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Review

Food Ingredients and Active Compounds against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review

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Research & Innovation Department, Galanakis Laboratories, 73131 Chania, Greece
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College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
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Food Waste Recovery Group, ISEKI Food Association, 1190 Vienna, Austria
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Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, N37 F6D7 Athlone, Ireland
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Empower Eco Sustainability Hub, Lough Boora, R35 DA50 Co. Offaly, Ireland
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Food and Nutritional Sciences Program, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27401, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111701
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
As media reports have noted, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated market mainstreaming of immune-boosting food bioactives, supplements, and nutraceuticals. However, most studies reporting on the potential of bioactives against COVID-19 transmission have been uploaded as preprints with little opportunity to revise content for benefit and impact. The current review discusses current best evidence and information underpinning the role of food ingredients and bioactive compounds in supporting immune functions in humans and animals, specifically in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 disease. Up to now, some evidence from randomized population and clinical trials has suggested that vitamin D levels may be linked to COVID-19 transmission and severity. Numerous theoretical studies have pointed to polyphenols and particularly flavonoids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is also inconclusive evidence to support the future use of β-glucan to address COVID-19 due in part to variability in immune response arising from heterogeneity in polysaccharide branch and chain length for different sources and the absence of a standardized extraction method. To confirm the promising outcomes and hypotheses for bioactive compounds, more randomized and controlled clinical studies are needed. The results of such studies would have a profound effect on the prospects of food supplements and nutraceuticals as potential prophylaxis against COVID-19 and serve to help consumers to protect themselves during the post-lockdown recovery era. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; vitamin D; immune system; functional foods; nutraceuticals SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; vitamin D; immune system; functional foods; nutraceuticals
MDPI and ACS Style

Galanakis, C.M.; Aldawoud, T.M.S.; Rizou, M.; Rowan, N.J.; Ibrahim, S.A. Food Ingredients and Active Compounds against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review. Foods 2020, 9, 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111701

AMA Style

Galanakis CM, Aldawoud TMS, Rizou M, Rowan NJ, Ibrahim SA. Food Ingredients and Active Compounds against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review. Foods. 2020; 9(11):1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galanakis, Charis M., Turki M.S. Aldawoud, Myrto Rizou, Neil J. Rowan, and Salam A. Ibrahim 2020. "Food Ingredients and Active Compounds against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review" Foods 9, no. 11: 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111701

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