Seafood and Seafood Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 62601

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture & Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: functional foods; antioxidants; fatty acids; nutrigenomics; large animal models of human nutrition and obesity; selenium
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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: separation science; natural product chemistry; advance food chemistry; life sciences & biomedicine; food and health; food nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Seafood and seafood products are excellent sources of nutrients for human health. Seafood products contain many important biomolecules, including peptides, fatty acids, minerals (iodine, zinc, potassium, and phosphorus), and many vitamins, especially the B group. These biomolecules play an important role in the nutritional value and sensory quality of seafood. Fish is a high-protein, low-fat food that provides a range of health benefits. Consumption of marine and marine products is actively encouraged for the prevention and treatment of various diseases.

In this Special iIsue, we are encouraging the submission of manuscripts related to the chemistry of seafood components such as proteins, lipids, flavorants, quality of seafood with respect to their freshness, preservation, microbiological safety, and sensory attributes. We are highly interested and encourage manuscripts related to marine or seafood processing waste, underutilized species, and processing discards for production of value-added products.

Prof. Frank Dunshea
Dr. Hafiz Suleria
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • seafood and seafood products
  • fish and fish products
  • fish quality
  • seafood packaging and preservation
  • marine processing waste
  • marine bioactive compounds
  • seafood processing
  • seafood quality

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 2276 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Bacterial Communities of Cold-Smoked Salmon during Storage
by Aurélien Maillet, Pauline Denojean, Agnès Bouju-Albert, Erwann Scaon, Sébastien Leuillet, Xavier Dousset, Emmanuel Jaffrès, Jérôme Combrisson and Hervé Prévost
Foods 2021, 10(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020362 - 7 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4065
Abstract
Cold-smoked salmon is a widely consumed ready-to-eat seafood product that is a fragile commodity with a long shelf-life. The microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during its shelf-life is well known. However, to our knowledge, no study on the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon [...] Read more.
Cold-smoked salmon is a widely consumed ready-to-eat seafood product that is a fragile commodity with a long shelf-life. The microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during its shelf-life is well known. However, to our knowledge, no study on the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon using next-generation sequencing has yet been undertaken. In this study, cold-smoked salmon microbiotas were investigated using a polyphasic approach composed of cultivable methods, V3—V4 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and chemical analyses. Forty-five cold-smoked salmon products processed in three different factories were analyzed. The metabarcoding approach highlighted 12 dominant genera previously reported as fish spoilers: Firmicutes Staphylococcus, Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, β-Proteobacteria Photobacterium, Vibrio, Aliivibrio, Salinivibrio, Enterobacteriaceae Serratia,Pantoea, γ-Proteobacteria Psychrobacter, Shewanella and Pseudomonas. Specific operational taxonomic units were identified during the 28-day storage study period. Operational taxonomic units specific to the processing environment were also identified. Although the 45 cold-smoked salmon products shared a core microbiota, a processing plant signature was found. This suggest that the bacterial communities of cold-smoked salmon products are impacted by the processing environment, and this environment could have a negative effect on product quality. The use of a polyphasic approach for seafood products and food processing environments could provide better insights into residential bacteria dynamics and their impact on food safety and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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15 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Discrimination between Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Fish Involved in Food Safety and Fraud Protection
by Luca Maria Chiesa, Radmila Pavlovic, Maria Nobile, Federica Di Cesare, Renato Malandra, Davide Pessina and Sara Panseri
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121896 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4449
Abstract
This study aims to discriminate fresh fish from frozen/thawed by identification of the key metabolites that are altered during the freezing/thawing processing. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) were selected as they are representative of broad consumption, [...] Read more.
This study aims to discriminate fresh fish from frozen/thawed by identification of the key metabolites that are altered during the freezing/thawing processing. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) were selected as they are representative of broad consumption, and susceptible to pathogen contamination. Atlantic salmon samples were subjected to the following regimes: −20 °C (24h) and −35 °C (15 h) freezing, then thawed respectively in the blast chiller and in the cold room and analyzed immediately or after 10 days; (2) bullet tuna samples were frozen at −18 °C and thawed after 15, 30 and 90 days. High resolution mass spectrometry based on untargeted metabolomic analyses and statistical data treatment confirmed significant variations in the quantity of certain metabolites: the amount of l-phenylalanine in salmon increased immediately after thawing while that of anserine decreased. The concentration of l-arginine and its metabolites was altered at the 10th day after thawing rendering them promising markers of salmon freezing/thawing. As regards bullet tuna, compounds resulting from lipid degradation (l-α-Glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline and N-methyl-ethanolamine phosphate) increased notably during the storage period. This approach could be used to reveal common fraudulent incidents such as deliberate replacement of fresh fish with frozen/thawed, with food safety risks as the primary implication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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13 pages, 1467 KiB  
Article
Heavy Metals Contamination in Shellfish: Benefit-Risk Evaluation in Central Italy
by Francesca Barchiesi, Raffaella Branciari, Mario Latini, Rossana Roila, Giuseppe Lediani, Giovanni Filippini, Giampiero Scortichini, Arianna Piersanti, Elena Rocchegiani and David Ranucci
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111720 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4319
Abstract
Seafood is a source of nutrients in human diet but also of environmental contaminants and its consumption could pose a risk to consumers’ health. A survey regarding the exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury through the consumption of bivalve mollusks, gastropods and sea [...] Read more.
Seafood is a source of nutrients in human diet but also of environmental contaminants and its consumption could pose a risk to consumers’ health. A survey regarding the exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury through the consumption of bivalve mollusks, gastropods and sea urchins collected on Italian coasts was carried out among central Italian population over a period of three years. A limited number of samples exceeds the threshold set by legislation (6 samples) and the average level of contamination was low in all the species considered. The contribution Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was higher for cadmium (9.17%) than lead (1.44%) and mercury (0.20%). The benefit-risk evaluation suggests that the bivalve mollusks and sea urchins consumption (Benefit Risk Quotient < 1) could be increased without health detrimental effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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17 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
Variation in Nutrient Composition of Seafood from North West Africa: Implications for Food and Nutrition Security
by Inger Aakre, Annbjørg Bøkevoll, Jamal Chaira, Fatima Zohra Bouthir, Sylvia Frantzen, Anette Kausland and Marian Kjellevold
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101516 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6123
Abstract
Fish and seafood may play an important role for nutrition and food security as they contain essential vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. The aim of this study was to describe the nutrient composition, including fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, in [...] Read more.
Fish and seafood may play an important role for nutrition and food security as they contain essential vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. The aim of this study was to describe the nutrient composition, including fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, in commonly consumed fish species (fillet- and whole fish samples) sampled off the Northwest African coast. Furthermore, we assessed the species’ contributions to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) values from the World Health Organization (WHO). Samples of commercially important fish species (Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Trachurus trachurus, Pagellus acarne) were collected using trawling on the R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in May 2017 and analyzed for nutrients at the Institute of Marine Research as individual and composite samples. All the analyzed fish species were good dietary sources of several vitamins and minerals and whole fish were substantially more nutrient dense than fillet samples, especially with regard to vitamin A, iodine, zinc, calcium, and iron. Including 100 g of sardine or anchovy (whole fish) in the diet, would contribute substantially to the RNI for vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin A, EPA and DHA as well as the minerals iodine, zinc, and calcium. This study shows that fish consumed with skin, bone, and viscera may be very nutrient dense and important for local food and nutrition security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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19 pages, 4172 KiB  
Article
Red Shrimp Are a Rich Source of Nutritionally Vital Lipophilic Compounds: A Comparative Study among Edible Flesh and Processing Waste
by Ramesh Kumar Saini, Min-Ho Song, Kannan R. R. Rengasamy, Eun-Young Ko and Young-Soo Keum
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091179 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4012
Abstract
This study was aimed at comparatively analyzing the sterols, tocopherols and fatty acids from edible flesh and processing waste obtained from three shrimp species, utilizing rapid liquid chromatography (LC)-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results revealed the [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at comparatively analyzing the sterols, tocopherols and fatty acids from edible flesh and processing waste obtained from three shrimp species, utilizing rapid liquid chromatography (LC)-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results revealed the presence of significantly (p < 0.05) high proportions of health-beneficial omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in Argentine red shrimp (34.3% in waste and 38.2% in the flesh), compared to black tiger shrimp (16.5–24.2%) and whiteleg shrimp (13.2–22.6%). Among sterols, cholesterol was found most dominant, accounting in the range 349.4 (white shrimp flesh) to 559.3 µg/g fresh weight (FW) (black shrimp waste). Surprisingly, waste was found to contain a substantially higher amount of α-tocopherol, for instance, 21.7 µg/g FW in edible flesh and 35.3 µg/g FW in the waste of black tiger shrimp. The correlation analysis indicated that shrimp with low total contents of lipids might have higher proportions of health-beneficial long-chain (LC)-n3-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The fat quality indices, including the high ratios of hypocholesterolemic (h)/hypercholesterolemic (H) fatty acids, and lowest values of the atherogenic index (AI) and thrombogenic index (TI) indicated the health-beneficial potential associated with fat intake from red shrimp. Overall, a significant amount of health-beneficial compounds in edible flesh of studied shrimp confers its extraordinary nutritional benefits. Moreover, considering the richness of processing waste with these compounds, their valorization can be prompted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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10 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Long Sea Snail Hinia reticulata (Gastropod) from the Middle Adriatic Sea as a Possible Alternative for Human Consumption
by Alberto Felici, Nina Bilandžić, Gian Enrico Magi, Nicolaia Iaffaldano, Elisa Fiordelmondo, Gerardo Doti and Alessandra Roncarati
Foods 2020, 9(7), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070905 - 9 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3615
Abstract
In mid Adriatic Sea the common sea snail is the habitual snail eaten, but over the years fishermen started to capture also the long sea snail, a possible alternative for human consumption. This study aims to compare the quality traits of the edible [...] Read more.
In mid Adriatic Sea the common sea snail is the habitual snail eaten, but over the years fishermen started to capture also the long sea snail, a possible alternative for human consumption. This study aims to compare the quality traits of the edible fraction in the common and long sea snails. In this study, common and long sea snail samples were provided by fishermen in November 2018 and March 2019. Total weight (meat and shell), fractions of meat and shell (after having extracted the edible part), fatty acid, elements in meat, and calcium content in shells were determined. Meat quality traits showed high nutritional value without significant differences between the two species. The fatty acid profile showed n3/n6 ratio significantly different both considering the season of sampling (November: 4.1; March: 2.38) and the species of sea snail (common: 4.98; long: 2.86). The long species showed a higher yield in the total body and calcium content concentrations. However, the long sea snail showed 50% lower meat yield compared with the common sea snail. In conclusion, the long sea snail can be used as an alternative to the common sea snail for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
12 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Changes in Free Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Sardines, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792): Implications for Nutrition
by Vida Šimat, Imen Hamed, Sandra Petričević and Tanja Bogdanović
Foods 2020, 9(7), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070867 - 2 Jul 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3994
Abstract
The aim of this study was to clarify the seasonal variation in the proximate composition of the free amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from the Adriatic Sea and to better understand the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to clarify the seasonal variation in the proximate composition of the free amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from the Adriatic Sea and to better understand the nutritive value needed to organize more effective industrial processing, aquaculture use and to ensure the health benefits for consumers through available bioactive compounds such as omega-3 FA and essential AA. The lipid content ranged from 1.18 to 10.58% during the year, being the highest from July to September. For the first time, this paper reports the monthly variation in AA content in sardines. The highest total AA content was measured during the winter period, from January (843 mg/100 g fillet) to March (953 mg/100 g) with histidine, arginine and threonine being the most dominant. The total content of essential free AA (histidine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and lysine) ranged from 137 to 571 mg/100 g fillet (wet weight), recorded in May and March, respectively. The fatty acid profile analyses revealed the major saturated FA as palmitic (C16:0), followed by myristic (C14:0), and stearic (C18:0) acids, and the predominant monosaturated FA as oleic (C18:1n–9) and palmitoleic (C16:1n–7). The high concentrations of polyunsaturated FA in sardines were omega-3 FA, particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 20:6n-3) FA. From July to September, their content was the highest (>3.5 g/100 g of sardine fillets), confirming that these species are excellent sources of bioactive lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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19 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Composition of Demersal, Pelagic, and Mesopelagic Fish Species Sampled Off the Coast of Bangladesh and Their Potential Contribution to Food and Nutrition Security—The EAF-Nansen Programme
by Anna Nordhagen, Abu Ansar Md. Rizwan, Inger Aakre, Amalie Moxness Reksten, Lauren Michelle Pincus, Annbjørg Bøkevoll, Al Mamun, Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted, Thaung Htut, Thiruchenduran Somasundaram and Marian Kjellevold
Foods 2020, 9(6), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060730 - 3 Jun 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6321
Abstract
Fish is a major part of the Bangladeshi diet, but data on the nutrient composition of marine fish species are sparse. Mesopelagic fish may be a new potential resource of food and nutrients; however, nutrient composition data are lacking. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Fish is a major part of the Bangladeshi diet, but data on the nutrient composition of marine fish species are sparse. Mesopelagic fish may be a new potential resource of food and nutrients; however, nutrient composition data are lacking. The aim of this study was to provide nutrient composition data of fish species sampled off the coast of Bangladesh and determine their potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes (RNI). Seven species from the pelagic, mesopelagic, and demersal zones were sampled from the coast of Bangladesh with Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in 2018. Three pooled samples containing 15-840 individuals from each species were analysed at the Institute of Marine Research, Norway. The demersal species contained substantially lower concentrations of nearly all nutrients, whereas the mesopelagic species generally were more nutrient dense. All species, except for the demersal species Bombay duck (9% dry matter), were found to contribute ≥100% to the RNI of vitamin B12, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and selenium. All species, except for the demersal fish species, contributed ≥25% to the RNI of six or more nutrients. The data presented in this paper are an important contribution to the Bangladeshi food composition table and contribute to the understanding of fish as an important source of micronutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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9 pages, 1011 KiB  
Communication
Anti-Hypertensive Activity of Novel Peptides Identified from Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Surimi
by Jae-Young Oh, Jun-Geon Je, Hyo-Geun Lee, Eun-A Kim, Sang In Kang, Jung-Suck Lee and You-Jin Jeon
Foods 2020, 9(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050647 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3288
Abstract
There is a growing interest in the health benefits of functional foods. A benefit that has been long sought is the control of hypertension through dietary approaches. Hypertension has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is therefore of clinical [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in the health benefits of functional foods. A benefit that has been long sought is the control of hypertension through dietary approaches. Hypertension has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is therefore of clinical significance. Here, we aim to demonstrate the antihypertensive activity of novel peptides derived from surimi, a functional food ingredient made from refined fish myofibrillar proteins. Three peptides, Ile-Val-Asp-Arg (IVDR), Trp-Tyr-Lys (WYK), and Val-Ala-Ser-Val-Ile (VASVI), were isolated from surimi made from the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Our results show that IVDR, WYK, and VASVI exhibited high Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. These peptides are also shown to increase phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and significantly promote nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Oral administration of the peptides decreased blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), thereby confirming that the peptides derived from surimi perform antihypertensive activity via the Akt/eNOS pathway. These results indicate that surimi made from P. olivaceus contains novel antihypertensive peptides that could be used to enhance the health benefits of food ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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19 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Nutrient and Chemical Contaminant Levels in Five Marine Fish Species from Angola—The EAF-Nansen Programme
by Amalie Moxness Reksten, Avelina M. Joao Correia Victor, Edia Baptista Nascimento Neves, Sofie Myhre Christiansen, Molly Ahern, Abimbola Uzomah, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Jeppe Kolding and Marian Kjellevold
Foods 2020, 9(5), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050629 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4486
Abstract
Fish is a rich source of several important nutrients and an important part of the otherwise plant-dominated diet present in Angola. However, fish may also be a source of contaminants. The aim of this study was to analyse the nutrient contents and the [...] Read more.
Fish is a rich source of several important nutrients and an important part of the otherwise plant-dominated diet present in Angola. However, fish may also be a source of contaminants. The aim of this study was to analyse the nutrient contents and the levels of chemical contaminants, including arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, in five commonly consumed marine fish species sampled during a survey with the research vessel Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in Angola. The species’ contribution to recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for women and children was assessed and compared to that of food products of terrestrial animal origin. All the sampled species are good sources of protein and micronutrients if included in the diet, and inter-species variation is evident. The species were identified to contribute 5–15% of the RNI for calcium, iron, iodine, and zinc and exceeded the contribution to protein and iron intakes of food products of terrestrial animal origin. Furthermore, the potential consumer exposure to chemical contaminants in the species was assessed. None of the species exceeded the maximum levels for cadmium, mercury, and lead, and the potential consumer exposure to cadmium and methylmercury was considered low. The data presented in this study represent an important contribution to African food composition tables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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14 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Composition and Fatty Acid and Protein Profiles of Selected Fish By-Products
by Aikaterini Kandyliari, Athanasios Mallouchos, Nikos Papandroulakis, Jaya Prakash Golla, TuKiet T. Lam, Aikaterini Sakellari, Sotirios Karavoltsos, Vasilis Vasiliou and Maria Kapsokefalou
Foods 2020, 9(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020190 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 7080
Abstract
Processing of fish in aquaculture generates considerable amounts of by-products that remain underused and/or unexploited. We evaluated the nutritive content of fish by-products (head, gills, intestines, trimmings, bones, and skin) from meagre and gilthead sea bream fish species reared in Greece in order [...] Read more.
Processing of fish in aquaculture generates considerable amounts of by-products that remain underused and/or unexploited. We evaluated the nutritive content of fish by-products (head, gills, intestines, trimmings, bones, and skin) from meagre and gilthead sea bream fish species reared in Greece in order to estimate their nutritional value for future development of high added-value products. The proximate composition of the fish samples (total protein, total lipid, ash, moisture, and macro-element content) was determined using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) official methods. The content of fatty acids was determined using capillary gas chromatography, and the protein profile was estimated employing scientific orbitrap mass spectrophotometer methodology. The nutrient composition of fish by-products presented fluctuations among the different by-products. Skin was the most significant protein source, trimmings and bones were high in calcium, and the head, intestines, and bones were a good source of lipids. The most abundant lipid acids found in by-products were oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and eicosenoic acids, whereas the most abundant proteins were adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase subunit epsilon, mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 8. These data suggest that by-products constitute valuable sources of nutrients and could therefore be exploited in accordance with the principles of a circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
16 pages, 1459 KiB  
Article
Design of Predictive Tools to Estimate Freshness Index in Farmed Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Stored in Ice
by Juan Calanche, Selene Pedrós, Pedro Roncalés and José Antonio Beltrán
Foods 2020, 9(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010069 - 8 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3783
Abstract
This research studied sea bream freshness evolution through storage time in ice by determining different quality parameters and sensory profiles. Predictive models for freshness index, storage time, and microbial counts were designed from these data. Physico–chemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the quality [...] Read more.
This research studied sea bream freshness evolution through storage time in ice by determining different quality parameters and sensory profiles. Predictive models for freshness index, storage time, and microbial counts were designed from these data. Physico–chemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the quality of fish; microbial growth was controlled to ensure food safety, and sensory analyses were carried out to characterize quality deterioration. Predictive models were developed and improved with the aim of being used as tools for quality management in the seafood industry. Validation was conducted in order to establish the accuracy of models. There was a good relationship between the physico–chemical and microbiological parameters. Sensory analysis and microbial counts allowed for the establishment of a shelf-life of 10 days, which corresponded to a poor quality (according to the European Community’s system of grading fish for marketing purposes), with a freshness index lower than 50%. Sensory profiles showed that gill and flesh texture were the most vulnerable attributes during storage in ice related to spoilage. The predictive models for the freshness index (%) and ice storage time (h) exhibited an accuracy close to 90% following practical validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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10 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Non-Volatile Taste-Active Components in Crab Sauce
by Tian-Tian Liu, Ning Xia, Qin-Zhi Wang and De-Wei Chen
Foods 2019, 8(8), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080324 - 7 Aug 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4207
Abstract
Crab sauce is a traditional umami seasoning in the coastal cities in South East China. The putative non-volatile taste-active components in crab sauce were measured, and their impacts on the taste were evaluated on the basis of the taste activity value (TAV), omission [...] Read more.
Crab sauce is a traditional umami seasoning in the coastal cities in South East China. The putative non-volatile taste-active components in crab sauce were measured, and their impacts on the taste were evaluated on the basis of the taste activity value (TAV), omission test, addition test and equivalent umami concentration (EUC). The EUC used to evaluate the synergistic effect of the flavor nucleotides and umami amino acids was 19.3 g monosodium glutamate (MSG)/100 mL, which illuminated that crab sauce had a very intense umami taste. The key non-volatile taste-active components in crab sauce demonstrated by the omission test and addition test were glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), lysine (Lys), histidine (His), 5′-inosine monophosphate (IMP), 5′-guanosine monophosphate (GMP), NaCl, KCl, serine (Ser) and valine (Val), and most of these components also had a higher TAV. So, the TAV could be a high-efficiency tool to predict the taste-active components, and the TAV combined with the omission test and addition test could be a very useful method to determine the taste-active components in crab sauce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood and Seafood Products)
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