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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 240 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Game meat production strongly differs from that of other meats, as peculiar factors present in the field and in the steps prior to transfer to a game-handling establishment can influence the hygiene of the carcasses and, therefore, of the meat. The effects of such factors were considered in hunted wild boars based on the main hygienic criteria adopted in meat processing. Environmental, animal, and hunting conditions were studied during two selective hunting seasons in Central Italy. A total of 120 hunted wild boar carcasses were sampled after the skinning process and analyzed for aerobic colony count, Enterobacteriaceae count, and Salmonella spp. View this paper
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Article
Comparison Performance of Visible-NIR and Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Prediction of Nutritional Quality of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.)
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071676 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
The potential of hyperspectral imaging for the prediction of the internal composition of goji berries was investigated. The prediction performances of models obtained in the Visible-Near Infrared (VIS-NIR) (400–1000 nm) and in the Near Infrared (NIR) (900–1700 nm) regions were compared. Analyzed constituents [...] Read more.
The potential of hyperspectral imaging for the prediction of the internal composition of goji berries was investigated. The prediction performances of models obtained in the Visible-Near Infrared (VIS-NIR) (400–1000 nm) and in the Near Infrared (NIR) (900–1700 nm) regions were compared. Analyzed constituents included Vitamin C, total antioxidant, phenols, anthocyanin, soluble solids content (SSC), and total acidity (TA). For vitamin C and AA, partial least square regression (PLSR) combined with different data pretreatments and wavelength selection resulted in a satisfactory prediction in the NIR region obtaining the R2pred value of 0.91. As for phenols, SSC, and TA, a better performance was obtained in the VIS-NIR region yielding the R2pred values of 0.62, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively. However, the prediction of total antioxidant and anthocyanin content did not give satisfactory results. Conclusively, hyperspectral imaging can be a useful tool for the prediction of the main constituents of the goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.). Full article
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Article
The Effects of Transglutaminase and Refrigerated Storage on the Physicochemical Properties of Whole Wheat Dough and Noodles
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071675 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of transglutaminase (TG) concentrations (0, 0.1% and 1%) on the physicochemical properties of whole wheat dough (WWD) and noodles (WWN) during refrigerated storage (0, 1, 2, and 3 days). The yield, ferulic acid (FA) content, molecular weight (Mw), [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of transglutaminase (TG) concentrations (0, 0.1% and 1%) on the physicochemical properties of whole wheat dough (WWD) and noodles (WWN) during refrigerated storage (0, 1, 2, and 3 days). The yield, ferulic acid (FA) content, molecular weight (Mw), and apparent viscosity (AV) of water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) from refrigerated WWDs were analysed. The WEAX yield and FA tended to increase with refrigerated storage, while the Mw decreased. WEAX FA of from WWD with TG tended to be smaller than the control during refrigeration. The AV for all WEAXs gradually decreased during refrigeration. The TG concentration effects on WWD resistance to extension and extensibility and the WWN cooking properties and texture profile analysis (TPA) were studied. The water absorption and swelling index tended to decrease in WWNs with TG depending on refrigeration time compared to the control samples. The TPA results showed that WWNs with TG were significantly harder than the control after two days of refrigeration. This study demonstrated that TG affected not only WWD composition but also WWN physical properties during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grain Foods, Noodles and Steamed Bread)
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Article
A Population Balance Model to Describe the Evolution of Sublethal Injury
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071674 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The detection and quantification of sublethal injury (SI) of pathogenic microorganisms has become a common procedure when assessing the efficiency of microbial inactivation treatments. However, while a plethora of studies investigates SI in function of time, no suitable modelling procedure for SI data [...] Read more.
The detection and quantification of sublethal injury (SI) of pathogenic microorganisms has become a common procedure when assessing the efficiency of microbial inactivation treatments. However, while a plethora of studies investigates SI in function of time, no suitable modelling procedure for SI data has been proposed thus far. In this study, a new SI model structure was developed that relies on existing microbial inactivation models. This model is based on the description of inactivation kinetics between the subpopulations of healthy, sublethally injured and dead cells. The model was validated by means of case studies on previously published results, modelled by different inactivation models, i.e., (i) log-linear inactivation; (ii) biphasic inactivation; and (iii) log-linear inactivation with tailing. Results were compared to those obtained by the traditional method that relies on calculating SI from independent inactivation models on non-selective and selective media. The log-linear inactivation case study demonstrated that the SI model is equivalent to the use of independent models when there can be no mistake in calculating SI. The biphasic inactivation case study illustrated how the SI model avoids unrealistic calculations of SI that would otherwise occur. The final case study on log-linear inactivation with tailing clarified that the SI model provides a more mechanistic description than the independent models, in this case allowing the reduction of the number of model parameters. As such, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of the potential and applications for the newly presented SI model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Modelling and Simulation of Food Systems)
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Analysis of Research on Arcobacter: Public Health Implications from a Food–Environment Interphase Perspective
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071673 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
This review maps the global research landscape of the public health implications of Arcobacter from the food–environment interphase using content analytics and integrated science mapping. The search term “Arcobacter” was used to retrieve relevant articles published in Web of Science and Scopus between [...] Read more.
This review maps the global research landscape of the public health implications of Arcobacter from the food–environment interphase using content analytics and integrated science mapping. The search term “Arcobacter” was used to retrieve relevant articles published in Web of Science and Scopus between 1991 to 2019. The number of articles included in the review was 524, with 1304 authors, 172 journal sources, and a collaborative index of 2.55. The annual growth rate of the publications was 9.74%. The most contributing author in the field was Houf K., with 40 publications, 26 h-index, and 2020 total citations. The most productive country was the USA (13.33%). The majority of the articles were published in English (96%) and in the Journal of Food Protection (8.02%). The highest research outputs were in the field of Microbiology (264). The frequently occurred keywords were Arcobacter, poultry, shellfish, cattle, and chicken. This study revealed a fair increase in the growth rate of Arcobacter-related research—especially in the area of isolation and detection of the pathogen in foods and food environments, as well as the pathogenesis and genetic diversity of the pathogen. Research themes in the area of prevalence and epidemiology seem to be underexplored. Full article
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Review
Probiotics for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071672 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Accumulating evidence from animal studies supports the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in alleviating neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether dietary supplementation with probiotics improves cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is unclear. We searched literature databases [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence from animal studies supports the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in alleviating neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether dietary supplementation with probiotics improves cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is unclear. We searched literature databases for relevant randomized control trials and compared the outcomes between control/placebo and intervention groups. The results of the included studies were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model, with standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated as summary statistics. We also performed a risk-of-bias assessment, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. Among the 294 articles identified, eight articles involving 174 patients with AD and 446 with MCI were included in the qualitative synthesis and seven studies were meta-analyzed. Our analysis detected high between-group heterogeneity (SMD = 0.43, 95% CI −0.02–0.88, p < 0.0001, I2 = 86.4%) in cognitive function across the included studies. Subgroup analyses identified a significant effect of probiotics on cognitive function only in the studies involving people with MCI (I2 = 44%, p = 0.15 for heterogeneity, p = 0.0002 for overall effect). Our findings suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotics improves cognitive function, especially in people with MCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Health Effects)
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Review
The Use of SPME-GC-MS IR and Raman Techniques for Botanical and Geographical Authentication and Detection of Adulteration of Honey
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071671 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The aim of this review is to describe the chromatographic, spectrometric, and spectroscopic techniques applied to honey for the determination of botanical and geographical origin and detection of adulteration. Based on the volatile profile of honey and using Solid Phase microextraction-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to describe the chromatographic, spectrometric, and spectroscopic techniques applied to honey for the determination of botanical and geographical origin and detection of adulteration. Based on the volatile profile of honey and using Solid Phase microextraction-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analytical technique, botanical and geographical characterization of honey can be successfully determined. In addition, the use of vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in particular, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, are discussed as a tool for the detection of honey adulteration and verification of its botanical and geographical origin. Manipulation of the obtained data regarding all the above-mentioned techniques was performed using chemometric analysis. This article reviews the literature between 2007 and 2020. Full article
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Article
Chemical Elements and the Quality of Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071670 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Soil properties in the foraging range of honeybees influence honey composition. We aimed to determine relationships between the antimicrobial properties of New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and elemental concentrations in the honey, plants, and soils. We analyzed soils, plants, and [...] Read more.
Soil properties in the foraging range of honeybees influence honey composition. We aimed to determine relationships between the antimicrobial properties of New Zealand mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and elemental concentrations in the honey, plants, and soils. We analyzed soils, plants, and fresh mānuka honey samples from the Wairarapa region of New Zealand for the chemical elements and the antimicrobial activity of the honey as indicated by methylglyoxal (MGO) and dihydroxyacetone (DHA). There were significant negative correlations between honey MGO and the concentrations of Mn, Cu, Mg, S, Na, Ba, K, Zn, and Al. These elements may provide a low-cost means of assessing mānuka honey quality. For individual elements, except for K, there were no correlations between the honeys, plants, and soils. Soil nitrate concentrations were negatively correlated with concentrations of MGO and DHA in the honey, which implies that soil fertility may be a determiner of mānuka honey quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Effect of Barrel-to-Barrel Variation on Color and Phenolic Composition of a Red Wine
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071669 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Tangible variation of sensory characteristics is often observed in wine aged in similar barrels. Barrel-to-barrel variation in barrel-aged wines was investigated in respect of the most important phenolic compounds of oenological interest. A red wine was aged in 49 medium-toasted oak (Quercus [...] Read more.
Tangible variation of sensory characteristics is often observed in wine aged in similar barrels. Barrel-to-barrel variation in barrel-aged wines was investigated in respect of the most important phenolic compounds of oenological interest. A red wine was aged in 49 medium-toasted oak (Quercus petraea) barrels, from four cooperages, for 12 months. The resulting wines were evaluated for chromatic characteristics, anthocyanin-related parameters, total phenols, flavonoids and non-flavonoids phenols, flavanol monomers, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins. PCA and ANOVA were applied to investigate the relationships between barrels and to assess cooperage and individual barrel effect. Three cooperages influenced the wine similarly during aging. Anthocyanin-related parameters showed the highest variation, 25–37%, other phenolics varied 3–8.5%, and with two exceptions, chromatic characteristics changed 1.7–3%. The relationship between the number of barrels and the expected variation for each analytical parameter was calculated, as reference for future measurements involving barrel lots, either in wine production or experimental design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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Article
Quantitative Determination of Nitrofurazone Metabolites in Animal-Derived Foods Based on a Background Fluorescence Quenching Immunochromatographic Assay
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071668 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Due to their facile synthesis and friendly functionalization, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been applied in all kinds of biosensors. More importantly, these biosensors, with the combination of AuNPs and immunoassay, are expected to be used for the detection of different compounds with low [...] Read more.
Due to their facile synthesis and friendly functionalization, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been applied in all kinds of biosensors. More importantly, these biosensors, with the combination of AuNPs and immunoassay, are expected to be used for the detection of different compounds with low concentrations in complex samples. In this study, a AuNPs-labeled antibody immunoprobe was prepared and combined with a fluorescence-quenching principle and a background fluorescence-quenching immunochromatographic assay (bFQICA), achieving rapid on-site detection. By using a portable fluorescence immunoquantitative analyzer and a QR code with a built-in standard curve, the rapid quantitative determination for nitrofurazone metabolite of semicarbazide (SEM) in animal-derived foods was realized. The limits of detection (LODs) for bFQICA in egg, chicken, fish, and shrimp were 0.09, 0.10, 0.12, and 0.15 μg kg−1 for SEM, respectively, with the linear range of 0.08–0.41 μg L−1, the recoveries ranging from 73.5% to 109.2%, and the coefficient of variation <15%, only taking 13 min for the SEM detection. The analysis of animal-derived foods by bFQICA complied with that of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Antibody and Immunoassay for Food Safety)
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Article
Growth of Ready Meals in Australian Supermarkets: Nutrient Composition, Price and Serving Size
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071667 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Pre-prepared, or ready meals (frozen, chilled and shelf-stable) are increasingly available in supermarkets in developed countries. This study aimed to investigate how the range of ready meals in Australian supermarkets has changed from 2014 to 2020, and how products vary by price, serving [...] Read more.
Pre-prepared, or ready meals (frozen, chilled and shelf-stable) are increasingly available in supermarkets in developed countries. This study aimed to investigate how the range of ready meals in Australian supermarkets has changed from 2014 to 2020, and how products vary by price, serving size, nutrient composition and Health Star Rating. Product information was obtained from the FoodTrack™ packaged food database for the years 2014 to 2019 and from an instore audit of products available in Adelaide, Australia for 2020. There was a 13% annual average increase in the number of ready meals available in supermarkets. Serving size did not change (median 350 g, p-trend = 0.100) and price increased modestly from 2014 to 2020 (median $1.67 to $1.79/100 g, p-trend < 0.001), with chilled ready meals being the most expensive. A modest decrease in sodium density from 2014 to 2020 (median 275 to 240 mg/100 g, p-trend < 0.001) was seen. However, the category has a wide range in Health Star Ratings and nutrient composition, highlighting the importance of appropriate consumer choice to optimise health benefits. With the increasing availability of ready meals, global improvements within this category should be encouraged and consumers guided to choose healthier products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Systems)
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Article
The Natural Antimicrobial trans-Cinnamaldehyde Interferes with UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Biosynthesis and Cell Wall Homeostasis in Listeria monocytogenes
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071666 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Trans-cinnamaldehyde (t-CIN), an antimicrobial compound from cinnamon essential oil, is of interest because it inhibits various foodborne pathogens. In the present work, we investigated the antimicrobial mechanisms of t-CIN in Listeria monocytogenes using a previously isolated yvcK::Himar1 transposon mutant [...] Read more.
Trans-cinnamaldehyde (t-CIN), an antimicrobial compound from cinnamon essential oil, is of interest because it inhibits various foodborne pathogens. In the present work, we investigated the antimicrobial mechanisms of t-CIN in Listeria monocytogenes using a previously isolated yvcK::Himar1 transposon mutant which shows hypersensitivity to t-CIN. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that t-CIN induces a bulging cell shape followed by lysis in the mutant. Complementation with wild-type yvcK gene completely restored the tolerance of yvcK::Himar1 strain to t-CIN and the cell morphology. Suppressor mutants which partially reversed the t-CIN sensitivity of the yvcK::Himar1 mutant were isolated from evolutionary experiments. Three out of five suppression mutations were in the glmU-prs operon and in nagR, which are linked to the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). GlmU catalyzes the last two steps of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis and NagR represses the uptake and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine. Feeding N-acetylglucosamine or increasing the production of UDP-GlcNAc synthetic enzymes fully or partially restored the t-CIN tolerance of the yvcK mutant. Together, these results suggest that YvcK plays a pivotal role in diverting substrates to UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis in L. monocytogenes and that t-CIN interferes with this pathway, leading to a peptidoglycan synthesis defect. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Drying and Rehydration on the Structural Properties and Quality Attributes of Pre-Cooked Dried Beans
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071665 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Fresh common beans can be made ‘instant’ to produce fast-cooking beans by first soaking and cooking the beans before drying to create a shelf-stable product that can be rehydrated at the time of use. This study investigated the interplay between the drying process [...] Read more.
Fresh common beans can be made ‘instant’ to produce fast-cooking beans by first soaking and cooking the beans before drying to create a shelf-stable product that can be rehydrated at the time of use. This study investigated the interplay between the drying process (air, vacuum and freeze drying), the microstructure and functional attributes of rehydrated pre-cooked beans. The microscopic study revealed that the three different drying techniques resulted in distinctly different microstructures, with the freeze drying process resulting in highly porous materials, while the air- and vacuum-dried samples underwent shrinkage. Additionally, the rehydration behavior (modeled using empirical and diffusion models) demonstrates that the high rehydration rate of freeze-dried beans is due to capillarity, while rehydration, in the case of air- and vacuum-dried beans, is primarily diffusion-controlled. Irrespective of the drying technique, the high rehydration capacity supports little to no structural collapse or damage to the cell walls. The color and texture of the rehydrated beans did not differ greatly from those of freshly cooked beans. The total peak area of the volatiles of rehydrated beans was significantly reduced by the drying process, but volatiles characteristic of the cooked bean aroma were retained. This new understanding is beneficial in tailoring the functional properties of pre-cooked dry convenient beans requiring short preparation times. Full article
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Article
What Is the Environmental Impact of Wine Entering Global Value Chains? Studying the Evolution of CO2 Emissions from the Export of Spanish Denomination of Origin Wines
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071664 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 978
Abstract
The continuous growth of the international wine trade and the expansion of international markets is having significant commercial, but also environmental, impacts. The benefits of vineyards in terms of ecosystem service provision are offset by the increase in CO2 emissions generated by [...] Read more.
The continuous growth of the international wine trade and the expansion of international markets is having significant commercial, but also environmental, impacts. The benefits of vineyards in terms of ecosystem service provision are offset by the increase in CO2 emissions generated by transportation. Denominations of Origin, as quality labels, emphasise a wine’s links to the terroir, where specific elements of culture and environment merge together. However, Denominations of Origin can also have differentiating elements as regards environmental performance. Drawing on an extended multiregional input–output model applied to the Spanish Denominations of Origin with the largest presence in the international wine trade, this study shows that wines with the greatest exporting tradition are those that most reduced their carbon footprint per litre of exported wine in the period 2005–2018, thus being the most environmentally efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption and Sustainable Agri-Food Chains)
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Article
An Up-Scalable and Cost-Effective Methodology for Isolating a Polypeptide Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibitor from Lupinus albus Seeds
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071663 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
One of the most challenging problems with food-borne bioactive compounds is that there are commonly no cost-effective, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) methods for obtaining gram quantities of their purified forms. Here we aimed at developing a method to isolate deflamin, an oligomeric [...] Read more.
One of the most challenging problems with food-borne bioactive compounds is that there are commonly no cost-effective, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) methods for obtaining gram quantities of their purified forms. Here we aimed at developing a method to isolate deflamin, an oligomeric protein from lupin seeds with anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity through matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 inhibition. Our goal was to develop a GRAS method that could be easily up-scalable whilst maintaining deflamin’s activity. A sequential precipitation methodology was developed, using an aqueous extraction, followed by heat denaturation, acid precipitation and solubilization in ethanol. A final precipitation with 90% ethanol yielded a purified protein which was sequenced through mass spectrometry and tested for its MMP inhibitory activity using the Dye-quenched (DQ) gelatin assay and the standard wound healing assay in HT29 cells. The developed method yielded a purified oligomer, which represented 0.1% (w/w) of total dry seed weight and was positively confirmed to be deflamin. It further showed to effectively reduce MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity as well as colon cancer cell migration, hence corroborating the effectiveness of our method. Overall, this is the first reported method for isolating an MMP-9 inhibitor from legume seeds, which is up-scalable to an industrial level, in a cost-effective manner. Full article
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Article
Effects of CaCl2 Treatment Alleviates Chilling Injury of Loquat Fruit (Eribotrya japonica) by Modulating ROS Homeostasis
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071662 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatment on chilling injury (CI), reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in loquat fruit at 1 °C storage for 35 d were investigated. The results indicated that CaCl2 treatment remarkably suppressed [...] Read more.
The effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatment on chilling injury (CI), reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in loquat fruit at 1 °C storage for 35 d were investigated. The results indicated that CaCl2 treatment remarkably suppressed the increase in browning index and firmness as well as the decrease in extractable juice rate. CaCl2 treatment also decreased the production of superoxide radical (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, but increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenging ability, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and their gene expressions. Moreover, compared to the control loquat fruit, CaCl2-treated fruit maintained higher contents of AsA, GSH, higher levels of activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and expressions of EjAPX, EjGR, EjMDHAR, and EjDHAR, but exhibited lower glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content. These results suggested that CaCl2 treatment alleviated CI in loquat fruit through enhancing antioxidant enzymes activities and AsA-GSH cycle system to quench ROS. Full article
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Article
Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Potential of Buffalo Milk Processed Cheddar Cheese
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071661 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 970
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop an in-vitro digestion protocol to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the peptides found in processed cheddar cheese using digestion enzymes. We first studied antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activities of processed cheddar [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to develop an in-vitro digestion protocol to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the peptides found in processed cheddar cheese using digestion enzymes. We first studied antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activities of processed cheddar cheese with the addition of spices e.g., cumin, clove, and black pepper made from buffalo milk and ripened for 9 months. Then we conducted an in vitro digestion of processed cheddar cheese by gastric and duodenal enzymes. Freeze-dried water (WSE) and ethanol-soluble fractions (ESE) of processed cheddar cheese were also monitored for their ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activities. In our preliminary experiments, different levels of spices (cumin, clove, and black pepper) were tested into a cheese matrix and only one level 0.2 g/100 g (0.2%) based on cheese weight was considered good after sensory evaluation. Findings of the present study revealed that ACE-inhibitory potential was the highest in processed cheese made from buffalo milk with the addition of 0.2% cumin, clove, and black pepper. A significant increase in ACE-inhibition (%) of processed cheddar cheese, as well as its WSE and ESE, was obtained. Lower IC50 values were found after duodenal phase digestion compared to oral phase digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
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Review
Hizikia fusiformis: Pharmacological and Nutritional Properties
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071660 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
The brown seaweed Hizikia fusiformis (syn. Sargassum fusiforme), commonly known as “Hijiki”, has been utilized in traditional cuisine and medicine in East Asian countries for several centuries. H. fusiformis has attracted much attention owing to its rich nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, [...] Read more.
The brown seaweed Hizikia fusiformis (syn. Sargassum fusiforme), commonly known as “Hijiki”, has been utilized in traditional cuisine and medicine in East Asian countries for several centuries. H. fusiformis has attracted much attention owing to its rich nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, there has been no comprehensive review of the nutritional and pharmacological properties of H. fusiformis. The aim of this systematic review was to provide detailed information from the published literature on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of H. fusiformis. A comprehensive online search of the literature was conducted by accessing databases, such as PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, for published studies on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of H. fusiformis between 2010 and 2021. A total of 916 articles were screened from all the databases using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses method. Screening based on the setdown criteria resulted in 59 articles, which were used for this review. In this review, we found that there has been an increase in the number of publications on the pharmacological and nutritional properties of H. fusiformis over the last 10 years. In the last 10 years, studies have focused on the proximate, mineral, polysaccharide, and bioactive compound composition, and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, photoprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, osteoprotective, and gastroprotective properties of H. fusiformis extracts. Overall, further studies and strategies are required to develop H. fusiformis as a promising resource for the nutrition and pharmacological industries. Full article
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Article
Energy Content and Nutrient Profiles of Frequently Consumed Meals in Singapore
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071659 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Singapore is a multi-ethnic country with a great variety of traditional ethnic cuisines. In this modern society where there is an increasing prevalence of obesity, it is important to know the nutritional content and energy density of our foods. However, there have been [...] Read more.
Singapore is a multi-ethnic country with a great variety of traditional ethnic cuisines. In this modern society where there is an increasing prevalence of obesity, it is important to know the nutritional content and energy density of our foods. However, there have been little data on the nutritional content of our local foods. The energy density and nutrient content of 45 commonly consumed meals by three ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) were assessed in this study. Chinese, Malay, and Indian cuisines had an average energy density of 661, 652, and 723 kJ/100 g, respectively. Moreover, the macronutrient content is different between the different ethnic groups. Compared to Chinese and Malay cuisines, Indian cuisine contained lower protein but higher fat and carbohydrate content (p = 0.03). From the mineral analysis of the ethnic foods, we found out that Chinese cuisines contain significantly higher sodium (average of 238 mg/100 g) than Malay cuisines (p = 0.006) and Indian cuisines (p = 0.03). Knowing the caloric density and nutrition content of local ethnic foods may aid hawkers and government officials in developing healthier options to tackle Singapore’s obesity epidemic. Full article
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Article
Optimization and Development of Ready to Eat Chocolate Coated Roasted Flaked Rice as Instant Breakfast Food
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071658 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
The present study aimed to optimize and develop ready-to-eat rice-based functional breakfast food using response surface methodology. The levels of ingredients viz. skim milk powder, guar gum, and ferrous sulfate were pre-optimized and remained constant, whereas jaggery and dark chocolate were taken as [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to optimize and develop ready-to-eat rice-based functional breakfast food using response surface methodology. The levels of ingredients viz. skim milk powder, guar gum, and ferrous sulfate were pre-optimized and remained constant, whereas jaggery and dark chocolate were taken as independent variables. The optimum levels of jaggery and dark chocolate for chocolate-coated roasted flaked rice (CCRFR) were 8.49 g and 25.43 g, respectively. The physical, pasting, textural, functional, morphological, optical, and sensory characteristics of CCRFR and uncoated roasted flaked rice (RFR) were also studied. CCRFR had significantly higher mineral (iron and calcium) and total polyphenolic contents. Furthermore, the dimensional, sensory, and functional properties were also improved. The changes in morphological structure were also observed between the CCRFR and uncoated product using scanning electron microscopy. The coating adds nutritional value to the roasted rice and renders it an essential functional RTE convenience gluten-free cereal breakfast item. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
The Effect of pH and Storage Temperature on the Stability of Emulsions Stabilized by Rapeseed Proteins
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071657 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Rapeseed press cake (RPC), the by-product of rapeseed oil production, contains proteins with emulsifying properties, which can be used in food applications. Proteins from industrially produced RPC were extracted at pH 10.5 and precipitated at pH 3 (RPP3) and 6.5 (RPP6.5). Emulsions were [...] Read more.
Rapeseed press cake (RPC), the by-product of rapeseed oil production, contains proteins with emulsifying properties, which can be used in food applications. Proteins from industrially produced RPC were extracted at pH 10.5 and precipitated at pH 3 (RPP3) and 6.5 (RPP6.5). Emulsions were formulated at three different pHs (pH 3, 4.5, and 6) with soy lecithin as control, and were stored for six months at either 4 °C or 30 °C. Zeta potential and droplet size distribution were analyzed prior to incubation, and emulsion stability was assessed over time by a Turbiscan instrument. Soy lecithin had significantly larger zeta potential (−49 mV to 66 mV) than rapeseed protein (−19 mV to 20 mV). Rapeseed protein stabilized emulsions with smaller droplets at pH close to neutral, whereas soy lecithin was more efficient at lower pHs. Emulsions stabilized by rapeseed protein had higher stability during storage compared to emulsions prepared by soy lecithin. Precipitation pH during the protein extraction process had a strong impact on the emulsion stability. RPP3 stabilized emulsions with higher stability in pHs close to neutral, whereas the opposite was found for RPP6.5, which stabilized more stable emulsions in acidic conditions. Rapeseed proteins recovered from cold-pressed RPC could be a suitable natural emulsifier and precipitation pH can be used to monitor the stability in emulsions with different pHs. Full article
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Article
Ecklonia cava Extract Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Human Gingival Fibroblasts and Chronic Periodontitis Animal Model by Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071656 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract from brown algae Ecklonia cava was analyzed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1), the most abundant cells in gingival tissue. The gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract from brown algae Ecklonia cava was analyzed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1), the most abundant cells in gingival tissue. The gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 were decreased by 78 and 50%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL Ecklonia cava extract (ECE) treatment. The gene expressions of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and MMP-8) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha and stromal cell-derived factor 1) were also significantly down-regulated by ECE treatment (p < 0.05). The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HGF-1 cells by LPS stimulation was decreased by 30% at 100 μg/mL ECE treatment. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal activated by ROS were suppressed by ECE in a dose-dependent manner. ECE treatment (400 mg/kg, 8 weeks) significantly improved alveolar bone resorption in the ligature-induced chronic periodontitis rat model. ECE supplementation also lowered elevated mRNA expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the gingival tissue (p < 0.05). Therefore, ECE mitigated gingival tissue destruction and bone resorption associated with chronic periodontitis condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Review
Interactions between Microbial Food Safety and Environmental Sustainability in the Fresh Produce Supply Chain
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071655 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Improving the environmental sustainability of the food supply chain will help to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This environmental sustainability is related to different SDGs, but mainly to SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 12 (Responsible Production and Consumption), SDG 13 [...] Read more.
Improving the environmental sustainability of the food supply chain will help to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This environmental sustainability is related to different SDGs, but mainly to SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 12 (Responsible Production and Consumption), SDG 13 (Climate Action), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). The strategies and measures used to improve this aspect of the food supply chain must remain in balance with other sustainability aspects (economic and social). In this framework, the interactions and possible conflicts between food supply chain safety and sustainability need to be assessed. Although priority must be given to safety aspects, food safety policies should be calibrated in order to avoid unnecessary deleterious effects on the environment. In the present review, a number of potential tensions and/or disagreements between the microbial safety and environmental sustainability of the fresh produce supply chain are identified and discussed. The addressed issues are spread throughout the food supply chain, from primary production to the end-of-life of the products, and also include the handling and processing industry, retailers, and consumers. Interactions of fresh produce microbial safety with topics such as food waste, supply chain structure, climate change, and use of resources have been covered. Finally, approaches and strategies that will prove useful to solve or mitigate the potential contradictions between fresh produce safety and sustainability are described and discussed. Upon analyzing the interplay between microbial safety and the environmental sustainability of the fresh produce supply chain, it becomes clear that decisions that are taken to ensure fresh produce safety must consider the possible effects on environmental, economic, and social sustainability aspects. To manage these interactions, a global approach considering the interconnections between human activities, animals, and the environment will be required. Full article
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Article
Design of Chitosan and Alginate Emulsion-Based Formulations for the Production of Monolayer Crosslinked Edible Films and Coatings
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071654 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
This study aimed to develop edible monolayer emulsion-based barriers with polysaccharides as film-forming components (chitosan and sodium alginate), soy lecithin as a surfactant and olive oil as a hydrophobic barrier. Monolayer barriers in the form of films were prepared by casting filmogenic emulsions [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop edible monolayer emulsion-based barriers with polysaccharides as film-forming components (chitosan and sodium alginate), soy lecithin as a surfactant and olive oil as a hydrophobic barrier. Monolayer barriers in the form of films were prepared by casting filmogenic emulsions composed of 2% w/v chitosan (dissolved in lactic acid 1% v/v) or 1% w/v sodium alginate, with different lipid contents (25, 50 and 100% w/w biopolymer basis) and different surfactant concentrations (5, 10 and 25% w/w, lipid basis). Glycerol was used as a plasticizer (25 % w/w, biopolymer basis). After the emulsion drying process, the obtained stand-alone films were sprayed with a crosslinking solution, achieving an optimized crosslinker content of 3.2 mgCa2+/cm2 alginate film and 4 mg tripolyphosphate/cm2 chitosan film. The effect of oil and lecithin contents, as well the presence of crosslinking agents, on the film’s water vapour permeability (WVP), water vapour sorption capacity, mechanical properties and colour parameters, was evaluated. The results have shown that the lowest WVP values were obtained with formulations containing 25% lipid and 25% surfactant for chitosan films, and 100% lipid and 25% surfactant for alginate films. The application of the crosslinking agents decreased even further the WVP, especially for chitosan films (by 30%). Crosslinking also increased films’ resistance to deformation under tensile tests. Overall, the films developed present a good potential as polysaccharide-based barriers with increased resistance to water, which envisages the use of the designed formulations to produce either edible/biodegradable films or edible coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biopolymer Applications in the Food Industry)
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Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides Producers: A Sustainable Tool for Functional Foods
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1653; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071653 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in the food industry, mainly for the production of dairy products, are able to synthetize exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS play a central role in the assessment of rheological and sensory characteristics of dairy products since they positively influence texture [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in the food industry, mainly for the production of dairy products, are able to synthetize exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS play a central role in the assessment of rheological and sensory characteristics of dairy products since they positively influence texture and organoleptic properties. Besides these, EPS have gained relevant interest for pharmacological and nutraceutical applications due to their biocompatibility, non-toxicity and biodegradability. These bioactive compounds may act as antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antimicrobial and prebiotic agents. This review provides an overview of exopolysaccharide-producing LAB, with an insight on the factors affecting EPS production, their dairy industrial applications and health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Microorganisms in Food Processing)
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Article
In Vitro Activity of Selected Phenolic Compounds against Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Food-Contaminating Yeasts
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071652 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are natural substances that can be obtained from plants. Many of them are potent growth inhibitors of foodborne pathogenic microorganisms, however, phenolic activities against spoilage yeasts are rarely studied. In this study, planktonic and biofilm growth, and the adhesion capacity of [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds are natural substances that can be obtained from plants. Many of them are potent growth inhibitors of foodborne pathogenic microorganisms, however, phenolic activities against spoilage yeasts are rarely studied. In this study, planktonic and biofilm growth, and the adhesion capacity of Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Debaryomyces hansenii spoilage yeasts were investigated in the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, stilbene, flavonoid and phenolic aldehyde compounds. The results showed significant anti-yeast properties for many phenolics. Among the tested molecules, cinnamic acid and vanillin exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 500 µg/mL to 2 mg/mL. Quercetin, (−)-epicatechin, resveratrol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were also efficient growth inhibitors for certain yeasts with a MIC of 2 mg/mL. The D. hansenii, P. anomala and S. pombe biofilms were the most sensitive to the phenolics, while the S. cerevisiae biofilm was quite resistant against the activity of the compounds. Fluorescence microscopy revealed disrupted biofilm matrix on glass surfaces in the presence of certain phenolics. Highest antiadhesion activity was registered for cinnamic acid with inhibition effects between 48% and 91%. The active phenolics can be natural interventions against food-contaminating yeasts in future preservative developments. Full article
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Article
Rapid Screening of 350 Pesticide Residues in Vegetable and Fruit Juices by Multi-Plug Filtration Cleanup Method Combined with Gas Chromatography-Electrostatic Field Orbitrap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071651 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
A new method for screening pesticide residues in vegetable and fruit juices by the multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method combined with gas chromatography-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(GC-Orbitrap/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, purified with m-PFC and determined by [...] Read more.
A new method for screening pesticide residues in vegetable and fruit juices by the multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method combined with gas chromatography-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(GC-Orbitrap/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, purified with m-PFC and determined by GC-Orbitrap/MS. Qualitative analysis was confirmed by retention time, accurate molecular mass and quantitative analysis were performed with the matrix standard calibration. It could eliminate matrix interference effectively. Eight kinds of typical samples (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, strawberry juice, celery juice, carrot juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice) were evaluated. The linear ranges of the 350 pesticides were from 5 to 500 μg/kg, with good correlation coefficients greater than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.3–3.0 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.0–10.0 μg/kg. The average recoveries at three spiked levels of 10, 100, 200 μg/kg were in the range of 72.8–122.4%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.0–10.8%. The method has effectively improved the determination efficiency of pesticide residue screening by high-resolution mass spectrometry in vegetable and fruit juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticide and Veterinary Residues in Foodstuffs)
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Review
The Role of Yeasts as Biocontrol Agents for Pathogenic Fungi on Postharvest Grapes: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071650 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
In view of the growing concern about the impact of synthetic fungicides on human health and the environment, several government bodies have decided to ban them. As a result, a great number of studies have been carried out in recent decades with the [...] Read more.
In view of the growing concern about the impact of synthetic fungicides on human health and the environment, several government bodies have decided to ban them. As a result, a great number of studies have been carried out in recent decades with the aim of finding a biological alternative to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. In order to avoid the large losses of fruit and vegetables that these pathogens cause every year, the biological alternative’s efficacy should be the same as that of a chemical pesticide. In this review, the main studies discussed concern Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as potential antagonists against phytopathogenic fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus and the species Botrytis cinerea on table grapes, wine grapes, and raisins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Microbial Interactions for Sustainable Winemaking)
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Article
High-CO2 Treatment Prolongs the Postharvest Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruits by Reducing Decay and Cell Wall Degradation
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071649 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Improved methods are needed to extend the shelf life of strawberry fruits. The objective of this study was to determine the postharvest physiological mechanism of high-CO2 treatment in strawberries. Harvested strawberries were stored at 10 °C after 3 h of exposure to [...] Read more.
Improved methods are needed to extend the shelf life of strawberry fruits. The objective of this study was to determine the postharvest physiological mechanism of high-CO2 treatment in strawberries. Harvested strawberries were stored at 10 °C after 3 h of exposure to a treatment with 30% CO2 or air. Pectin and gene expression levels related to cell wall degradation were measured to assess the high-CO2 effects on the cell wall and lipid metabolism. Strawberries subjected to high-CO2 treatment presented higher pectin content and firmness and lower decay than those of control fruits. Genes encoding cell wall-degrading enzymes (pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, and pectate lyase) were downregulated after high-CO2 treatment. High-CO2 induced the expression of oligogalacturonides, thereby conferring defense against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry fruits, and lowering the decay incidence at seven days after its inoculation. Our findings suggest that high-CO2 treatment can maintain strawberry quality by reducing decay and cell wall degradation. Full article
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Communication
Alkaline Phosphatase Survey in Pecorino Siciliano PDO Cheese
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071648 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
The determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in cheeses has become an official method for controlling cheeses with a protected designation of origin (PDO), all of which use raw milk. PDO cheeses, characterized by high craftsmanship, usually have an uneven quality. However, for these [...] Read more.
The determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in cheeses has become an official method for controlling cheeses with a protected designation of origin (PDO), all of which use raw milk. PDO cheeses, characterized by high craftsmanship, usually have an uneven quality. However, for these cheeses, it is necessary to establish ALP values so that they can be defined as a raw milk product. In this study, a dataset with Pecorino Siciliano PDO samples was analyzed to determine ALP both at the core and under the rind. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the different zones in Pecorino cheese. A second dataset of 100 pecorino cheese samples determined that ALP was only at the core of the cheese. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference between the ALP values of cheeses produced with raw milk and those produced with pasteurized milk. Furthermore, according to the temperatures, a wide variability of ALP values was observed in the Pecorino Siciliano PDO samples from the core of the cheeses. This was a result of several under scotta whey cooking methodologies adopted by cheesemakers, which do not permit a clear range. Therefore, further investigation is desirable. Full article
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Article
Stability of Fucoxanthin in Pasteurized Skim and Whole Goat Milk
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071647 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Obesity has become a worldwide problem giving rise to several health issues. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid with anti-obesity activity, has potential application as a biofunctional ingredient in human food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability of fucoxanthin at [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a worldwide problem giving rise to several health issues. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid with anti-obesity activity, has potential application as a biofunctional ingredient in human food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability of fucoxanthin at pasteurization temperature and, subsequently, its storage stability in goat whole milk (WM) and skim milk (SM) at refrigeration temperature for four weeks. Additionally, the effect of supplementation of fucoxanthin on the composition of milk, pH, acidity, color, and lipid oxidation of WM and SM was evaluated during the four week storage period. Fresh goat WM and SM were supplemented with fucoxanthin at a concentration of 10.67 µg/mL (2.56 mg/240 mL of milk, one serving), pasteurized at 64 °C for 30 min and stored at 4 °C for four weeks. The quantification of fucoxanthin in WM and SM was performed every week using a HPLC method. Moreover, the effect of supplementation of fucoxanthin on the composition of WM and SM was evaluated by a LactiCheck milk analyzer, and the color was evaluated by reflectance using a HunterLab colorimeter. Lipid oxidation, as the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) at A532, was determined using a Spectramax Plus spectrophotometer during storage. Data were analyzed by a split-plot design using PROC MIXED of SAS. The recovery yields of fucoxanthin from the pasteurized WM and SM were 96.17 ± 1.5 % and 96.89 ± 1.5 %, respectively. Both milks exhibited high recovery yields of fucoxanthin. Fucoxanthin was stable in goat WM and SM during storage at 4 °C for four weeks. The addition of fucoxanthin, at the concentration reported to have an anti-obesity effect in humans, to pasteurized WM and SM did not affect the composition or the physicochemical properties of milks but influenced the color, especially increasing the yellowness in the samples. These results revealed that goat milk can be used as a suitable matrix for the supplementation of fucoxanthin as a biofunctional ingredient in human foods. Full article
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