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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 192 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Consumers are increasingly aware of sustainability, product origin, farming, and production practices with respect to food choices. In this study, the sensory perception of salted butter produced from bovine milk from cows outdoors on pasture was compared to that from cows indoors on a concentrated feeding system across three cultural demographics (Ireland, Germany, and the USA). No significant difference in overall liking of the butters based on diet between cultures was found, but cross-cultural preferences and sensory attribute differences were evident, likely impacted by product familiarity. View this paper
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Article
Evaluating the Chemical Components and Flavor Characteristics Responsible for Triggering the Perception of “Beer Flavor” in Non-Alcoholic Beer
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121914 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Forty-two commercial non-alcoholic beer (NAB) brands were analyzed using sensory and chemical techniques to understand which analytes and/or flavors were most responsible for invoking the perception of “beer flavor” (for Northern Californian consumers). The aroma and taste profiles of the commercial NABs, a [...] Read more.
Forty-two commercial non-alcoholic beer (NAB) brands were analyzed using sensory and chemical techniques to understand which analytes and/or flavors were most responsible for invoking the perception of “beer flavor” (for Northern Californian consumers). The aroma and taste profiles of the commercial NABs, a commercial soda, and a carbonated seltzer water (n = 44) were characterized using replicated descriptive and CATA analyses performed by a trained sensory panel (i.e., 11 panelists). A number of non-volatile and volatile techniques were then used to chemically deconstruct the products. Consumer analysis (i.e., 129 Northern Californian consumers) was also used to evaluate a selection of these NABs (i.e., 12) and how similar they thought the aroma, taste and mouthfeels of these products were to beer, soda, and water. The results show that certain constituents drive the aroma and taste profiles which are responsible for invoking beer perception for these North American consumers. Further, beer likeness might not be a driver of preference in this diverse beverage class for Northern Californian consumers. These are important insights for brewers planning to create products for similar markets and/or more broadly for companies interested in designing other functional/alternative food and beverage products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine, Brewing, Analysis and Grape-Derived Products)
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Review
Potential Risk of Three Zoonotic Protozoa (Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii) Transmission from Fish Consumption
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121913 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
In recent decades, worldwide fish consumption has increased notably worldwide. Despite the health benefits of fish consumption, it also can suppose a risk because of fishborne diseases, including parasitic infections. Global changes are leading to the emergence of parasites in new locations and [...] Read more.
In recent decades, worldwide fish consumption has increased notably worldwide. Despite the health benefits of fish consumption, it also can suppose a risk because of fishborne diseases, including parasitic infections. Global changes are leading to the emergence of parasites in new locations and to the appearance of new sources of transmission. That is the case of the zoonotic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii; all of them reach aquatic environments and have been found in shellfish. Similarly, these protozoa can be present in other aquatic animals, such as fish. The present review gives an overview on these three zoonotic protozoa in order to understand their potential presence in fish and to comprehensively revise all the evidences of fish as a new potential source of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Toxoplasma gondii transmission. All of them have been found in both marine and freshwater fishes. Until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate that fish are natural hosts for these protozoa; otherwise, they would merely act as mechanical transporters. Nevertheless, even if fish only accumulate and transport these protozoa, they could be a “new” source of infection for people. Full article
Article
Physicochemical and Functional Characteristics of RD43 Rice Flour and Its Food Application
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121912 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
The increased use of a new rice cultivar is the result of increasing consumer demands for healthier choices. In this study, physicochemical, thermal, pasting, and functional properties of flour from RD43 rice, a new rice variety, and its food application were investigated. RD43 [...] Read more.
The increased use of a new rice cultivar is the result of increasing consumer demands for healthier choices. In this study, physicochemical, thermal, pasting, and functional properties of flour from RD43 rice, a new rice variety, and its food application were investigated. RD43 rice flour demonstrated an irregular and polyhedral shape with a volume mean diameter of 103 ± 0.15 µm. In addition, the amylose content of RD43 rice and Hom Mali rice flour was 19.04% and 16.38%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) confirmed the presence of a V-type crystalline structure and less crystallinity in RD43 rice flour, which resulted in a significant reduction of the water absorption index (WAI), swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), gelatinization temperature, and pasting properties. Comparing with Hom Mali rice flour, RD43 rice flour had greater ability to disrupt cholesterol micellization and bind bile acid. Furthermore, it had lower starch digestibility, with a lower percentage of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and higher percentage of undigestible starch than Hom Mali rice flour. Moreover, steamed muffins based on RD43 rice flour had lower starch digestibility than Hom Mali steamed muffins. The sensory analysis showed no significant differences between Hom Mali and RD43 steamed muffins. The findings suggest that RD43 rice flour could be an alternative ingredient for lowering the glycemic index of food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Metabolism of Black Carrot Polyphenols during In Vitro Fermentation Is Not Affected by Cellulose or Cell Wall Association
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121911 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Fruit and vegetable polyphenols are associated with health benefits, and those not absorbed could be fermented by the gastro-intestinal tract microbiota. Many fermentation studies focus on “pure” polyphenols, rather than those associated with plant cell walls (PCW). Black carrots (BlkC), are an ideal [...] Read more.
Fruit and vegetable polyphenols are associated with health benefits, and those not absorbed could be fermented by the gastro-intestinal tract microbiota. Many fermentation studies focus on “pure” polyphenols, rather than those associated with plant cell walls (PCW). Black carrots (BlkC), are an ideal model plant food as their polyphenols bind to PCW with minimal release after gastro-intestinal digestion. BlkC were fractionated into three components—supernatant, pellet after centrifugation, and whole puree. Bacterial cellulose (BCell) was soaked in supernatant (BCell&S) as a model substrate. All substrates were fermented in vitro with a pig faecal inoculum. Gas kinetics, short chain fatty acids, and ammonium production, and changes in anthocyanins and phenolic acids were compared. This study showed that metabolism of BlkC polyphenols during in vitro fermentation was not affected by cellulose/cell wall association. In addition, BCell&S is an appropriate model to represent BlkC fermentation, suggesting the potential to examine fermentability of PCW-associated polyphenols in other fruits/vegetables. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Physical Quality, Nutritional Composition and Consumer Acceptability of White and Brown Breads
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121910 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Fortifying popular, relatively affordable, but nutrient-limited staple foods, such as bread, with Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP), could contribute significantly to addressing under nutrition, especially protein and mineral deficiencies, which are particularly prevalent among a large proportion of populations in sub-Saharan African countries. [...] Read more.
Fortifying popular, relatively affordable, but nutrient-limited staple foods, such as bread, with Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP), could contribute significantly to addressing under nutrition, especially protein and mineral deficiencies, which are particularly prevalent among a large proportion of populations in sub-Saharan African countries. The current study aimed to determine the effect of MOLP on the physical quality, nutritional composition and consumer acceptability of white and brown breads. The texture, colour and nutritional composition of white and brown bread samples substituted with 5% and 10% (w/w) MOLPs were analysed using standard methods and compared with the control (0% MOLP). A consumer panel evaluated the acceptability of the bread samples using a nine-point hedonic scale. Bread samples became darker as the concentration of MOLP was increased, whilst nutrient levels increased. The overall consumer acceptability of the bread samples decreased with increasing concentrations of MOLP. However, brown bread samples were significantly more acceptable compared with corresponding white bread samples (p < 0.05). Under the experiment conditions of the current study, it seems that the bread containing 5% MOLP can be used to contribute significantly to addressing malnutrition, with respect to protein deficiency. Full article
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Article
Grain Quality, Provitamin A Carotenoid Profiles, and Sensory Quality of Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize Stiff Porridges
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121909 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Provitamin A-biofortified maize could contribute to the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa due to a high consumption of starchy, maize-based diets. Four varieties of provitamin A biofortified maize were studied for grain colour, grain texture, thousand [...] Read more.
Provitamin A-biofortified maize could contribute to the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa due to a high consumption of starchy, maize-based diets. Four varieties of provitamin A biofortified maize were studied for grain colour, grain texture, thousand kernel weight, and hectolitre mass. Provitamin A biofortified maize stiff porridges were prepared and their retained provitamin A was determined using lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene (all-trans and cis isomers) as standards. Provitamin A concentration in the biofortified porridges ranged from 2.24 to 3.18 µg/g and retention from 91–105%. Descriptive sensory analysis and the 5-point facial hedonic test were used to evaluate the sensory quality of the porridges. The biofortified maize porridges were described as sticky, fine, with high intensity residual grain, and having a slightly bitter aftertaste with a cooked maize flavour and aroma, whereas the intensities of these attributes were insignificant in white maize porridge. About 33% of the consumer sample (N = 60) liked the porridges and 28% disliked the porridges, whilst approximately 38% of the consumers were neutral. The findings suggest that biofortified maize stiff porridge can deliver a significant amount of provitamin A to targeted consumers, but the acceptance of biofortified maize still needs to be improved on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Fortified Foods)
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Article
Improving the Solubility and Digestibility of Potato Protein with an Online Ultrasound-Assisted PH Shifting Treatment at Medium Temperature
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121908 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Ultrasonic (US) treatment was combined with pH shifting (pHS) and mild thermal (40 °C) (T40) treatment (US/T40/pHS) to improve the solubility of potato protein. The effects of the ultrasonication frequency, ultrasonication time, and incorporation sequence on the solubility of potato protein were investigated. [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic (US) treatment was combined with pH shifting (pHS) and mild thermal (40 °C) (T40) treatment (US/T40/pHS) to improve the solubility of potato protein. The effects of the ultrasonication frequency, ultrasonication time, and incorporation sequence on the solubility of potato protein were investigated. The results showed that online US/T40/pHS treatment resulted in higher solubility of potato protein and enhanced free amino group release during in vitro digestion. The solubility of potato protein treated with online US/T40/pHS at a mono-frequency of 40 kHz for 15 min increased by 1.73 times compared with the control (p < 0.05). The digestibility rate increased by 16.0% and 30.8% during gastric and intestinal digestion, respectively, compared with the control (p < 0.05). It was demonstrated that online US/T40/pHS treatment significantly changed the secondary and tertiary structures of potato protein according to the results of circular dichroism and internal fluorescence. SDS-PAGE, particle size, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that structural changes led to the formation of large soluble aggregates. The results suggested that the improvement in the solubility and digestibility of potato protein treated with online US/T40/pHS may be due to the formation of large soluble aggregates, which are more hydrophilic and sensitive to digestive enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Impact of Processing and Extraction on the Minor Components of Green Spanish-Style Gordal Table Olive Fat, as Assessed by Innovative Approaches
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121907 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
This work aims to study the effect of the green Spanish-style table olive processing and extraction method of fat on its minor components. For this purpose, it uses standard multivariate analysis (developed for Euclidean space), Compositional Data (CoDa) analysis (for data in the [...] Read more.
This work aims to study the effect of the green Spanish-style table olive processing and extraction method of fat on its minor components. For this purpose, it uses standard multivariate analysis (developed for Euclidean space), Compositional Data (CoDa) analysis (for data in the simplex) and Multiple Factor analysis (MFA). Overall, processing had a scarce effect on most of the minor components except ethyl and methyl esters and diacylglycerols, which markedly increased during fermentation; however, these compounds in table olive do not have the negative connotations that those in olive oil do since they are normal metabolites from the yeast microflora habitually present during the process. The work also showed that the quantification of minor components in table olive fat was an extraction-dependent method since Soxhlet increased the concentrations of fatty alcohols, triterpene dialcohols, sterols, waxes and polar compounds. Regarding statistical methods, CoDa analysis strategies were successfully applied to produce more appropriate clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) segregation than standard tools. Moreover, MFA allowed for study of the components individually and by groups; the relationships among groups led to the most appropriate clustering and PCA segregation of samples and revealed the effect of the chemical groups’ evolution on the similarity/dissimilarity between samples. Therefore, MFA was the statistical analysis that led to the most information on the effect of processing and extraction methods. Its combination with appropriate CoDa logratios could be an exciting challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Olive Oil)
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Article
Content of Toxic Elements in 12 Groups of Rice Products Available on Polish Market: Human Health Risk Assessment
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121906 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3904
Abstract
Background: Rice is one of the most commonly consumed grains. It could be a good source of nutrients in a diet, but its consumption could also contribute to exposure to toxic elements. All rice products available on the Polish market are imported, which [...] Read more.
Background: Rice is one of the most commonly consumed grains. It could be a good source of nutrients in a diet, but its consumption could also contribute to exposure to toxic elements. All rice products available on the Polish market are imported, which may pose a particular concern as to the safety of their consumption. The aim of our study was to estimate the content of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in rice products and to assess the health risk indicators related to exposure to toxic elements consumed with rice products among the adult population in Poland. Methods: A total of 99 samples from 12 groups of rice products (basmati, black, brown, parboiled, red, wild, white rice and expanded rice, rice flakes, flour, pasta, and waffles) available in the Polish market were obtained. The content of Hg was determined using the atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS). To measure As, Cd, and Pb, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used. The health risk was assessed by calculating several indicators. Results: The average As, Cd, Pb, and Hg contents in all studied products were 123.5 ± 77.1 μg/kg, 25.7 ± 26.5 μg/kg, 37.5 ± 29.3 μg/kg, and 2.8 ± 2.6 μg/kg, respectively. Exceedance of the limit established by the Polish National Food Safety Standard was observed in one sample as regards the As content and exceedance of the European Commission standard in two samples for Hg. The samples of foods imported from European markets (n = 27) had statistically higher As content (p < 0.05) than those imported from Asian countries (n = 53). The values of health risk indicators did not show an increased risk for the Polish adult population. However, the daily intake of 55 g of rice corresponds to the benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) for Pb. Conclusion: The studied rice products could be regarded as safe for consumption by the Polish population as far as the content of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg is concerned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Assay, Processing and Bio-Function of Rice Products)
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Article
Analysis of Food Labels to Evaluate the Nutritional Quality of Bread Products and Substitutes Sold in Italy: Results from the Food Labelling of Italian Products (FLIP) Study
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121905 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Bread is one of the most common staple foods, despite the increasing consumption of the so-called “bread substitutes”. The aim of the present work is to survey the nutritional quality intended as a nutrition declaration of 339 pre-packed bread products and 1020 bread [...] Read more.
Bread is one of the most common staple foods, despite the increasing consumption of the so-called “bread substitutes”. The aim of the present work is to survey the nutritional quality intended as a nutrition declaration of 339 pre-packed bread products and 1020 bread substitutes sold in the major retailers present on the Italian market. Comparisons of energy, macronutrient, and salt content within product types, and between regular and gluten-free (GF) products and products with or without nutrition claim (NC) and health claim (HC) declarations, were performed. A high inter-product variability was detected. The median energy contents were 274 (interquartile range 255–289) and 412 (380–437) kcal/100 for bread products and substitutes, respectively. Irrespective of the category, GF products had lower amounts of energy than their gluten-containing counterpart (p < 0.001), whereas products carrying NC had lower energy, sugar and salt amounts than the products without these declarations on the pack (p < 0.001 for all). A strong positive correlation was observed between energy and carbohydrate in bread (rho = 0.73, p < 0.001), but not in substitutes (rho = 0.033, p = 0.29). The present work highlighted a high variability in the apparent nutritional quality of bread products and substitutes sold on the Italian market, and suggested that bread alternatives should not be considered tout court as substitutes from a nutritional point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Composition Assessment of Wheat and Its Products)
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Article
Active Paper Sheets Including Nanoencapsulated Essential Oils: A Green Packaging Technique to Control Ethylene Production and Maintain Quality in Fresh Horticultural Products—A Case Study on Flat Peaches
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121904 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Plant essential oils (EOs) have several bioactive properties, highlighting their high antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. As such, the use of EOs in active packaging has received special attention in the last few years. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of EOs on quality-degrading enzymatic systems [...] Read more.
Plant essential oils (EOs) have several bioactive properties, highlighting their high antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. As such, the use of EOs in active packaging has received special attention in the last few years. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of EOs on quality-degrading enzymatic systems of plant products during postharvest life has not been deeply studied. The effects of an EO active paper sheet on ethylene biosynthesis and quality (and related quality-degrading enzymes) of flat peach (Prunus persica var. platycarpa) samples were studied during 5 days (continental terrestrial transport) or 26 days (long maritime transport) storage at 2 or 8 °C, both followed by commercialization simulations (4 days at 22 °C). EOs released from active packaging reduced ethylene production by 40–50%, and by up to 70% after commercialization periods. These results were correlated with lower 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC-oxidase activity. Physicochemical fruit quality (as indicated by soluble solids content, titratable acidity, color, and firmness) was also better preserved by EO active sheets due to enzymatic inhibition (polygalacturonase and polyphenoloxidase). Furthermore, phenolic compounds (mainly catechin and cyanidin-3 glucoside) and total antioxidant capacity were increased (by up to 30 and 70%, respectively) in EO-packaged samples after 8 °C storage and the subsequent commercialization period. Conclusively, EO active paper sheets controlled ethylene production in flat peaches, maintained fruit quality, and even increased health-promoting bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds in Foods and Food Packages)
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Article
Evaluation of Pulsed Light to Inactivate Brettanomyces bruxellensis in White Wine and Assessment of Its Effects on Color and Aromatic Profile
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121903 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a wine spoilage yeast that could be inactivated by pulsed light (PL); however, this technology may induce changes in the quality of this alcoholic drink. The present research aimed to determine the potential of PL to inactivate B. bruxellensis inoculated [...] Read more.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a wine spoilage yeast that could be inactivated by pulsed light (PL); however, this technology may induce changes in the quality of this alcoholic drink. The present research aimed to determine the potential of PL to inactivate B. bruxellensis inoculated in white wine and to assess the effect of this technology on the color and aromatic profile of the wine. For this, a cocktail of B. bruxellensis strains was inoculated into the wine and its inactivation by PL was determined and fitted to a microbial inactivation model. Along with this, the effect of PL on instrument-measured color, and the volatile compounds of the wine were evaluated by GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis, respectively. B. bruxellensis was inactivated according to the Geeraerd model including the tail effect, with a maximum inactivation of 2.10 log reduction at 10.7 J/cm2; this fluence was selected for further studies. PL affected wine color but the total color difference was below the just noticeable difference at 10.7 J/cm2. The concentration of 13 out of 15 volatile compounds decreased due to the PL, which was noticeable by the panel. It is not clear if these compounds were photolyzed or volatilized in the open reactor during treatment. In conclusion, PL is able to inactivate B. bruxellensis in white wine but the treatment impairs the volatile profile. The use of a closed reactor under turbulent flow is recommended for disaggregating yeast clumps that may cause the tailing of the inactivation curve, and to avoid the possible escape of volatile compounds during treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Food By-Products to Extend Shelf Life: The Case of Cod Sticks Breaded with Dried Olive Paste
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121902 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
Recently, the interest in recovery bioactive compounds from food industrial by-products is growing abundantly. Olive oil by-products are a source of valuable bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. One of the most interesting by-products of olive oil obtained by a two-phase decanter [...] Read more.
Recently, the interest in recovery bioactive compounds from food industrial by-products is growing abundantly. Olive oil by-products are a source of valuable bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. One of the most interesting by-products of olive oil obtained by a two-phase decanter is the olive paste, a wet homogeneous pulp free from residuals of the kernel. To valorize the olive paste, ready-to-cook cod sticks breaded with dried olive oil by-products were developed. Shelf-life tests were carried out on breaded cod sticks and during 15 days of storage at 4 °C pH evolution, microbiological aspects, and sensory properties were also monitored. In addition, the chemical quality of both control and active samples was assessed in terms of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. The enrichment with olive paste increased the total phenols, the flavonoids, and the antioxidant activity of the breaded fish samples compared to the control. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds acted as antimicrobial agents, without compromising the sensory parameters. Therefore, the new products recorded a longer shelf life (12 days) than the control fish sample that remained acceptable for nine days. Full article
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Article
An Update on the Content of Fatty Acids, Dioxins, PCBs and Heavy Metals in Farmed, Escaped and Wild Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121901 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
In this paper, we present updated data on proximate composition, amino acid, and fatty acid composition, as well as concentrations of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected heavy metals, in fillets from farmed (n = 20), escaped (n = 17), and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present updated data on proximate composition, amino acid, and fatty acid composition, as well as concentrations of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected heavy metals, in fillets from farmed (n = 20), escaped (n = 17), and wild (n = 23) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The concentrations of dioxins (0.53 ± 0.12 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g), dioxin-like PCBs (0.95 ± 0.48 pg TEQ/g), mercury (56.3 ± 12.9 µg/kg) and arsenic (2.56 ± 0.87 mg/kg) were three times higher in wild compared to farmed salmon, but all well below EU-uniform maximum levels for contaminants in food. The six ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) PCBs concentrations (5.09 ± 0.83 ng/g) in wild salmon were higher than in the farmed fish (3.34 ± 0.46 ng/g). The protein content was slightly higher in wild salmon (16%) compared to the farmed fish (15%), and the amount of essential amino acids were similar. The fat content of farmed salmon (18%) was three times that of the wild fish, and the proportion of marine long-chain omega-3 fatty acids was a substantially lower (8.9 vs. 24.1%). The omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio was higher in farmed than wild salmon (0.7 vs. 0.05). Both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon are still valuable sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. One 150 g portion per week will contribute to more (2.1 g and 1.8 g) than the recommended weekly intake for adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Rye Bread Defects: Analysis of Composition and Further Influence Factors as Determinants of Dry-Baking
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121900 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
For decades, the evaluation of rye milling products have been aimed at detecting raw material defects that are linked to excessive enzyme activity. Those defects were indirectly characterized by the rheological methods of the dough or the final products. However, such methods do [...] Read more.
For decades, the evaluation of rye milling products have been aimed at detecting raw material defects that are linked to excessive enzyme activity. Those defects were indirectly characterized by the rheological methods of the dough or the final products. However, such methods do not sufficiently reflect the baking properties of all rye flours present on the market. A further problem is the continuing climate change, which affects compound composition in rye. So far, these bread defects can only be corrected by process engineering (e.g., extended dough resting). Therefore, it is necessary to characterize the main determinants of the quality defects prior to the baking process in order to predict baking quality and not waste raw material, energy, and time. In this study, it was found that the water accessibility of starch for gelatinization and its partial inhibition by certain components play a major role in baking quality. Specifically, high amounts of insoluble nonstarch-polysaccharides (NSPSs) and a hindered denaturation of proteins seem to be an indication and reason for poor baking quality. However, traditional quantitative analysis of the ingredients and properties of the rye milling products (e.g., falling number, protein content, amylographic data) does not allow any reliable conclusions about rye flour suitability for use as bread rye. It can be concluded that more complex compositional aspects (e.g., complexation of compounds) need to be characterized for future quality control of rye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Exposure to Bacillus cereus in Water Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121899 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Bacillus cereus is a spoilage bacterium and is recognized as an agent of food poisoning. Two food-borne illnesses are caused by B. cereus: a diarrheal disease, associated with cytotoxin K, hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin and enterotoxin FM, and an emetic syndrome, associated [...] Read more.
Bacillus cereus is a spoilage bacterium and is recognized as an agent of food poisoning. Two food-borne illnesses are caused by B. cereus: a diarrheal disease, associated with cytotoxin K, hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin and enterotoxin FM, and an emetic syndrome, associated with the cereulide toxin. Owing to the heat resistance of B. cereus and its ability to grow in milk, this organism should be considered potentially hazardous in dairy products. The present study assessed the risk of B. cereus poisoning due to the consumption of water buffalo mozzarella cheese. A total of 340 samples were analyzed to determine B. cereus counts (ISO 7932:2005); isolates underwent molecular characterization to detect the presence of genes encoding toxins. Eighty-nine (26.1%) samples harbored B. cereus strains, with values ranging from 2.2 × 102 to 2.6 × 106 CFU/g. Isolates showed eight different molecular profiles, and some displayed virulence characteristics. Bacterial counts and the toxin profiles of isolates were evaluated both separately and jointly to assess the risk of enteritis due to B. cereus following the consumption of buffalo mozzarella cheese. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that the risk of poisoning by B. cereus following the consumption of this cheese was moderate. Full article
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Review
Conceptual Models of Food Choice: Influential Factors Related to Foods, Individual Differences, and Society
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121898 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 6569
Abstract
Understanding individual food choices is critical for transforming the current food system to ensure healthiness of people and sustainability of the planet. Throughout the years, researchers from different fields have proposed conceptual models addressing factors influencing the food choice, recognized as a key [...] Read more.
Understanding individual food choices is critical for transforming the current food system to ensure healthiness of people and sustainability of the planet. Throughout the years, researchers from different fields have proposed conceptual models addressing factors influencing the food choice, recognized as a key leverage to improve planetary and human health. However, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to better understand how different factors are involved and interact with each other in the decision-making process. The present paper reviews and analyzes existing models, providing an intact point-of-view by integrating key elements into a bigger framework. Key determinants of general food choice are identified and categorized, including food-internal factor (sensory and perceptual features), food-external factors (information, social environment, physical environment), personal-state factors (biological features and physiological needs, psychological components, habits and experiences), cognitive factors (knowledge and skills, attitude, liking and preference, anticipated consequences, and personal identity), as well as sociocultural factors (culture, economic variables, political elements). Moreover, possible directions of influence among the factors towards final food choice were discussed. The need of multidisciplinary impulses across research field with the support of empirical data are crucial for understanding factors influencing food choice as well as for enriching existing conceptual models. The framework proposed here would serve as a roadmap for facilitating communications and collaborations between research fields in a structural and systematic way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Consumer Psychology)
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Article
Interfacial Concentrations of Hydroxytyrosol Derivatives in Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Nanoemulsions and Its Influence on Their Lipid Oxidation: Droplet Size Effects
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121897 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Reports on the effect of droplet size on the oxidative stability of emulsions and nanoemulsions are scarce in the literature and frequently contradictory. Here, we have employed a set of hydroxytyrosol (HT) esters of different hydrophobicity and fish oil-in-water emulsified systems containing droplets [...] Read more.
Reports on the effect of droplet size on the oxidative stability of emulsions and nanoemulsions are scarce in the literature and frequently contradictory. Here, we have employed a set of hydroxytyrosol (HT) esters of different hydrophobicity and fish oil-in-water emulsified systems containing droplets of different sizes to evaluate the effect of the droplet size, surfactant, (ΦI) and oil (ΦO) volume fractions on their oxidative stability. To quantitatively unravel the observed findings, we employed a well-established pseudophase kinetic model to determine the distribution and interfacial concentrations of the antioxidants (AOs) in the intact emulsions and nanoemulsions. Results show that there is a direct correlation between antioxidant efficiency and the concentration of the AOs in the interfacial region, which is much higher (20–200 fold) than the stoichiometric one. In both emulsified systems, the highest interfacial concentration and the highest antioxidant efficiency was found for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. Results clearly show that the principal parameter controlling the partitioning of antioxidants is the surfactant volume fraction, ΦI, followed by the O/W ratio; meanwhile, the droplet size has no influence on their interfacial concentrations and, therefore, on their antioxidant efficiency. Moreover, no correlation was seen between droplet size and oxidative stability of both emulsions and nanoemulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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Article
Discrimination between Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Fish Involved in Food Safety and Fraud Protection
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121896 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
This study aims to discriminate fresh fish from frozen/thawed by identification of the key metabolites that are altered during the freezing/thawing processing. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) were selected as they are representative of broad consumption, [...] Read more.
This study aims to discriminate fresh fish from frozen/thawed by identification of the key metabolites that are altered during the freezing/thawing processing. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) were selected as they are representative of broad consumption, and susceptible to pathogen contamination. Atlantic salmon samples were subjected to the following regimes: −20 °C (24h) and −35 °C (15 h) freezing, then thawed respectively in the blast chiller and in the cold room and analyzed immediately or after 10 days; (2) bullet tuna samples were frozen at −18 °C and thawed after 15, 30 and 90 days. High resolution mass spectrometry based on untargeted metabolomic analyses and statistical data treatment confirmed significant variations in the quantity of certain metabolites: the amount of l-phenylalanine in salmon increased immediately after thawing while that of anserine decreased. The concentration of l-arginine and its metabolites was altered at the 10th day after thawing rendering them promising markers of salmon freezing/thawing. As regards bullet tuna, compounds resulting from lipid degradation (l-α-Glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline and N-methyl-ethanolamine phosphate) increased notably during the storage period. This approach could be used to reveal common fraudulent incidents such as deliberate replacement of fresh fish with frozen/thawed, with food safety risks as the primary implication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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Review
Antimicrobial Blue Light versus Pathogenic Bacteria: Mechanism, Application in the Food Industry, Hurdle Technologies and Potential Resistance
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121895 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
Blue light primarily exhibits antimicrobial activity through the activation of endogenous photosensitizers, which leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species that attack components of bacterial cells. Current data show that blue light is innocuous on the skin, but may inflict photo-damage to [...] Read more.
Blue light primarily exhibits antimicrobial activity through the activation of endogenous photosensitizers, which leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species that attack components of bacterial cells. Current data show that blue light is innocuous on the skin, but may inflict photo-damage to the eyes. Laboratory measurements indicate that antimicrobial blue light has minimal effects on the sensorial and nutritional properties of foods, although future research using human panels is required to ascertain these findings. Food properties also affect the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light, with attenuation or enhancement of the bactericidal activity observed in the presence of absorptive materials (for example, proteins on meats) or photosensitizers (for example, riboflavin in milk), respectively. Blue light can also be coupled with other treatments, such as polyphenols, essential oils and organic acids. While complete resistance to blue light has not been reported, isolated evidence suggests that bacterial tolerance to blue light may occur over time, especially through gene mutations, although at a slower rate than antibiotic resistance. Future studies can aim at characterizing the amount and type of intracellular photosensitizers across bacterial species and at assessing the oxygen-independent mechanism of blue light—for example, the inactivation of spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packed meats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens and Food Safety)
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Article
Physicochemical Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei Cocultures on Soy–Wheat Flour Dough Fermentation
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121894 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
In contemporary food production, an important role is given to the increase in the nutritional quality of foodstuff. In the bakery industry, one of the main cereals used is wheat flour (WF), which creates bread with proper sensory evaluation but is nutritionally poor. [...] Read more.
In contemporary food production, an important role is given to the increase in the nutritional quality of foodstuff. In the bakery industry, one of the main cereals used is wheat flour (WF), which creates bread with proper sensory evaluation but is nutritionally poor. Soy-flour (SF) has increased nutrient content, and its consumption is recommended due to several health benefits. Dough fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increases bread shelf life, improves flavor, and its nutritional quality, mostly due to its high organic acid production capability. In the present study, the addition of SF to WF, through fermentation with the cocultures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei was analyzed. Three different batches were performed by using WF supplemented with SF, as follows: batch A consisting of 90% WF and 10% SF; batch B—95% WF and 5% SF; batch C—100% WF. The fermentation with these two LABs presented several positive effects, which, together with increased SF content, improved the dough’s rheological and physicochemical characteristics. The dynamic rheological analysis exhibited a more stable elastic-like behavior in doughs supplemented with SF (G′ 4936.2 ± 12.7, and G″ 2338.4 ± 9.1). Organic acid production changes were the most significant, especially for the lactic, citric, and tartaric content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soybean Processing and Utilization)
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Article
Quality and Shelf-Life Modeling of Frozen Fish at Constant and Variable Temperature Conditions
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121893 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
The objective of this study was the investigation of the effect of variable conditions on quality parameters and the shelf life of fish during frozen storage. Three different fish products were tested, i.e., gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets, sea bass [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was the investigation of the effect of variable conditions on quality parameters and the shelf life of fish during frozen storage. Three different fish products were tested, i.e., gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets, and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) slices stored in the range of −5 to −15 °C. The kinetic modeling of different shelf-life indices was conducted. Sensory scoring of frozen fish showed high correlation with color (L-value) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN). The temperature dependence of the rates of quality degradation was expressed via the activation energy values, calculated via the Arrhenius equation, and ranged, for the tested quality indices, between 49 and 84 kJ/mol. The estimated kinetic parameters were validated at dynamic conditions and their applicability in real conditions was established, allowing for their practical application as tools for cold chain management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes during Food Freezing and Frozen Storage)
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Review
Gas Chromatography Olfactometry (GC-O) for the (Semi)Quantitative Screening of Wine Aroma
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121892 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
This review discusses the different approaches developed by researchers in the last 40 years for the qualitative and semi-quantitative screening of odorants, with special emphasis in wine aroma profiling. In the first part, the aims and possibilities of Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) as odour-screening [...] Read more.
This review discusses the different approaches developed by researchers in the last 40 years for the qualitative and semi-quantitative screening of odorants, with special emphasis in wine aroma profiling. In the first part, the aims and possibilities of Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) as odour-screening and aroma profiling technique are discussed. The critical difference between approaches is whether the ranking of odorants is carried out on an extract containing all the odorants present in the product, or on an extract representative of the odorants contained in the vapour phases that cause the odour and flavour. While the second alternative is more direct and can be more efficient, it requires a good understanding of the factors affecting orthonasal olfaction, handling volatiles (purging, trapping, eluting, and separating) and about the sensory assessment of GC effluents. The review also includes an updated list compiling all the odorants detected in wine by GC-O, including retention indexes and odour descriptions with a general guideline for the identification of odorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
Article
Systematic Investigation of Co-Crystallization Properties in Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Triacylglycerols Containing Palmitic and Oleic Acids in Relation with Palm Oil Dry Fractionation
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121891 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
This work investigates the molecular interactions within the main triacylglycerols constitutive of palm oil, all having a key role in the multi-step dry fractionation process. Identification of these interactions is possible thanks to the establishment of binary and ternary phase diagrams, using differential [...] Read more.
This work investigates the molecular interactions within the main triacylglycerols constitutive of palm oil, all having a key role in the multi-step dry fractionation process. Identification of these interactions is possible thanks to the establishment of binary and ternary phase diagrams, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) at variable temperature. The following systems were selected: PPP-POP, PPP-OPP, PPP-POO, POP-OPP, POP-POO, OPP-POO, PPP-POP-POO and PPP-OPP-POO (P: palmitic acid and O: oleic acid), and analyzed in direct mode (heating at 5 °C/min., after melting and quenching at −60 °C), and after tempering for three months at 20 °C (tempered mode). DSC makes it possible to bring out crystallization and melting phenomena associated to polymorphic transitions, which are further characterized (crystalline forms) by XRD. The results show that unsaturated are poorly soluble in fully saturated triacylglycerols, that the intersolubility decreases in proportion to the number of unsaturated fatty acids, that positional isomerism (POP/OPP) has a major impact, that OPP may induce formation of molecular compounds and that co-crystallization properties are highly modified by tempering depending on the polymorphic properties of the systems. This provides a better understanding and allows for effective control of the palm oil dry fractionation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Detection of Lipid Substances in Food)
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Article
Effect of Physical Structures of Food Matrices on Heat Resistance of Enterococcus faecium NRRL-2356 in Wheat Kernels, Flour and Dough
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121890 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 963 | Correction
Abstract
Nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms, with a similar or slightly higher thermal resistance of the target pathogens, are usually recommended for validating practical pasteurization processes. The aim of this study was to explore a surrogate microorganism in wheat products by comparing the thermal resistance of [...] Read more.
Nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms, with a similar or slightly higher thermal resistance of the target pathogens, are usually recommended for validating practical pasteurization processes. The aim of this study was to explore a surrogate microorganism in wheat products by comparing the thermal resistance of three common bacteria in wheat kernels and flour. The most heat-resistant Enterococcus faecium NRRL-2356 rather than Salmonella cocktail and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was determined when heating at different temperature–time combinations at a fixed heating rate of 5 °C/min in a heating block system. The most heat-resistant pathogen was selected to investigate the influences of physical structures of food matrices. The results indicated that the heat resistance of E. faecium was influenced by physical structures of food matrices and reduced at wheat kernel structural conditions. The inactivation of E. faecium was better fitted in the Weibull distribution model for wheat dough structural conditions while in first-order kinetics for wheat kernel and flour structural conditions due to the changes of physical structures during heating. A better pasteurization effect could be achieved in wheat kernel structure in this study, which may provide technical support for thermal inactivation of pathogens in wheat-based food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Article
Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction to Obtain Erinacine A and Polyphenols with Antioxidant Activity from the Fungal Biomass of Hericium erinaceus
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121889 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal fungal species that produces the active biological metabolite erinacine A with strong antioxidant activity. The classical extraction techniques used to date to obtain metabolites from this fungal species require high consumption of resources and energy and, in the [...] Read more.
Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal fungal species that produces the active biological metabolite erinacine A with strong antioxidant activity. The classical extraction techniques used to date to obtain metabolites from this fungal species require high consumption of resources and energy and, in the end, prove to be expensive and inefficient, especially on a biomedical scale. The aim of this research is based on the development of an ultrasonic extraction (UE) method for the identification and extraction of biological compounds with high antioxidant activity from the mycelia of H. erinaceus biomass developed through a solid cultivation process. The extraction process was optimized by varying parameters to determine the best extraction yield of metabolites involved in such antioxidant activity, using the response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical analyses were oriented towards the investigation of polyphenols, flavonoids, and the diterpenoid erinacine A. It is highlighted that there is a very good mutual connection between the concentration of polyphenols and flavonoids in the extracts studied and the diterpenoid erinacine A. Also, this study describes an efficient and qualitative extraction method for extracting natural antioxidants from the H. erinaceus mushroom, since toxic solvents were not used in the developed extraction procedure. This biomass can be used both as a food source and as a possible phytotherapeutic tool in the prevention or treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders that require drugs with strong antioxidant activity. Full article
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Article
Part Meat and Part Plant: Are Hybrid Meat Products Fad or Future?
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121888 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
There is a growing interest in flexitarian diets, which has resulted in the commercialisation of new hybrid meat products, containing both meat and plant-based ingredients. Consumer attitudes towards hybrid meat products have not been explored, and it is not clear which factors could [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in flexitarian diets, which has resulted in the commercialisation of new hybrid meat products, containing both meat and plant-based ingredients. Consumer attitudes towards hybrid meat products have not been explored, and it is not clear which factors could affect the success of such products. This study is the first to overview of the UK hybrid meat product market and to explore consumer’s attitudes towards hybrid meat products in 201 online reviews, using tools and techniques of corpus linguistics (language analysis). In the positive reviews, consumers emphasised the taste dimension of the hybrid meat products, seeing them as healthier options with good texture and easy to prepare. The negative reviews related to the poor sensory quality and not to the concept of hybridity itself. Using a multidisciplinary approach, our findings revealed valuable insights into consumer attitudes and highlighted factors to consider to market new hybrid meat products effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis and Consumer Research in New Product Development)
Article
Mesophilic Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Strawberry Extrudate Pretreated with Steam Explosion
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121887 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The production of strawberry concentrate produces a side stream after extrusion that is commonly landfilled. This strawberry extrudate (SE), of lignocellulosic character, contains valuable bioactive compounds such as sugars and phenols. Thermal treatments, such as steam explosion, are currently used for the valorisation [...] Read more.
The production of strawberry concentrate produces a side stream after extrusion that is commonly landfilled. This strawberry extrudate (SE), of lignocellulosic character, contains valuable bioactive compounds such as sugars and phenols. Thermal treatments, such as steam explosion, are currently used for the valorisation of agricultural lignocellulosic wastes due to their ability to impact the structure of the lignocellulose and hemicellulose present in these wastes, favouring the disruption of fibrous material. Steam explosion has already been shown as a promising technology for phenol recovery from SE. Biogas is an additional valuable resource that might be produced from thermally pretreated and de-phenolised SE. This study assessed the influence of a steam-explosion pretreatment and the subsequent recovery of phenolic compounds from the long-term operation of a semi-continuous anaerobic digester of pretreated SE. The anaerobic digestion of SE steam exploded at 220 °C for 5 min and de-phenolised was stable at an OLR of 0.5 g of volatile solids (VS)/(L·d), which permitted a specific production rate of 135 ± 11 mL of CH4/(g of VS d). The system was not able to operate at an OLR of 1 g of VS/(L·d), which resulted in a failure of the process. Despite the inhibition threshold of phenolic compounds not being achieved, the inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process at an OLR of 1 g of VS/(L·d) was most likely due to the overloading of the system. This was indicated by the accumulation of soluble organic matter and volatile fatty acids. The increase in the propionic acid concentration up to 1300 mg/L when operating at OLRs higher than 0.5 g of VS/(L·d) could be the main factor responsible for the inhibition. An economic evaluation showed that the proposed approach (steam explosion, phenol recovery, and anaerobic digestion) would offer positive benefits, taking into account the high phenolic recovery (0.90 g of gallic acid equivalents/kg of extrudate) and the low sales price of the phenol extract, i.e., EUR 0.610/g of gallic acid equivalents, needed to reach zero net profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Valuable Compounds from Food Wastes and By-Products)
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Review
Antioxidant Activity in Frozen Plant Foods: Effect of Cryoprotectants, Freezing Process and Frozen Storage
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121886 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
The antioxidant activity (AOA) of plant foods is recognized as an index of the potential health benefits resulting from their consumption. Due to their high perishability and seasonality, plant foods are largely consumed or used as processed products and freezing is one of [...] Read more.
The antioxidant activity (AOA) of plant foods is recognized as an index of the potential health benefits resulting from their consumption. Due to their high perishability and seasonality, plant foods are largely consumed or used as processed products and freezing is one of the technologies used for the production of high-quality foods. However, cell breakages occurring during freezing and frozen storage can lead to the release of antioxidant compounds and their degradation due to chemical and enzymatic oxidation reactions, and thus, they could present a lower antioxidant activity compared to the corresponding fresh product. In this context, process conditions, freezing pre-treatments and the use of cryoprotectants can limit the extent of freeze-induced damages and preserve the antioxidant activity of plant foods. This review collects and discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge on the single and combined effect of freezing and frozen storage conditions on the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables as well as the role of cryoprotectants. Classes of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity of plant foods and the most common methods used for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro are also presented. The freezing principles and the effects of ice nucleation and crystallization on fruits, vegetables and their main derivatives (juices, pulps) have been addressed to highlight their impact on the AOA of plant foods. The effect of freezing and frozen storage on the AOA of plant foods resulted dependant on a series of intrinsic factors (e.g., composition and structure), while the role of extrinsic processing-related factors, such as freezing and storage temperatures, is ambiguous. In particular, many conflicting results are reported in the literature with a high variability depending on the method of analysis used for the AOA evaluation and data expression (fresh or dry weight). Other intrinsic raw material properties (e.g., cultivar, ripening degree), post-harvest conditions, as well as defrosting methods that in the majority of the studies are scarcely reported, contribute to the aforementioned discrepancies. Finally, due to the limited number of studies reported in the literature and the high variability in product processing, the effect of cryoprotectants on the AOA of plant foods remains unclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes during Food Freezing and Frozen Storage)
Article
Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Profile of M. longissimus thoracis from Commercial Lambs Reared in Different Forage Systems
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121885 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Animal production factors can affect the fatty acid and volatile profile of lamb meat. The fatty acid and volatile composition of the M. longissimus thoracis was evaluated from 150 lambs from 10 groups of commercial lambs that differed in age, sex, diet and [...] Read more.
Animal production factors can affect the fatty acid and volatile profile of lamb meat. The fatty acid and volatile composition of the M. longissimus thoracis was evaluated from 150 lambs from 10 groups of commercial lambs that differed in age, sex, diet and breed, from three farms, which represent typical forage lamb production systems in New Zealand. The meat from 4-month-old composite lambs slaughtered at weaning had a similar polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio compared to 6- to 8-month-old composite lambs, but a greater ratio than that of 12-month-old Merino lambs (p < 0.05), with all ratios being lower than the recommended ≥0.45. All lamb production systems produced meat with an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio below 1.5, well below the recommended ratio ≤ 4.0. Meat from 4-month-old lambs had higher C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0 and lower C18:0, reflecting the composition of the milk diet, resulting in higher atherogenic index than meat from other animal groups, while meat from 12-month-old Merino lambs, with lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, showed higher thrombogenic index. Meat from lambs processed at weaning contained the greatest concentration of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which would qualify as a ‘source’ or ‘good source’ of these target fatty acids based on the Commission of Regulation of the European Union or the Food Standards Australia New Zealand guidelines, respectively. Volatiles were extracted from the headspace of raw lean meat and 36 volatile compounds were identified. The abundance of carbon disulphide, isododecane, heptanal, 2,5-hexanediol and 3-octanone and pentanoic, octanoic, nonanoic and heptanoic acids was similar between all groups of lambs. Meat from 12-month-old Merino lambs had low abundance of acetic, propanoic, butanoic and hexanoic acids, and hexanal, octanal and dimethyl sulphide. For 6- to 8-month-old composite lambs, hexanal, octanal and nonanal were present at higher relative abundance in meat from lambs that grazed on chicory than perennial ryegrass. The significant differences in the fatty acid and volatile profiles in meat from 12-month-old Merino lambs compared with lambs slaughtered at weaning or further grazed on red clover, chicory or mixed pasture may result in distinctive nutritional value and lamb flavour. Full article
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