, dough strength, and tenacity) and in the color of the crust and crumbs of bakery products were also observed. At last, the consumer test pointed out that the 5% BSG enrichment showed the higher overall acceptability of proposed bakery products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Antibacterial Efficacy and Mechanism of Plasma-Activated Water Against Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) on Shell Eggs
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101491 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Eggs are one of the most commonly consumed food items. Currently, chlorine washing is the most common method used to sanitize shell eggs. However, chlorine could react with organic matters to form a potential carcinogen, trihalomethanes, which can have a negative impact on [...] Read more.
Eggs are one of the most commonly consumed food items. Currently, chlorine washing is the most common method used to sanitize shell eggs. However, chlorine could react with organic matters to form a potential carcinogen, trihalomethanes, which can have a negative impact on human health. Plasma-activated water (PAW) has been demonstrated to inactivate microorganisms effectively without compromising the sensory qualities of shell eggs. For this study, various amounts (250, 500, 750, or 1000 mL) of PAW were generated by using one or two plasma jet(s) at 60 watts for 20 min with an air flow rate at 6 or 10 standard liters per minute (slm). After being inoculated with 7.0 log CFU Salmonella Enteritidis, one shell egg was placed into PAW for 30, 60, or 90 s with 1 or 2 acting plasma jet(s). When 2 plasma jets were used in a large amount of water (1000 mL), populations of S. Enteritidis were reduced from 7.92 log CFU/egg to 2.84 CFU/egg after 60 s of treatment. In addition, concentrations of ozone, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite in the PAW were correlated with the levels of antibacterial efficacy. The highest concentrations of ozone (1.22 ppm) and nitrate (55.5 ppm) were obtained with a larger water amount and lower air flow rate. High oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and low pH values were obtained with longer activation time, more plasma jet, and a lower air flow rate. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analyses demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in the PAW. The observation under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that bacterial cells were swollen, or even erupted after treatment with PAW. These results indicate that the bacterial cells lost control of cell permeability after the PAW treatment. This study shows that PAW is effective against S. Enteritidis on shell eggs in a large amount of water. Ozone, nitrate, and ROS could be the main causes for the inactivation of bacterial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Non-Thermal Food Processing Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Mineral Composition of Pink Salt Available in Australia
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101490 - 19 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Little is known about the mineral composition of pink salt. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the mineral composition of pink salt available for purchase in Australia and its implications for public health. Pink salt samples were [...] Read more.
Little is known about the mineral composition of pink salt. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the mineral composition of pink salt available for purchase in Australia and its implications for public health. Pink salt samples were purchased from retail outlets in two metropolitan Australian cities and one regional town. Color intensity, salt form, and country of origin were coded. A mass spectrometry scan in solids was used to determine the amount of 25 nutrients and non-nutritive minerals in pink salt (n = 31) and an iodized white table salt control (n = 1). A wide variation in the type and range of nutrients and non-nutritive minerals across pink salt samples were observed. One pink salt sample contained a level of lead (>2 mg/kg) that exceeded the national maximum contaminant level set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Pink salt in flake form, pink salt originating from the Himalayas, and darker colored pink salt were generally found to contain higher levels of minerals (p < 0.05). Despite pink salt containing nutrients, >30 g per day (approximately 6 teaspoons) would be required to make any meaningful contribution to nutrient intake, a level that would provide excessive sodium and potential harmful effects. The risk to public health from potentially harmful non-nutritive minerals should be addressed by Australian food regulations. Pink salt consumption should not exceed the nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand guidelines of <5 g of salt per day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Validation of a MS Based Proteomics Method for Milk and Egg Quantification in Cookies at the Lowest VITAL Levels: An Alternative to the Use of Precautionary Labeling
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101489 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last decades and consequently the food labeling policies have improved over the time in different countries to regulate allergen presence in foods. In particular, Reg 1169 in EU mandates the labelling of 14 allergens [...] Read more.
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last decades and consequently the food labeling policies have improved over the time in different countries to regulate allergen presence in foods. In particular, Reg 1169 in EU mandates the labelling of 14 allergens whenever intentionally added to foods, but the inadvertent contamination by allergens still remains an uncovered topic. In order to warn consumers on the risk of cross-contamination occurring in certain categories of foods, a precautionary allergen labelling system has been put in place by food industries on a voluntary basis. In order to reduce the overuse of precautionary allergen labelling (PAL), reference doses and action limits have been proposed by the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling VITAL project representing a guide in this jeopardizing scenario. Development of sensitive and reliable mass spectrometry methods are therefore of paramount importance in this regard to check the contamination levels in foods. In this paper we describe the development of a time-managed multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method based on a triple quadrupole platform for milk and egg quantification in processed food. The method was in house validated and allowed to achieve levels of proteins lower than 0.2 mg of total milk and egg proteins, respectively, in cookies, challenging the doses recommended by VITAL. The method was finally applied to cookies labeled as milk and egg-free. This method could represent, in perspective, a promising tool to be implemented along the food chain to detect even tiny amounts of allergens contaminating food commodities. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Freeze-Drying of Foods—The Characteristic of the Process Course and the Effect of Its Parameters on the Physical Properties of Food Materials
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101488 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a process in which water in the form of ice under low pressure is removed from a material by sublimation. This process has found many applications for the production of high quality food and pharmaceuticals. The main [...] Read more.
Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a process in which water in the form of ice under low pressure is removed from a material by sublimation. This process has found many applications for the production of high quality food and pharmaceuticals. The main steps of the freeze-drying process, such as the freezing of the product and primary and secondary drying, are described in this paper. The problems and mechanisms of each step of the freeze-drying process are also analyzed. The methods necessary for the selection of the primary and secondary end processes are characterized. The review contains a description of the effects of process conditions and the selected physical properties of freeze-dried materials, such as structural properties (shrinkage and density porosity), color, and texture. The study shows that little attention is given to the mechanical properties and texture of freeze-dried materials obtained from different conditions of the lyophilization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freeze-Drying Technology Application in Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Inclusion of Healthy Oils for Improving the Nutritional Characteristics of Dry-Fermented Deer Sausage
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101487 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the [...] Read more.
The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the 50% of animal fat was substituted by olive, canola, and soy oil emulsions immobilized in Prosella gel. The reformulation resulted in a decrease of moisture and fat contents and an increase of protein and ash amount. Moreover, reformulated sausages were harder, darker, and had higher pH values. This fact is related to the lower moisture content in these samples. As expected, the fatty acid composition was changed by the reformulation. The use of soy and canola oils increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 content and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio and saturated fatty acids. Thus, the use of these two oils presented the best nutritional benefits. The changes observed in the fatty acids reflected the fatty acid composition of the oils employed in the emulsions. Regarding volatile compounds (VOC), the replacement of animal fat by healthy emulsion gels increased the content of both total VOC and most of individual VOC. However, the lipid-derived VOC did not show this trend. Generally speaking, the control samples presented similar or higher VOC derived from lipid oxidation processes, which could be related to the natural antioxidant compounds present in the vegetable oils. Finally, all reformulated sausages presented higher consumer acceptability than control samples. In fact, the sausage reformulated with soy oil emulsion gel was the most preferred. Thus, as a general conclusion, the reformulation of deer sausages with soy emulsion gel improves both composition and sensory quality of the final product, which could be an excellent strategy to the elaboration of healthy fermented sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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