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Educ. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Visible Learning is one of the most influential research initiatives conducted in the educational [...] Read more.
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Open AccessTutorial
Harnessing Entropy via Predictive Analytics to Optimize Outcomes in the Pedagogical System: An Artificial Intelligence-Based Bayesian Networks Approach
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020158
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Educational stakeholders would be better informed if they could use their students’ formative assessments results and personal background attributes to predict the conditions for achieving favorable learning outcomes, and conversely, to gain awareness of the “at-risk” signals to prevent unfavorable or worst-case scenarios [...] Read more.
Educational stakeholders would be better informed if they could use their students’ formative assessments results and personal background attributes to predict the conditions for achieving favorable learning outcomes, and conversely, to gain awareness of the “at-risk” signals to prevent unfavorable or worst-case scenarios from happening. It remains, however, quite challenging to simulate predictive counterfactual scenarios and their outcomes, especially if the sample size is small, or if a baseline control group is unavailable. To overcome these constraints, the current paper proffers a Bayesian Networks approach to visualize the dynamics of the spread of “energy” within a pedagogical system, so that educational stakeholders, rather than computer scientists, can also harness entropy to work for them. The paper uses descriptive analytics to investigate “what has already happened?” in the collected data, followed by predictive analytics with controllable parameters to simulate outcomes of “what-if?” scenarios in the experimental Bayesian Network computational model to visualize how effects spread when interventions are applied. The conceptual framework and analytical procedures in this paper could be implemented using Bayesian Networks software, so that educational researchers and stakeholders would be able to use their own schools’ data and produce findings to inform and advance their practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies in Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Salutogenic Management of Pedagogic Frailty: A Case of Educational Theory Development Using Concept Mapping
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020157
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper explores the development of educational theory (pedagogic frailty) that has emerged through the application of concept maps to understand teachers’ conceptions of their roles within the complex higher education environment. Within this conceptual paper, pedagogic frailty is reinterpreted using the lens [...] Read more.
This paper explores the development of educational theory (pedagogic frailty) that has emerged through the application of concept maps to understand teachers’ conceptions of their roles within the complex higher education environment. Within this conceptual paper, pedagogic frailty is reinterpreted using the lens offered by the concept of salutogenesis to place the model in a more positive frame that can offer greater utility for university managers. This development parallels changes in the consideration of mental health literacy (MHL) across university campuses and avoids misapplication of a deficit model to the professional enhancement of teaching quality. For a detailed explication of this wider perspective of pedagogic health literacy (PHL), the connections with related and supporting concepts need to be explained. These include ‘assets’, ‘wellness’ and a ‘sense of coherence’. Links between these concepts are introduced here. This reframing of the model has used concept mapping to explore the relationship between two complex ideas—pedagogic frailty and salutogenesis. It emphasizes pedagogic health as a continuum operating between frailty and resilience. Brief implications for academic development are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concept Mapping and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Pupil-Generated Questions in a Collaborative Open Inquiry
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020156
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Formulating questions is an integral part of pupils’ learning process and scientific inquiry. Investigating pupil-generated questions in a collaborative science learning setting, combining self-regulation theory and phases of inquiry, can extend the previous research into pupils’ questions. This study considered questions from pupils [...] Read more.
Formulating questions is an integral part of pupils’ learning process and scientific inquiry. Investigating pupil-generated questions in a collaborative science learning setting, combining self-regulation theory and phases of inquiry, can extend the previous research into pupils’ questions. This study considered questions from pupils (n = 24, aged 11–12) as types of interaction to share and reflect on both their own and others’ ideas during a collaborative open inquiry. The study was qualitative in nature. The data was collected by making video recordings of pupils’ team discussions during the study process in 12 science lessons. A content analysis demonstrates that through their questions, the pupils were actively involved in guiding their work from various points of views. These results suggest that fifth graders can successfully conduct a complex open inquiry in teams. Consequently, this study underlines that allowing pupils to work at their own pace, and to take responsibility for their learning, opportunities can arise for pupils to pose questions and regulate their learning through questions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MAthE the Game: A Serious Game for Education and Training in News Verification
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020155
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
During the last years, there has been a growing multidisciplinary interest in alternative educational approaches, such as serious games, aiming at enhancing thinking skills and media literacy. Likewise, the objective of this study is to present the design and the development of an [...] Read more.
During the last years, there has been a growing multidisciplinary interest in alternative educational approaches, such as serious games, aiming at enhancing thinking skills and media literacy. Likewise, the objective of this study is to present the design and the development of an educational web application for learning the necessary steps towards the detection of bogus content, according to the fact-checking procedures. The game presents news articles, which have to be characterized as fake or real by the players. During the effort to reach the correct decision, the players can use tools and practices for identifying relevant information regarding the clues, which frame a news story (title, date, creator, source, containing images). After presenting the progress of interface design and development, this paper reports the results of a randomized online field study (n = 111), which provides some preliminary evidence. Specifically, it is validated that the game can raise awareness, teach about authentication tools, and highlight the importance of patterns that include evidence regarding the authenticity of articles. Additionally, thorough discussion was conducted within a media class (n = 35) to receive useful feedback/evaluation about the offered utilities and their usability. The findings suggest that educational games may be a promising vehicle to inoculate the public against misinformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-enhanced Learning in Media Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into Components of Prospective Science Teachers’ Mental Models and Their Preferred Visual Representations of Atoms
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020154
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
This study focused on determining the elements of mental models of atomic structure and views on visual representations of models of atomic structure in two sub-cohorts of student teachers studying at a university in Turkey. In total, 141 student teachers participated in this [...] Read more.
This study focused on determining the elements of mental models of atomic structure and views on visual representations of models of atomic structure in two sub-cohorts of student teachers studying at a university in Turkey. In total, 141 student teachers participated in this study. In the first cohort, the focus was on 73 freshman science student teachers’ drawings of mental models of atomic structure. The analysis showed a wide variety of individual aspects in the students’ minds when asked to sketch the structure of atoms. The majority of students preferred to draw two-dimensional structures, neglecting the atom’s space-filling character. Concerning the details of atomic structure, the majority of students emphasized only the most essential components of atoms, namely protons, neutrons, and electrons. It was quickly recognizable that these elements were arranged according to different analogies or representations of historical models, particularly related to Bohr’s atomic theory and different representations thereof. Overall, the different visual representations of atomic models the students see in school, almost exclusively serve as the basis for their ideas about atomic structure. Current atomic theory, like quantum mechanical models, are generally not used when students are asked for a “contemporary” model of atoms. Rather it seems that concreteness and functionality are the primary factors leading to the selection of an atomic model when requested. This study is supplemented by data collected from the second cohort of 68 prospective teachers consisting of a diverse group of students ranging from freshman to senior level. The students in this cohort were asked for their preferred illustrations of atoms in textbooks. Open-ended questions about atoms led to further insights. The analysis of the prospective teachers’ drawings indicated that a more careful approach to teaching is necessary to clarify the relationships between different models of atomic structure and to allow students to understand what an appropriate and contemporary understanding of atomic structure should encompass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations and Contemporary Perspectives in Chemistry Education)
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Open AccessReview
Assistive Hearing Technology for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Spoken Language Learners
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020153
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Radical advancements in hearing technology in the last 30 years have offered some deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children the adequate auditory access necessary to acquire spoken language with high-quality early intervention. However, meaningful achievement gaps in reading and spoken language persist despite the [...] Read more.
Radical advancements in hearing technology in the last 30 years have offered some deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children the adequate auditory access necessary to acquire spoken language with high-quality early intervention. However, meaningful achievement gaps in reading and spoken language persist despite the engineering marvel of modern hearing aids and cochlear implants. Moreover, there is enormous unexplained variability in spoken language and literacy outcomes. Aspects of signal processing in both hearing aids and cochlear implants are discussed as they relate to spoken language outcomes in preschool and school-age children. In suggesting areas for future research, a case is made for not only expanding the search for mechanisms of influence on outcomes outside of traditional device- and child-related factors, but also for framing the search within Biopsychosocial systems theories. This theoretical approach incorporates systems of risk factors across many levels, as well as the bidirectional and complex ways in which factors influence each other. The combination of sophisticated hearing technology and a fuller understanding of the complex environmental and biological factors that shape development will help maximize spoken language outcomes in DHH children and contribute to laying the groundwork for successful literacy and academic development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Student’s Perceptions Regarding Assessment Changes in a Fluid Mechanics Course
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020152
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
The main objective of this study is to evaluate students’ perceptions regarding different methods of assessment and which teaching/learning methodologies may be the most effective in a Fluid Transport System course. The impact of the changes in the assessment methodology in the final [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate students’ perceptions regarding different methods of assessment and which teaching/learning methodologies may be the most effective in a Fluid Transport System course. The impact of the changes in the assessment methodology in the final students’ grades and attendance at theoretical classes is also analysed, and the results show that students’ attendance at theoretical classes changed significantly. The students prefer and consider more beneficial for their learning assessment through several questions/problems and small tests during theoretical lessons instead of a single moment of evaluation. For them, the traditional teaching/learning methodology is still considered the most effective one. At the same time, students perceive that the development of the Practical Work (PW) and several moments of assessment had positive repercussions on the way they focus on the course content and keep up with the subjects taught, providing knowledge on the area under study, encouraging collaborative work and stimulating the students’ intellectual curiosity. Largely, students agree that the PW is an important tool in their learning process and recommend it as a teaching activity. In general, students are confident with the knowledge acquired with the PW and feel able to size fluid transport systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education and Technological / Professional Learning)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing High School Student’s STEM Career Interests Using a Social Cognitive Framework
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020151
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CCIS) with data from 590 high-school students in Taiwan. Measurement models based on Social-Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and STEM discipline-specific dimensions (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) were examined [...] Read more.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CCIS) with data from 590 high-school students in Taiwan. Measurement models based on Social-Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and STEM discipline-specific dimensions (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) were examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Findings from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that STEM-CCIS possesses adequate reliability and factorial validity, replicating the sound psychometric properties of the original English version of the STEM-CIS. Implications for the use of the STEM-CCIS are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights Chinese Primary Mathematics Teachers Gained into their Students’ Learning from Using Classroom Assessment Techniques
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020150
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we explored the insights that Chinese primary mathematics teachers gained into their students’ mathematical understanding from using classroom assessment techniques (CATs). CATs are short teacher-initiated targeted assessment activities proximate to the textbook, which teachers can use in their daily practice [...] Read more.
In this study, we explored the insights that Chinese primary mathematics teachers gained into their students’ mathematical understanding from using classroom assessment techniques (CATs). CATs are short teacher-initiated targeted assessment activities proximate to the textbook, which teachers can use in their daily practice to make informed instructional decisions. Twenty-five third-grade teachers participated in a two-week program of implementing eight CATs focusing on the multiplication of two-digit numbers, and filled in feedback forms after using the CATs. When their responses described specific information about their students, emphasized the novelty of the gained information, or referred to a fitting instructional adaptation, and these reactions went together with references to the mathematics content of the CATs, the teachers’ responses were considered as evidence of gained insights into their students’ mathematics understanding. This was the case for three-quarters of the teachers, but the number of gained insights differed. Five teachers gained insights from five or more CATs, while 14 teachers did so only from three or fewer CATs, and six teachers showed no clear evidence of new insights at all. Despite the differences in levels of gained insights, all the teachers paid more attention to descriptions of students’ performance than to possible instructional adaptations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Quality of Classroom Assessments)
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Open AccessArticle
Latinx Family Engagement in Schools and Surrounding Communities: Assessing the Impact of Parent (and Other Family Member) Development on Improving Student Educational Outcomes at Gene Ward Elementary School
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020149
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
This article examined the success of broadly defined family engagement activities of Latinx parents of students at Gene Ward Elementary School. Gene Ward Elementary School is a part of the Clark County School District in Las Vegas, Nevada. This article is based on [...] Read more.
This article examined the success of broadly defined family engagement activities of Latinx parents of students at Gene Ward Elementary School. Gene Ward Elementary School is a part of the Clark County School District in Las Vegas, Nevada. This article is based on a larger study of parent and family member participants in these activities at 25 district schools between 2003 and 2012. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experiencing Anti-Immigrant Policies on Both Sides of the U.S./Mexico Borderland: A Comparative Study of Mexican and Iranian Families
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020148
Received: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The experiences of Mexican and Iranian immigrant families are often unheard and unpacked. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how race, ethnicity, and national identity are at the core of the sociopolitical and economic issues that Latino and Iranian families [...] Read more.
The experiences of Mexican and Iranian immigrant families are often unheard and unpacked. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how race, ethnicity, and national identity are at the core of the sociopolitical and economic issues that Latino and Iranian families undergo in the United States. Using critical race theory as a framework, this research analyzed the ways in which Mexican immigrant families who were deported, and Iranian-immigrant families living in the United States, have been differently affected by post 9/11 anti-immigrant policies and by zero tolerance policies enacted by the Trump administration. The research question guiding this study was: How do U.S. anti-immigrant policies affect Iranian and Mexican immigrant families and their children’s futures? Our findings uncovered that both groups were negatively affected, however, in different ways. Iranian immigrant parents worried about their socioeconomic status in the United States and their children’s future. They also feared that their relatives might not be able to visit them due to the U.S. Muslim Travel Ban placed on people from seven Muslim-majority countries, including Iran. On the other hand, Mexican immigrants who lived in the United States undocumented were deported to Mexico. However, after deportation, and responding to the threat of the Trump administration to deport millions more, the Mexican government provided dual citizenship to U.S.-born children of Mexican returnees to facilitate their access to government services, including education. All people and place names are pseudonyms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Counternarrative of Teacher Evaluation: The Kangaroo Court, the Salem Witch Trials, and the Scarlett Letter
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020147
Received: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this sequential transformative study was to elucidate the negative experiences of teachers with performance evaluations and to juxtapose the intended use of current popular teacher evaluation reform movements to the evident implementation. One may quickly assume that negative experiences with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this sequential transformative study was to elucidate the negative experiences of teachers with performance evaluations and to juxtapose the intended use of current popular teacher evaluation reform movements to the evident implementation. One may quickly assume that negative experiences with evaluation are a result of unsatisfactory teaching practices. However, this may not accurately explain the negative experiences. This study focused on the negative experience of teacher evaluation to provide a broader understanding of the impact of new evaluation policy reform on student achievement and teacher quality. With a paucity of previous research focused on the negative impacts of teacher evaluation, this study addressed the following questions: (1) How does the Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) teacher evaluation process negatively impact teachers? (2) What, if any, parallel traits exist among those teachers who had negative experiences with the PAR evaluation system? and, (3) How does the intended use of the PAR teacher evaluation process compare to the evident use of PAR? Data revealed dissonance among intent and evident use of the evaluation policy. A disproportionate number of African Americans, women over the age of 55, and teachers higher on the pay scale were referred to PAR. Vague policy language was suggested as the impetus for misuse, abuse, and biased implementation at the local level. This study suggests that policymakers and school district officials take heed of multiple perspectives and consider the negative impacts of teacher evaluation reform. Evaluation systems that prioritize teacher learning over accountability are integral to successfully improving student achievement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“…4542 Miles from Home…”: Repositioning English Language Learners as Power Brokers and Teachers as Learners in the Study Abroad Context
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020146
Received: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
This article provides an empirical context for the role that bi/multi-lingual children and families may play in supporting pre-service and in-service educators engaging difference through a literacy and language situated study abroad internship in Chile. Drawing on data over a 15-year longitudinal study [...] Read more.
This article provides an empirical context for the role that bi/multi-lingual children and families may play in supporting pre-service and in-service educators engaging difference through a literacy and language situated study abroad internship in Chile. Drawing on data over a 15-year longitudinal study of the program, the authors examine how students and parents navigate serving the role of teacher, whereas the teacher participants navigate a new role as a learner in a context where they, many for the first time, experience being language and cultural minorities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Understanding Identity and Context in the Development of Gay Teacher Identity: Perceptions and Realities in Teacher Education and Teaching
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020145
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The way a teacher perceives relational justice—the feeling of being treated equitably and being included—in their work context is central to understanding the negotiation and enactment of teacher identity. For LGBTQ teachers, the degree to which they are out of the closet with [...] Read more.
The way a teacher perceives relational justice—the feeling of being treated equitably and being included—in their work context is central to understanding the negotiation and enactment of teacher identity. For LGBTQ teachers, the degree to which they are out of the closet with their students and colleagues leads to many possible outcomes. These outcomes, ranging from feeling like they need to live duplicitous lives to being activist teachers that subvert the heteronormative assumptions in schools and curricula, are studied here by examining the identity development of a group of gay teachers and their perceptions of the schools in which they work. This article is based on a dissertation study that theorized that the heteronormative nature of teacher education is a limiting factor for gay teachers’ abilities to work and thrive in school contexts. The study included in depth case studies of four gay teachers and their journeys as gay men and teachers. The goal of the study was to answer the question: Does the enactment of gay teacher identity interrupt heteronormativity in schools? The study also sought to answer two ancillary questions: (1) How do gay teachers negotiate gay teacher identity in schools? and, (2) How do school contexts impact gay teachers’ perceptions of identity-based motivation and relational justice? This article will focus on Peter Ryan’s (pseudonym) case study, specifically because of its emblematic nature in summarizing the intent and implications of the overall study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reflections of Preservice Teachers of Color: Implications for the Teacher Demographic Diversity Gap
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020144
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The reproduction of white supremacist culture in schools continues to marginalize Students of Color in a variety of implicit and explicit ways. A diverse teacher workforce not only helps to disrupt the direct effects of racism on Students of Color, but also prepares [...] Read more.
The reproduction of white supremacist culture in schools continues to marginalize Students of Color in a variety of implicit and explicit ways. A diverse teacher workforce not only helps to disrupt the direct effects of racism on Students of Color, but also prepares all students for successful democratic participation in a diverse global society. This article uses a portion of qualitative interview data from undergraduate Preservice Teachers of Color from a dissertation study completed within a College of Education at a minority-serving public university in the southwestern United States. This study adds to the literature on the complex issues that have resulted in our nation’s teacher demographic diversity gap. The findings from these data reveal meaningful teacher–student encounters that eight successful Preservice Teachers of Color have experienced during their K12 education and how these experiences affected their drive to become a teacher. The findings confirm that resolving the teacher diversity gap is more than a simple recruitment problem. Practitioners, scholars, and policy-makers must attend to the climate and culture of schools, in particular the racialized experiences of Students of Color, if we hope to begin to address the complexity of this issue. All names and places are pseudonyms. Participants chose their pseudonym, and their identifying categories listed are directly from how they identified themselves during the interviews. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Acceptance in Black and White
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020143
Received: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
This reflective, autoethnographic qualitative case study at focus in this article is based on broader research on the experiences of Black teachers working at predominantly white and affluent private schools in the United States. It was motivated by the author/researcher’s own experiences of [...] Read more.
This reflective, autoethnographic qualitative case study at focus in this article is based on broader research on the experiences of Black teachers working at predominantly white and affluent private schools in the United States. It was motivated by the author/researcher’s own experiences of personal, academic, and professional racial identity development as a student, educator, parent, and educational administrator while living and working in predominantly white and affluent communities. The two main research questions this study engaged were: (1) How did the author/researcher develop her Black identity as a transracial adoptee living at the intersection of race and class; and, (2) What was the author/researcher’s journey towards her present state of racial self-acceptance and understanding? Three ancillary research questions were also engaged: (a) How did social and societal factors influence the author/researcher’s racial identity development? (b) How did the author/researcher build a support network of personal and professional community? and, (c) How was the author/researcher able to get to a place of self-love? Using Hill Collins’ (1998) intersectional analysis framework and Cross’s (1991) theory of Black racial identity development, this article explores the author/researcher’s experiences as an affluent racialized minority by unpacking lived experiences, coping strategies, and support mechanisms that led to her current professional calling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Look How Far We Haven’t Come: The Possible Implications of Current Educational Context and Practices for Young Black Males by Amanda VandeHei Carter
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020142
Received: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Data that are derived from high stakes testing in the United States have created rhetoric of fear and criticism around our public K–12 educational system. Stakeholders often blame these low-test scores on the school, administration, or teachers. Due to the way that this [...] Read more.
Data that are derived from high stakes testing in the United States have created rhetoric of fear and criticism around our public K–12 educational system. Stakeholders often blame these low-test scores on the school, administration, or teachers. Due to the way that this data is shared with the general public Different from this narrative, within many schools, high stakes testing data are reported in an aggregated fashion, usually by students’ race. While the general public may be pointing their finger at schools, administrators, or teachers for poorly achieving students, these folks can quickly shift the blame to certain populations of students who are not performing well on standardized tests. Teachers spend time sorting and labeling children into groups and categories in an effort to “fix the problem”. While sometimes well intended, the planning, instruction, and assessment of daily and weekly instruction is focused on an end result of getting particular groups of students to score better on standardized tests. This article provides the counter narrative to this conversation and it strives to tell the story of a student who has fallen victim to standardized unauthentic curriculum. Multiple case study was the methodology used for this research. Consistent with this methodology, the data were gathered through one-on-one interviews, classroom observations, and small group discussions. Hardiman’s model of White Identity Development (WID) and Freebody and Luke’s four resources model were the conceptual frameworks that were used to guide the study. The findings shared in this article represent the data collected from one participant in this multiple case study. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Navigating Black Identity Development: The Power of Interactive Multicultural Read Alouds with Elementary-Aged Children
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020141
Received: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Racial identity development in young children is influenced by interactions with teachers and curriculum in schools. This article, using the framework of critical race theory, critical literacy, and critical pedagogy, explores how three elementary-aged Black children view their own identity development. Specifically, observing [...] Read more.
Racial identity development in young children is influenced by interactions with teachers and curriculum in schools. This article, using the framework of critical race theory, critical literacy, and critical pedagogy, explores how three elementary-aged Black children view their own identity development. Specifically, observing how children interact with Movement-Oriented Civil Rights-Themed Children’s Literature (MO-CRiTLit) in the context of a non-traditional summer literacy program, Freedom Schools, to influence their Black identity. Professional development and preservice teacher preparation are needed to support teachers as they navigate through learning about pedagogical practices that increase student engagement. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Yo Resisto, Tú Resistes, Todos Resistimos: Modes of Resistance Displayed by U.S.-Born Children of Deported Parents on the Mexico/U.S. Border
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020140
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Over 600,000 U.S.-born children are living in Mexico after being forced to leave with their parents after a deportation. Although these children possess transnational funds of knowledge, these go unrecognized by their Mexican teachers, who mostly view transnational students from a deficit perspective. [...] Read more.
Over 600,000 U.S.-born children are living in Mexico after being forced to leave with their parents after a deportation. Although these children possess transnational funds of knowledge, these go unrecognized by their Mexican teachers, who mostly view transnational students from a deficit perspective. This qualitative study included three transnational students aged 12–17 attending schools in northern Mexico due to parental deportation and used interviews, testimonios and thematic analysis to document their educational experiences and to determine their coping mechanisms and modes of resistance. By doing so, this study intended to highlight the ways in which participants enacted agency. The research questions guiding this study were: How are the educational experiences of transnational youth shaped by parental deportation? What tools do they use to cope? and, how does transnational youth enact transformative and other types of resistance? Based on theories of resistance and the Coyolxayhqui Imperative theory, this research found that the major obstacle transnational students face is the difference in educational systems and teaching practices and lack of academic Spanish proficiency. Deportation posed the added burden of stigmatization and exclusion. Family support was the greatest coping mechanism identified by participants, followed by friendships formed in Mexico, especially with other transnational students, as well as being resilient and purposeful in their pursuit of an education. Participants in this study displayed self-defeating, transformative, and resilient resistance. All people and place names are pseudonyms. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Critical Multicultural Education: Working at the Intersections of Resistance, Restorative Justice, and Revolutionary Change—Introduction
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020139
Received: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
We are pleased to serve as co-editors for this Education Sciences Special Issue focused on Critical Multicultural Education: Working at the Intersections of Resistance, Restorative Justice, and Revolutionary Change [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Students’ Engagement in Integrated Learning Model in A Blended Environment
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020138
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
As new informational conditions contribute to the discovery of new ways to improve the quality of the educational process, a new integrated learning model was elaborated. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the students’ engagement in a newly-introduced integrated learning model, [...] Read more.
As new informational conditions contribute to the discovery of new ways to improve the quality of the educational process, a new integrated learning model was elaborated. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the students’ engagement in a newly-introduced integrated learning model, identify the impact of such a model on students’ learning outcomes, and to determine if students’ engagement levels influence their learning outcomes. For our research we used qualitative and quantitative data of students’ records of professional discipline and English testing, surveys and interviews on behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement (N = 63). Results on students’ engagement showed that online activity, especially the online international project, involved students more than face-to-face classes, but at the same time some of them noted that without lectures it would be difficult, or even impossible, to participate in a project. Thus the overall engagement level was quite high. Additionally, an integrated approach positively impacted learners’ outcomes. The correlation analysis showed that learners’ engagement played an influential role and highly impacted students’ learning results. In this case we can conclude that our integrated learning model contributes to students’ involvement in the educational process and, as a consequence, allows them to achieve greater results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation into the Professional Culture of a Foreign Language Teacher in a Multicultural Classroom from Faculty and International Students’ Perspectives
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020137
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Recent studies have shown that the number of international students, who are academically mobile, is growing. As a result, higher education institutions aim at competitiveness in the world market. Therefore, the core issue of the following work is a process of adaptation of [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that the number of international students, who are academically mobile, is growing. As a result, higher education institutions aim at competitiveness in the world market. Therefore, the core issue of the following work is a process of adaptation of international students to a new educational environment, especially to the process of English teaching and learning in new frameworks. Thus, the purpose of the study is to understand the role of a language teacher in the process of international students’ foreign language learning by comparing faculty’s and students’ views on certain aspects of the educational process. For the following study, quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data using questionnaires with closed-ended and open-ended questions were applied, and the data analysis was carried out. The data obtained from the conducted survey reveals the importance of studying English for international students, their motivation and difficulties that they have to face. Moreover, the obtained data show the great complexity of the English syllabus and ways of its adaptation to the needs of international students. Furthermore, the results of the survey determine an important role of the professional culture of the second language teacher in the context of integrating students into the Russian academic environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Railway Engineering Student Engagement Using Interactive Technology Embedded with Infotainment
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020136
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Interactive learning technology is an emerging innovation for future communication-aided teaching and learning that could positively enhance students’ engagement and intrinsic motivation. Due to the virtue of interactive communication, classrooms are now anticipated to enable a variety of interaction-based learning technologies with diverse [...] Read more.
Interactive learning technology is an emerging innovation for future communication-aided teaching and learning that could positively enhance students’ engagement and intrinsic motivation. Due to the virtue of interactive communication, classrooms are now anticipated to enable a variety of interaction-based learning technologies with diverse infotainment (a subset of “serious play”) integrated with practical enquiry-based projects and case studies for employability improvement. In this paper, a comprehensive review of various teaching and learning pedagogies is assessed. Their suitability and association with infotainment and interactive technology is discussed and highlighted. In addition, a recent research activity on interactive communication is presented to form a new teaching application using interactive technology and infotainment (or edutainment) appropriate for student engagement in railway geometry and alignment design classes. The development of the integrated interactive technology and infotainment was implemented and evaluated in a postgraduate railway engineering class. Questionnaires were used to survey students’ experiences in the classes with and without the technology enhanced learning. The outcome clearly shows that students enjoyed and felt they were significantly engaged in the class with the new interactive resources. Their participation and learning performance increased. Despite the favourable outcomes, the flexibility and viability of using this interactive technology still largely depends on the students’ background and their previous experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education and Technological / Professional Learning)
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Open AccessArticle
Language Development and Deaf/Hard of Hearing Children
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020135
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
This article explores the available research literature on language development and language interventions among deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) children. This literature is divided into two broad categories: Research on natural languages (specifically American Sign Language and spoken English) and research on [...] Read more.
This article explores the available research literature on language development and language interventions among deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) children. This literature is divided into two broad categories: Research on natural languages (specifically American Sign Language and spoken English) and research on communication systems (specifically iterations of signed English and cued speech). These bodies of literature are summarized, with special attention paid to intervention research and research exploring the impacts of language skills on literacy development. Findings indicate that there is generally a stronger research base on natural languages as compared to communication systems, though more studies in both categories are necessary. Additionally, there are very few intervention studies and even fewer that aim to intervene upon language with the explicit goal of impacting literacy; therefore, there is little known about whether and how interventions that aim to support language development may have direct or indirect impacts on literacy within this population. Further research on this topic, as well as replication studies and research with larger sample sizes, is strongly recommended. Full article
Open AccessReview
Children Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing with Disabilities: Paths to Language and Literacy
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020134
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Students who are Deaf with Disabilities (DWD) comprise an extremely heterogeneous population. Similar to students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), students who are DWD vary in terms of degree, type, and age at onset of hearing loss, amplification, and preferred [...] Read more.
Students who are Deaf with Disabilities (DWD) comprise an extremely heterogeneous population. Similar to students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), students who are DWD vary in terms of degree, type, and age at onset of hearing loss, amplification, and preferred communication method. However, students who are DWD are also diverse in terms of type, etiology, and number and severity of disability(ies). Presented in this article is an overview of DWD followed by foci on Deaf with learning disabilities, Deaf with intellectual disabilities, Deaf with autism spectrum disorder, and deafblindness. Particular attention is given to communication, language, and literacy development. Full article
Open AccessReview
Deaf Children as ‘English Learners’: The Psycholinguistic Turn in Deaf Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020133
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this literature review is to present the arguments in support of conceptualizing deaf children as ‘English Learners’, to explore the educational implications of such conceptualizations, and to suggest directions for future inquiry. Three ways of interpreting the label ‘English Learner’ [...] Read more.
The purpose of this literature review is to present the arguments in support of conceptualizing deaf children as ‘English Learners’, to explore the educational implications of such conceptualizations, and to suggest directions for future inquiry. Three ways of interpreting the label ‘English Learner’ in relationship to deaf children are explored: (1) as applied to deaf children whose native language is American Sign Language; (2) as applied to deaf children whose parents speak a language other than English; and (3) as applied to deaf children who have limited access to the spoken English used by their parents. Recent research from the fields of linguistics and neuroscience on the effects of language deprivation is presented and conceptualized within a framework that we refer to as the psycholinguistic turn in deaf education. The implications for developing the literacy skills of signing deaf children are explored, particularly around the theoretical construct of a ‘bridge’ between sign language proficiency and print-based literacy. Finally, promising directions for future inquiry are presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Recruitment and Retention of International School Teachers in Remote Archipelagic Countries: The Fiji Experience
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020132
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
In current school environments, teacher recruitment, turnover, and retention present significant problems, particularly for rural and remote international schools in archipelagic countries. Employing the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study analyzed international school teachers with teaching experience at a Fijian international school [...] Read more.
In current school environments, teacher recruitment, turnover, and retention present significant problems, particularly for rural and remote international schools in archipelagic countries. Employing the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study analyzed international school teachers with teaching experience at a Fijian international school about their career development, retention ideas, and the decision of teaching service. As there is not a large population of international school teachers in archipelagic countries due to the unique environment of the school and country, the researcher employed the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to better understand six international school teachers who have taught and are teaching at one of the Fijian international schools. The study categorized two directions for leaving and staying at a remote location. Participants indicated that the managerial styles, negative leadership, and limited social networking were the most significant challenges while respectfulness and simple living style were the most significant advantages of their Fijian teaching experience. As this study mainly focused on the issues for rural, remote, and archipelagic countries, the result of this study serves as one of the first blueprints for organizational leaders in those regions to improve their management styles in order to recruit and retain their skillful professionals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Uncovering Types of Knowledge in Concept Maps
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020131
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Concept maps have been shown to have a positive impact on the quality of student learning in a variety of disciplinary contexts and educational levels from primary school to university by helping students to connect ideas and develop a productive knowledge structure to [...] Read more.
Concept maps have been shown to have a positive impact on the quality of student learning in a variety of disciplinary contexts and educational levels from primary school to university by helping students to connect ideas and develop a productive knowledge structure to support future learning. However, the evaluation of concept maps has always been a contentious issue. Some authors focus on the quantitative assessment of maps, while others prefer a more descriptive determination of map quality. To our knowledge, no previous consideration of concept maps has evaluated the different types of knowledge (e.g., procedural and conceptual) embedded within a concept map, or the ways in which they may interact. In this paper we consider maps using the lens provided by the Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) to analyze concept maps in terms of semantic gravity and semantic density. Weaving between these qualitatively, different knowledges are considered necessary to achieve professional knowledge or expert understanding. Exemplar maps are used as illustrations of the way in which students may navigate their learning towards expertise and how this is manifested in their concept maps. Implications for curriculum design and teaching evaluation are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concept Mapping and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Student Absenteeism in Mathematics Lessons: Social Variables in the PGS of Namibe
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020130
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
This article analyses social variables that cause student absenteeism from mathematics classes. It contrasts teachers’ perceptions with the perceptions of students undertaking their second and third levels of a Bachelor’s degree in Physics and Chemistry at the Pedagogical Graduate School (PGS) of Namibe, [...] Read more.
This article analyses social variables that cause student absenteeism from mathematics classes. It contrasts teachers’ perceptions with the perceptions of students undertaking their second and third levels of a Bachelor’s degree in Physics and Chemistry at the Pedagogical Graduate School (PGS) of Namibe, Angola. To perform this analysis, a Likert scale questionnaire was undertaken and descriptive and inferential statistical tests, a correlation analysis, a variance analysis, and a multivariate factorial analysis were carried out on the data. The results showed that lack of financial and emotional support from students’ families and the students’ discomfort upon moving to the educational centre were reasons behind absenteeism in mathematics lessons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Issues and Trends in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Managing Personal Finance Literacy in the United States: A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9020129
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the perspectives and impact that personal finance education had on participants in Western Pennsylvania. The researchers begin with a literature review of personal finance courses in the United States (U.S.). The U.S. housing market collapse is also discussed as a [...] Read more.
This study investigates the perspectives and impact that personal finance education had on participants in Western Pennsylvania. The researchers begin with a literature review of personal finance courses in the United States (U.S.). The U.S. housing market collapse is also discussed as a key component of the financial crisis that is often overlooked and can be partly attributed to the lack of financial literacy. The findings of this study indicate that participants want personal finance courses offered in K-12 schools and at the collegiate level. They also want personal finance elements to be co-curricular in the K-12 setting. A recommendation based on responses from participants is that co-curricular teaching of personal finance should be tied in with math courses. The participants of this study either have benefited from personal finance lessons themselves or are a strong advocate for the teaching of personal finance in the future. The financial future does also bring worry to the different generations. Generation X is more worried about the financial choices of the upcoming generations, while Millennials and Generation Z are concerned about the future of the economy and how this will affect them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Issues and Trends in Higher Education)
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