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Plants, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Pollen tube growth is a specialized process critical to reproduction in Angiosperms. The tubes [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
The Yes and No of the Ethylene Involvement in Abscission
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Abscission has significant implications in agriculture and several efforts have been addressed by researchers to understand its regulatory steps in both model and crop species. Among the main players in abscission, ethylene has exhibited some fascinating features, in that it was shown to [...] Read more.
Abscission has significant implications in agriculture and several efforts have been addressed by researchers to understand its regulatory steps in both model and crop species. Among the main players in abscission, ethylene has exhibited some fascinating features, in that it was shown to be involved at different stages of abscission induction and, in some cases, with interesting roles also within the abscising organ at the very early stages of the process. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of ethylene both at the level of the abscission zone and within the shedding organ, pointing out the missing pieces of the very complicated puzzle of the abscission process in the different species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drought Yield QTL (qDTY) with Consistent Effects on Morphological and Agronomical Traits of Two Populations of New Rice (Oryza sativa) Lines
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Drought has been a major limiting factor for rice production. Drought yield QTLs (qDTYs; QTLs = quantitative trait loci) were pyramided into MRQ74 and MR219 to produce drought tolerant lines. In this study, new drought tolerant MRQ74 and MR219 pyramided lines (PLs) [...] Read more.
Drought has been a major limiting factor for rice production. Drought yield QTLs (qDTYs; QTLs = quantitative trait loci) were pyramided into MRQ74 and MR219 to produce drought tolerant lines. In this study, new drought tolerant MRQ74 and MR219 pyramided lines (PLs) were evaluated under drought stress (RS) and non-stress (NS) conditions to evaluate the effects of different qDTYs combinations on morphological and agronomical traits. MRQ74 PLs having qDTY12.1 possessed the best root length (RL) under both RS and NS but the effect was only significant for MR219 PLs under RS. Some qDTYs combinations also found to have consistent effect on the same trait of both populations. PLs with only qDTY12.1 showed the highest grain yield (GY) under RS in both populations which means qDTY12.1 controlled RL and caused higher GY under drought condition. The interaction of major-effect qDTY12.1 with qDTY2.2 also shows significant effect on leaf rolling (LR) of both PL populations. These qDTYs proved to be beneficial in improving traits related to drought tolerance. Selected PLs with qDTY12.1 combinations also found to have better RL and root weight (RW) under RS. Improvement of morphological and agronomical traits led to higher GY of PLs. Therefore, qDTY12.1 either is present singly or in combination with other qDTYs was the best qDTY due to its consistent effect on morphological and agronomical traits and GY across populations under RS and NS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pollination Type Recognition from a Distance by the Ovary Is Revealed Through a Global Transcriptomic Analysis
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves intimate contact and continuous interactions between the growing pollen tube and the female reproductive structures. These interactions can trigger responses in distal regions of the flower well ahead of fertilization. While pollination-induced petal senescence has been studied [...] Read more.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves intimate contact and continuous interactions between the growing pollen tube and the female reproductive structures. These interactions can trigger responses in distal regions of the flower well ahead of fertilization. While pollination-induced petal senescence has been studied extensively, less is known about how pollination is perceived at a distance in the ovary, and how specific this response is to various pollen genotypes. To address this question, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis in the ovary of a wild potato species, Solanum chacoense, at various time points following compatible, incompatible, and heterospecific pollinations. In all cases, pollen tube penetration in the stigma was initially perceived as a wounding aggression. Then, as the pollen tubes grew in the style, a growing number of genes became specific to each pollen genotype. Functional classification analyses revealed sharp differences in the response to compatible and heterospecific pollinations. For instance, the former induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes while the latter affected genes associated to ethylene signaling. In contrast, incompatible pollination remained more akin to a wound response. Our analysis reveals that every pollination type produces a specific molecular signature generating diversified and specific responses at a distance in the ovary in preparation for fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Reproduction)
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Open AccessReview
Polyamine Oxidases Play Various Roles in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Polyamines not only play roles in plant growth and development, but also adapt to environmental stresses. Polyamines can be oxidized by copper-containing diamine oxidases (CuAOs) and flavin-containing polyamine oxidases (PAOs). Two types of PAOs exist in the plant kingdom; one type catalyzes the [...] Read more.
Polyamines not only play roles in plant growth and development, but also adapt to environmental stresses. Polyamines can be oxidized by copper-containing diamine oxidases (CuAOs) and flavin-containing polyamine oxidases (PAOs). Two types of PAOs exist in the plant kingdom; one type catalyzes the back conversion (BC-type) pathway and the other catalyzes the terminal catabolism (TC-type) pathway. The catabolic features and biological functions of plant PAOs have been investigated in various plants in the past years. In this review, we focus on the advance of PAO studies in rice, Arabidopsis, and tomato, and other plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
The Copper Amine Oxidase AtCuAOδ Participates in Abscisic Acid-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Plant copper amine oxidases (CuAOs) are involved in wound healing, defense against pathogens, methyl-jasmonate-induced protoxylem differentiation, and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CuAOδ (AtCuAOδ; At4g12290) in the ABA-mediated stomatal closure by [...] Read more.
Plant copper amine oxidases (CuAOs) are involved in wound healing, defense against pathogens, methyl-jasmonate-induced protoxylem differentiation, and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CuAOδ (AtCuAOδ; At4g12290) in the ABA-mediated stomatal closure by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Obtained data show that AtCuAOδ is up-regulated by ABA and that two Atcuaoδ T-DNA insertional mutants are less responsive to this hormone, showing reduced ABA-mediated stomatal closure and H2O2 accumulation in guard cells as compared to the wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, CuAO inhibitors, as well as the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger N,N1-dimethylthiourea, reversed most of the ABA-induced stomatal closure in WT plants. Consistently, AtCuAOδ over-expressing transgenic plants display a constitutively increased stomatal closure and increased H2O2 production compared to WT plants. Our data suggest that AtCuAOδ is involved in the H2O2 production related to ABA-induced stomatal closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversification of African Tree Legumes in Miombo–Mopane Woodlands
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
The southern African Miombo and Mopane ecoregions constitute a unique repository of plant diversity whose diversification and evolutionary history is still understudied. In this work, we assessed the diversity, distribution, and conservation status of Miombo and Mopane tree legumes within the Zambezian phytoregion. [...] Read more.
The southern African Miombo and Mopane ecoregions constitute a unique repository of plant diversity whose diversification and evolutionary history is still understudied. In this work, we assessed the diversity, distribution, and conservation status of Miombo and Mopane tree legumes within the Zambezian phytoregion. Data were retrieved from several plant and gene databases and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on genetic barcodes. Seventy-eight species (74 from Miombo and 23 from Mopane, 19 common to both ecoregions) have been scored. Species diversity was high within both ecoregions, but information about the actual conservation status is scarce and available only for ca. 15% of the species. Results of phylogenetic analyses were consistent with current legume classification but did not allow us to draw any conclusion regarding the evolutionary history of Miombo and Mopane tree legumes. Future studies are proposed to dissect the diversity and structure of key species in order to consolidate the network of conservation areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular and Morphological Changes Induced by Leonardite-based Biostimulant in Beta vulgaris L.
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Humic substances extracted from leonardite are widely considered to be bioactive compounds, influencing the whole-plant physiology and the crop yield. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a new formulate based on leonardite in the early stage of growth [...] Read more.
Humic substances extracted from leonardite are widely considered to be bioactive compounds, influencing the whole-plant physiology and the crop yield. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a new formulate based on leonardite in the early stage of growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). A commercial preparation of leonardite (BLACKJAK) was characterized by ionomic analysis, solid-state 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Seedlings of sugar beet were grown in Hoagland’s solution under controlled conditions. After five days of growth, an aliquot of the concentrated BLACKJAK was added to the solution to obtain a final dilution of 1:1000 (0.5 mg C L−1). The sugar beet response in the early stage of growth was determined by evaluating root morphological traits as well as the changes in the expression of 53 genes related to key morphophysiological processes. Root morphological traits, such as total root length, fine root length (average diameter < 0.5 mm), and number of root tips, were significantly (p < 0.001) increased in plants treated with BLACKJAK, compared to the untreated plants at all sampling times. At the molecular level, BLACKJAK treatment upregulated many of the evaluated genes. Moreover, both Real Time PCR and digital PCR showed that genes involved in hormonal response, such as PIN, ARF3, LOGL 10, GID1, and BRI1, were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated by treatment with BLACKJAK. Our study provides essential information to understand the effect of a leonardite-based formulate on plant growth hormone metabolism, although the molecular and physiological basis for these complicated regulatory mechanisms deserve further investigations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silicon Affects Root Development, Tissue Mineral Content, and Expression of Silicon Transporter Genes in Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) Cultivars
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
The effects of silicon (Si) on root development, mineral content, and expression of Si transporter genes in Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ‘Flame’, ‘Mable Bell’, ‘Green Star’, ‘Pink Bell’, and ‘Peach Bowl’ cultivars were investigated in this study. Stem cuttings in a propagation bench were [...] Read more.
The effects of silicon (Si) on root development, mineral content, and expression of Si transporter genes in Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ‘Flame’, ‘Mable Bell’, ‘Green Star’, ‘Pink Bell’, and ‘Peach Bowl’ cultivars were investigated in this study. Stem cuttings in a propagation bench were drenched regularly with a solution containing either 0 (control) or 50 ppm of silicon (Si treatment) from potassium silicate (K2SiO3), with a 25 °C mean air temperature and 80% relative humidity (RH) under 70% shading. The results showed that the ‘Flame’ treated with Si had a significantly higher survival ratio as compared with that of the control (P ≤ 0.05) and that the Si treatment improved number of roots, length of longest root, fresh root weight, and dry root weight in all cultivars except ‘Mable Bell’. Supplementary Si increased the content of magnesium (Mg) and decreased the content of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the roots. The content of sulfur (S) in the shoots was increased by supplementary Si. The relative expression of Lsi1 and Lsi2 was higher in ‘Peach Bowl’, while it was lower in ‘Mable Bell’ and ‘Green Star’, which may be caused by the differing accumulation of Si in the shoot. Overall, supplementary Si had beneficial effects during cutting propagation of poinsettia cultivars, although these effects were cultivar-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal, Plant Part, and Interpopulation Variability of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Inula helenium L.
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Variations in abiotic environmental factors have significant effects on quantity and quality of secondary metabolites, which is particularly important for plant species that possess biologically active compounds. The purpose of this study is determination of the total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant [...] Read more.
Variations in abiotic environmental factors have significant effects on quantity and quality of secondary metabolites, which is particularly important for plant species that possess biologically active compounds. The purpose of this study is determination of the total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity of the different parts of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae) sampled from different populations and in different time periods. The amounts obtained for the total phenolics varied from 16.73 to 89.85 mg of gallic acid (GA)/g. The concentration of flavonoids ranged from 9.32 to 376.22 mg of rutin (Ru)/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method varied from 161.60 to 1563.02 μg/ml. The inflorescence and roots possessed high concentration of phenolic compounds and significant antioxidant activity, while leaves contained the highest concentration of flavonoids. Additionally, the quantity of the phenolics, as well as antioxidant activity, significantly varied among the different populations due to different impacts of environmental factors. This research showed that I. helenium represents an abundant source of bioactive substances, and that the quantity of these compounds greatly differs among the different populations as well as in the same populations regarding the different time periods as well as plant parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2019 Feature Papers by Plants’ Editorial Board Members)
Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting the Regeneration, via Organogenesis, and the Selection of Transgenic Calli in the Peach Rootstock Hansen 536 (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus) to Express an RNAi Construct against PPV Virus
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Prunus spp. is one of the most recalcitrant fruit tree species in terms of in vitro regeneration and transformation, mostly when mature tissues are used as explants. The present study describes the in vitro regeneration via indirect organogenesis, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation [...] Read more.
Prunus spp. is one of the most recalcitrant fruit tree species in terms of in vitro regeneration and transformation, mostly when mature tissues are used as explants. The present study describes the in vitro regeneration via indirect organogenesis, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the peach rootstock Hansen 536 (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus) through the use of meristematic bulks (MBs) as starting explants. Efficient adventitious shoot regeneration was obtained when Hansen 536 MBs were cultured on an optimized medium consisting of modified McCown Woody Plant medium (WPM) enriched with 4.4 μM 6-Benzyladenine (BA), 0.1 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6.0 g L−1 plant agar S1000 (B&V). MB slices were used later as starting explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to introduce an RNAi construct “ihp35S-PPV194” against PPV virus. Transgenic events were identified by both green fluorescent protein (GFP) screening and kanamycin selection at different concentrations (0, 17 or 42 μM). GFP-fluorescent proliferating callus lines were selected and confirmed to stably express the ihp35S-PPV194::eGFP gene construct by molecular analysis. Although shoot regeneration from these transgenic calli has not been obtained yet, this represents one of the few examples of successful attempts in peach genetic transformation from somatic tissues, and also serves as a useful in vitro system for future gene functional analysis in peach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2019 Feature Papers by Plants’ Editorial Board Members)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Regeneration of Capparis spinosa L. by Using a Temporary Immersion System
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Three caper (Capparis spinosa L.) biotypes grown on the Sicilian island of Salina (38°33′49″ N) were micropropagated to evaluate two different in vitro culture systems: one using the traditional solid medium, and the other based on liquid culture in a PlantForm bioreactor. [...] Read more.
Three caper (Capparis spinosa L.) biotypes grown on the Sicilian island of Salina (38°33′49″ N) were micropropagated to evaluate two different in vitro culture systems: one using the traditional solid medium, and the other based on liquid culture in a PlantForm bioreactor. PlantForm is a temporary immersion system (TIS), a new propagation method in which the shoots undergo temporary immersion in a liquid medium in order to avoid the accumulation of gas through forced ventilation. This study proposes a protocol to improve the efficiency of in vitro propagation of caper plants, while also reducing production costs, because of the elimination of the gelling agent, and manual labor, requiring limited subcultures and posing minimal contamination risks. Our results show that the caper shoots propagated in bioreactors demonstrated good adaptability and better growth rates than those grown in the conventional system. Statistically significant differences were observed between plants grown in the PlantForm liquid culture and those grown in solid medium regarding the number and length of shoots, which were further promoted by the addition of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The relative growth and real proliferation rate of the caper explants were higher when using meta-Topolin than when using 6-benzylaminopurine as a PGR. Overall, the TIS improved in vitro caper culture by promoting the proliferation, length, and vigor of the shoots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Insect Antifeedant Components of Senecio fistulosus var. fistulosus—Hualtata
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
From a bioactive methanolic extract of Senecio fistulosus, the antifeedant effects of the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions were tested against the insects Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi, with the non-alkaloidal fraction being antifeedant. The phytochemical study of the [...] Read more.
From a bioactive methanolic extract of Senecio fistulosus, the antifeedant effects of the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions were tested against the insects Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi, with the non-alkaloidal fraction being antifeedant. The phytochemical study of the non-alkaloidal fraction of S. fistulosus, resulted in the isolation of four compounds, two 9-oxo-furanoeremophilanes (1, 2), an eremophilanolide, 1β,10β-epoxy-6-acetoxy-8α-hydroxy-eremofil-7(11)-en-8β,12-olide (3) and a maaliol derivative (4). The alkaloidal fraction yielded two known pyrrolizidine alkaloids (5, 6). Compounds 1, 3 and 4 are new natural products. Furanoeremophilane 2 was a strong antifeedant against S. littoralis and maaliane 4 inhibited the settling of M. persicae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversified Chromosome Rearrangements Detected in a Wheat‒Dasypyrum breviaristatum Substitution Line Induced by Gamma-Ray Irradiation
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
To determine the composition of chromosome aberrations in a wheat‒Dasypyrum breviaristatum substitution line with seeds treated by a dose of gamma-rays (200 Gy), sequential non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) with multiple oligonucleotide probes was used to screen individual plants of the [...] Read more.
To determine the composition of chromosome aberrations in a wheat‒Dasypyrum breviaristatum substitution line with seeds treated by a dose of gamma-rays (200 Gy), sequential non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) with multiple oligonucleotide probes was used to screen individual plants of the mutagenized progenies. We identified 122 types of chromosome rearrangements, including centromeric, telomeric, and intercalary chromosome translocations from a total of 772 M1 and 872 M2 plants. The frequency of reciprocal translocations between B- and D-chromosomes was higher than that between A- and D-chromosomes. Eight translocations between D. breviaristatum and wheat chromosomes were also detected. The 13 stable plants with multiple chromosome translocations displayed novel agronomic traits. The newly developed materials will enhance wheat breeding programs through wheat‒Dasypyrum introgression and also facilitate future studies on the genetic and epigenetic effects of translocations in wheat genomics. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Reactive Oxygen Species as Potential Drivers of the Seed Aging Process
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Seeds are an important life cycle stage because they guarantee plant survival in unfavorable environmental conditions and the transfer of genetic information from parents to offspring. However, similar to every organ, seeds undergo aging processes that limit their viability and ultimately cause the [...] Read more.
Seeds are an important life cycle stage because they guarantee plant survival in unfavorable environmental conditions and the transfer of genetic information from parents to offspring. However, similar to every organ, seeds undergo aging processes that limit their viability and ultimately cause the loss of their basic property, i.e., the ability to germinate. Seed aging is a vital economic and scientific issue that is related to seed resistance to an array of factors, both internal (genetic, structural, and physiological) and external (mainly storage conditions: temperature and humidity). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to initiate seed aging via the degradation of cell membrane phospholipids and the structural and functional deterioration of proteins and genetic material. Researchers investigating seed aging claim that the effective protection of genetic resources requires an understanding of the reasons for senescence of seeds with variable sensitivity to drying and long-term storage. Genomic integrity considerably affects seed viability and vigor. The deterioration of nucleic acids inhibits transcription and translation and exacerbates reductions in the activity of antioxidant system enzymes. All of these factors significantly limit seed viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Seed Germination and Growth)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Water Stress during Grain Filling on Yield, Quality and Physiological Traits of Illpa and Rainbow Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Cultivars
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The total area under quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation and the consumption of its grain have increased in recent years because of its nutritional properties and ability to grow under adverse conditions, such as drought. Climate change scenarios predict extended periods of [...] Read more.
The total area under quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation and the consumption of its grain have increased in recent years because of its nutritional properties and ability to grow under adverse conditions, such as drought. Climate change scenarios predict extended periods of drought and this has emphasized the need for new crops that are tolerant to these conditions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate crop yield and quality parameters and to characterize the physiology of two varieties of quinoa grown under water deficit in greenhouse conditions. Two varieties of quinoa from the Chilean coast (Rainbow) and altiplano (Illpa) were used, grown under full irrigation or two different levels of water deficit applied during the grain filling period. There were no marked differences in yield and quality parameters between treatments, but the root biomass was higher in plants grown under severe water deficit conditions compared to control. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance decreased with increased water stress in both cultivars, but the coastal variety showed higher water use efficiency and less discrimination of 13C under water deficit. This response was associated with greater root development and a better stomatal opening adjustment, especially in the case of Rainbow. The capacity of Rainbow to increase its osmoregulant content (compounds such as proline, glutamine, glutamate, K and Na) could enable a potential osmotic adjustment in this variety. Moreover, the lower stomatal opening and transpiration rates were also associated with higher leaf ABA concentration values detected in Rainbow. We found negative logarithmic relationships between stomatal conductance and leaf ABA concentration in both varieties, with significant R2 values of 0.50 and 0.22 in Rainbow and Illpa, respectively. These moderate-to-medium values suggest that, in addition to ABA signaling, other causes for stomatal closure in quinoa under drought such as hydraulic regulation may play a role. In conclusion, this work showed that two quinoa cultivars use different strategies in the face of water deficit stress, and these prevent decreases in grain yield and quality under drought conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photosynthetic Metabolism under Stressful Growth Conditions)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Primary Cell Wall Nanomechanical Properties in Internal Cells of Non-Fixed Maize Roots
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
The mechanical properties of cell walls play a vital role in plant development. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) is widely used for characterization of these properties. However, only surface or isolated plant cells have been used for such investigations, at least as non-embedded samples. Theories [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of cell walls play a vital role in plant development. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) is widely used for characterization of these properties. However, only surface or isolated plant cells have been used for such investigations, at least as non-embedded samples. Theories that claim a restrictive role of a particular tissue in plant growth cannot be confirmed without direct measurement of the mechanical properties of internal tissue cell walls. Here we report an approach of assessing the nanomechanical properties of primary cell walls in the inner tissues of growing plant organs. The procedure does not include fixation, resin-embedding or drying of plant material. Vibratome-derived longitudinal and transverse sections of maize root were investigated by AFM in a liquid cell to track the changes of cell wall stiffness and elasticity accompanying elongation growth. Apparent Young’s modulus values and stiffness of stele periclinal cell walls in the elongation zone of maize root were lower than in the meristem, i.e., cell walls became more elastic and less resistant to an applied force during their elongation. The trend was confirmed using either a sharp or spherical probe. The availability of such a method may promote our understanding of individual tissue roles in the plant growth processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Photosynthetic Responses of Canola and Wheat to Elevated Levels of CO2, O3 and Water Deficit in Open-Top Chambers
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
The effects of elevated CO2 (700 ppm) and O3 (80 ppb) alone and in combination on the photosynthetic efficiency of canola and wheat plants were investigated in open-top chambers (OTCs). The plants were fumigated for four weeks under well-watered and water-stressed [...] Read more.
The effects of elevated CO2 (700 ppm) and O3 (80 ppb) alone and in combination on the photosynthetic efficiency of canola and wheat plants were investigated in open-top chambers (OTCs). The plants were fumigated for four weeks under well-watered and water-stressed (water deficit) conditions. The fast chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured after 2 and 4 weeks of fumigation, as well as in control plants, and analyzed by the JIP-test, which is a non-destructive, non-invasive, informative, very fast and inexpensive technique used to evaluate the changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Biomass measurements were taken only after 4 weeks of fumigation. The performance index (PItotal), an overall parameter calculated from the JIP-test formulae, was reduced by elevated CO2 and O3 under well-watered conditions. In the absence of any other treatment, water stress caused a decrease of the PItotal, and it was partly eliminated by fumigation with elevated CO2 and CO2 + O3. This finding was also supported by the biomass results, which revealed a higher biomass under elevated CO2 and CO2 + O3. The decrease in biomass induced by elevated O3 was likely caused by the decline of photosynthetic efficiency. Our findings suggest that elevated CO2 reduces the drought effect both in the absence and presence of O3 in canola and wheat plants. The study also indicates that elevated O3 would pose a threat in future to agricultural crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adapting Crops to Climate Change)
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Open AccessReview
Perspectives on microRNAs and Phased Small Interfering RNAs in Maize (Zea mays L.): Functions and Big Impact on Agronomic Traits Enhancement
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
Small RNA (sRNA) population in plants comprises of primarily micro RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). MiRNAs play important roles in plant growth and development. The miRNA-derived secondary siRNAs are usually known as phased siRNAs, including phasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. The miRNA and [...] Read more.
Small RNA (sRNA) population in plants comprises of primarily micro RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). MiRNAs play important roles in plant growth and development. The miRNA-derived secondary siRNAs are usually known as phased siRNAs, including phasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. The miRNA and phased siRNA biogenesis mechanisms are highly conserved in plants. However, their functional conservation and diversification may differ in maize. In the past two decades, lots of miRNAs and phased siRNAs have been functionally identified for curbing important maize agronomic traits, such as those related to developmental timing, plant architecture, sex determination, reproductive development, leaf morphogenesis, root development and nutrition, kernel development and tolerance to abiotic stresses. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice, studies on maize miRNA and phased siRNA biogenesis and functions are limited, which restricts the small RNA-based fundamental and applied studies in maize. This review updates the current status of maize miRNA and phased siRNA mechanisms and provides a survey of our knowledge on miRNA and phased siRNA functions in controlling agronomic traits. Furthermore, improvement of those traits through manipulating the expression of sRNAs or their targets is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of MicroRNAs in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Fungal Communities Associated with Peacock and Cercospora Leaf Spots in Olive
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
Venturia oleaginea and Pseudocercospora cladosporioides are two of the most important olive fungal pathogens causing leaf spots: peacock spot, and cercosporiosis, respectively. In the present study, fungal communities associated with the presence of these pathogens were investigated. Overall, 300 symptomatic and asymptomatic trees [...] Read more.
Venturia oleaginea and Pseudocercospora cladosporioides are two of the most important olive fungal pathogens causing leaf spots: peacock spot, and cercosporiosis, respectively. In the present study, fungal communities associated with the presence of these pathogens were investigated. Overall, 300 symptomatic and asymptomatic trees from different cultivars were sampled from Alentejo, Portugal. A total of 788 fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 21 OTUs; Ascomycota was clearly the predominant phylum (96.6%). Trees from cultivar ‘Galega vulgar’ showed a significant higher fungal richness when compared to ‘Cobrançosa’, which in turn showed significant higher values than ‘Picual’. Concerning plant health status, symptomatic plants showed significant higher fungal richness, mainly due to the high number of isolates of the pathogens V. oleaginea and P. cladosporioides. In terms of fungal diversity, there were two major groups: ca. 90% of the isolates found in symptomatic plants belonged to V. oleaginea, P. cladosporioides, Chalara sp., and Foliophoma sp. while ca. 90% of the isolates found in asymptomatic plants, belonged to Alternaria sp. and Epicoccum sp. This study highlights the existence of different fungal communities in olive trees, including potential antagonistic organisms that can have a significant impact on diseases and consequently on olive production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Resistance to Leaf Fall Disease Caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Rubber Tree Seedling by Sargassum polycystum Extract
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
The brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh-Sargassaceae) extract was examined for its bioelicitor properties in the rubber tree seedling (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. - Euphorbiaceae) and its application to reduce the leaf fall disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Edwin [...] Read more.
The brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh-Sargassaceae) extract was examined for its bioelicitor properties in the rubber tree seedling (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. - Euphorbiaceae) and its application to reduce the leaf fall disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Edwin John) Butler, 1917 (Peronosporaceae). The major purpose of this study was to apply this seaweed extract (SWE) to improve the disease resistance in rubber tree seedling compared to a chemical fungicide (1% metalaxyl). After foliar spraying of SWE solution, two antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-triggered enzyme, β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), were analyzed. Both secondary metabolites, a phytoalexin scopoletin (Scp) and a signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both SWE- and metalaxyl-treated plants had a close disease index (DI)-score which were 16.90 ± 1.93 and 15.54 ± 1.25, respectively, while the positive control sprayed with P. palmivora showed DI-score of 29.27 ± 1.89 which was much higher than those treated with SWE or fungicide. CAT, POD, and GLU were increased in rubber tree leaves treated with SWE solution. Furthermore, Scp and SA were significantly increased in SWE-treated leaves. Enhanced systemic acquired resistance induction, 2.09 folds of SA accumulation, was observed in the distal area comparing to the local area of SWE application. In conclusion, the positive effects of SWE elicitation from these studies revealed that SWE could be used as an alternative biocontrol agent for foliar spraying to enhance the defense responses in rubber tree seedling against P. palmivora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization of a New Virus Species Identified in Yam (Dioscorea spp.) by High-Throughput Sequencing
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
To date, several viruses of different genera have been reported to infect yam (Dioscorea spp.). The full diversity of viruses infecting yam, however, remains to be explored. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods are increasingly being used in the discovery of new plant viral [...] Read more.
To date, several viruses of different genera have been reported to infect yam (Dioscorea spp.). The full diversity of viruses infecting yam, however, remains to be explored. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods are increasingly being used in the discovery of new plant viral genomes. In this study, we employed HTS on yam to determine whether any undiscovered viruses were present that would restrict the international distribution of yam germplasm. We discovered a new virus sequence present in 31 yam samples tested and have tentatively named this virus “yam virus Y” (YVY). Twenty-three of the samples in which YVY was detected showed mosaic and chlorotic leaf symptoms, but Yam mosaic virus was also detected in these samples. Complete genome sequences of two YVY viral isolates were assembled and found to contain five open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a large replication-associated protein, ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4 constitute the putative triple gene block proteins, and ORF5 encodes a putative coat protein. Considering the species demarcation criteria of the family Betaflexiviridae, YVY should be considered as a novel virus species in the family Betaflexiviridae. Further work is needed to understand the association of this new virus with any symptoms and yield loss and its implication on virus-free seed yam production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Control of Plant Viral Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Adult Functional Traits of Local Populations and Cultivars of Sandberg Bluegrass and Bottlebrush Squirreltail Perennial Bunchgrasses
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Plant functional traits offer an understanding of the plant’s ability to cope with varying environmental impositions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the above and belowground adult morphological and chemical composition traits of local populations of Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda [...] Read more.
Plant functional traits offer an understanding of the plant’s ability to cope with varying environmental impositions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the above and belowground adult morphological and chemical composition traits of local populations of Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) and Bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey) collected in Nevada and their cultivated varieties. A total of six replications (one seedling each) from each population and cultivar of the two native perennial bunchgrasses were used in a randomized complete block design experiment. Each of the six seedlings from each sourced population was transplanted into individual tree pots (28 cm diameter × 61 cm height) containing 20.4 kg of air-dried Orr gravelly sandy loam soil in mid-November, 2015 and remained in the pots for the duration of the study (23 June, 2016). Traits evaluated were, plant height, leaf length, inflorescence length, shoot biomass, forage nutritive value, root morphological traits, and root carbon and nitrogen content. Traits means were considered different at P < 0.05. For Sandberg bluegrass, the cultivar ‘Mountain Home’ and the population from Panther Valley tended to have greater biomass than the population from Button Point but overall, the average of the two cultivars (10.8 g/plant) did not differ in shoot biomass relative to the local populations (7.6 g/plant). For squirreltail, plant height for the George St. Sonoma and Grass Valley populations (71.3 cm) was greater than the cultivars ‘Toe Jam Creek’ and ‘Vale’ (40.5 cm) but cultivars had greater biomass (12.6 g/plant) than the local populations (5.8 g/plant). Total root length and root diameter were not different among the Sanberg bluegrass and squirreltail populations. The results from traits expounded on in this study indicate the closeness of these populations for both species at their adult stage and provide insights for building a unified framework approach among the different agencies and restoration practitioners to aid in plant assemblages for restoration success in the Great Basin and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
In-Cold Exposure to Z-3-Hexenal Provides Protection Against Ongoing Cold Stress in Zea mays
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which have mostly been described as providers of protection against insect herbivory and necrotrophic pathogen infections, were recently shown to provide significant fortification against cold stress damage. It was further demonstrated that cold-damaged maize seedlings released a significant amount [...] Read more.
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which have mostly been described as providers of protection against insect herbivory and necrotrophic pathogen infections, were recently shown to provide significant fortification against cold stress damage. It was further demonstrated that cold-damaged maize seedlings released a significant amount of GLVs, in particular, Z-3-hexenal (Z-3-HAL). Here, we report that the in-cold treatment of maize seedlings with Z-3-HAL significantly improved cold stress resistance. The transcripts for cold-protective genes were also significantly increased in the Z-3-HAL treated maize seedlings over those found in only cold stressed plants. Consequently, the maize seedlings treated with HAL during cold showed a significantly increased structural integrity, significantly less damage, and increased growth after cold stress, relative to the non-HAL treated maize seedlings. Together, these results demonstrate the protective effect of in-cold treatment with HAL against cold damage, and suggest that the perception of these compounds during cold episodes significantly improves resistance against this abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection)
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Open AccessReview
Expanding Avenue of Fast Neutron Mediated Mutagenesis for Crop Improvement
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Fast neutron (FN) radiation mediated mutagenesis is a unique approach among the several induced mutagenesis methods being used in plant science in terms of impacted mutations. The FN mutagenesis usually creates deletions from few bases to several million bases (Mb). A library of [...] Read more.
Fast neutron (FN) radiation mediated mutagenesis is a unique approach among the several induced mutagenesis methods being used in plant science in terms of impacted mutations. The FN mutagenesis usually creates deletions from few bases to several million bases (Mb). A library of random deletion generated using FN mutagenesis lines can provide indispensable resources for the reverse genetic approaches. In this review, information from several efforts made using FN mutagenesis has been compiled to understand the type of induced mutations, frequency, and genetic stability. Concerns regarding the utilization of FN mutagenesis technique for a plant with different level of ploidy and genome complexity are discussed. We have highlighted the utility of next-generation sequencing techniques that can be efficiently utilized for the characterization of mutant lines as well as for the mapping of causal mutations. Pros and cons of mapping by mutation (MutMap), mutant chromosome sequencing (MutChromSeq), exon capture, whole genome sequencing, MutRen-Seq, and different tilling approaches that can be used for the detection of FN-induced mutation has also been discussed. Genomic resources developed using the FN mutagenesis have been catalogued wooing to meaningful utilization of the available resources. The information provided here will be helpful for the efficient exploration for the crop improvement programs and for better understanding of genetic regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Mutagenesis Research)
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Open AccessReview
Polysaccharides from New Zealand Native Plants: A Review of Their Structure, Properties, and Potential Applications
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
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Abstract
Water-soluble, non-starch polysaccharides from plants are used commercially in a wide range of food and non-food applications. The increasing range of applications for natural polysaccharides means that there is growing demand for plant-derived polysaccharides with different functionalities. The geographical isolation of New Zealand [...] Read more.
Water-soluble, non-starch polysaccharides from plants are used commercially in a wide range of food and non-food applications. The increasing range of applications for natural polysaccharides means that there is growing demand for plant-derived polysaccharides with different functionalities. The geographical isolation of New Zealand and its unique flora presents opportunities to discover new polysaccharides with novel properties for a range of applications. This review brings together data published since the year 2000 on the composition and structure of exudate gums, mucilages, and storage polysaccharides extracted from New Zealand endemic land plants. The structures and properties of these polysaccharides are compared with the structures of similar polysaccharides from other plants. The current commercial use of these polysaccharides is reviewed and their potential for further exploitation discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Promeristem Structure and Ontogeny of Procambium in Primary Roots of Zea mays ssp. Mexicana and Z. mays ‘Honey Bantam’ with Emphasis on Metaxylem Vessel Histogenesis
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract
Classical histology describes the histological organization in Zea mays as having a “closed organization” that differs from Arabidopsis with the development of xylem conforming to predictable rules. We speculated that root apical meristem organization in a wild subspecies of Z. mays (a teosinte) [...] Read more.
Classical histology describes the histological organization in Zea mays as having a “closed organization” that differs from Arabidopsis with the development of xylem conforming to predictable rules. We speculated that root apical meristem organization in a wild subspecies of Z. mays (a teosinte) would differ from a domestic sweetcorn cultivar (‘Honey Bantam’). Careful comparison could contribute to understanding how evolutionary processes and the domestication of maize have affected root development. Root tips of seedlings were prepared and sectioned for light microscopy. Most sections were treated with RNase before staining to increase contrast between the walls and cytoplasm. Longitudinal and serial transverse sections were analyzed using computer imaging to determine the position and timing of key xylem developmental events. Metaxylem development in mexicana teosinte differed from sweetcorn only in that the numbers of late-maturing metaxylem vessels in the latter are typically two-fold greater and the number of cells in the transverse section of procambium were greater in the latter, but parenchymatous cell sizes were not statistically different. Promeristems of both were nearly identical in size and organization, but did not operate quite as previously described. Mitotic activity was rare in the quiescent centers, but occasionally a synchronized pulse of mitoses was observed there. Our reinterpretation of histogen theory and procambium development should be useful for future detailed studies of regulation of development, and perhaps its evolution, in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Root Development)
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Open AccessReview
Herbicide Resistance Management: Recent Developments and Trends
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract
This review covers recent developments and trends in herbicide-resistant (HR) weed management in agronomic field crops. In countries where input-intensive agriculture is practiced, these developments and trends over the past decade include renewed efforts by the agrichemical industry in herbicide discovery, cultivation of [...] Read more.
This review covers recent developments and trends in herbicide-resistant (HR) weed management in agronomic field crops. In countries where input-intensive agriculture is practiced, these developments and trends over the past decade include renewed efforts by the agrichemical industry in herbicide discovery, cultivation of crops with combined (stacked) HR traits, increasing reliance on preemergence vs. postemergence herbicides, breeding for weed-competitive crop cultivars, expansion of harvest weed seed control practices, and advances in site-specific or precision weed management. The unifying framework or strategy underlying these developments and trends is mitigation of viable weed seeds into the soil seed bank and maintaining low weed seed banks to minimize population proliferation, evolution of resistance to additional herbicidal sites of action, and spread. A key question going forward is: how much weed control is enough to consistently achieve the goal of low weed seed banks? The vision for future HR weed management programs must be sustained crop production and profitability with reduced herbicide (particularly glyphosate) dependency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbicide Resistance in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Waterlogging Causes Early Modification in the Physiological Performance, Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, Proline, and Soluble Sugars of Cucumber Plants
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract
Waterlogging occurs because of poor soil drainage and/or excessive rainfall and is a serious abiotic stress affecting plant growth because of declining oxygen supplied to submerged tissues. Although cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is sensitive to waterlogging, its ability to generate adventitious roots [...] Read more.
Waterlogging occurs because of poor soil drainage and/or excessive rainfall and is a serious abiotic stress affecting plant growth because of declining oxygen supplied to submerged tissues. Although cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is sensitive to waterlogging, its ability to generate adventitious roots facilitates gas diffusion and increases plant survival when oxygen concentrations are low. To understand the physiological responses to waterlogging, a 10-day waterlogging experiment was conducted. The objective of this study was to measure the photosynthetic and key metabolites of cucumber plants under waterlogging conditions for 10 days. Plants were also harvested at the end of 10 days and analyzed for plant height (ht), leaf number and area, fresh mass (FM), dry mass (DM), chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (CAR), proline, and soluble sugars. Results indicated that cucumber plants subjected to the 10-day waterlogging stress conditions were stunted, had fewer leaves, and decreased leaf area, FM, and DM. There were differences in physiological performance, Chl, CAR, proline, and soluble sugars. Overall, waterlogging stress decreased net photosynthesis (A), having a negative effect on biomass accumulation. However, these decreases were also dependent on other factors, such as plant size, morphology, and water use efficiency (WUE) that played a role in the overall metabolism of the plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Activities of Momilactones A, B, E, and 7-Ketostigmasterol Isolated from Rice Husk on Paddy and Invasive Weeds
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
Rice husk has been exploited as a potential source of allelochemicals. In this study, four bioactive compounds including momilactone E (ME), 7-ketostigmasterol (7KS), momilactone A (MA), and momilactone B (MB) were isolated by column chromatography (CC) to yield 2.7, 0.3, 11.7, and 8.3 [...] Read more.
Rice husk has been exploited as a potential source of allelochemicals. In this study, four bioactive compounds including momilactone E (ME), 7-ketostigmasterol (7KS), momilactone A (MA), and momilactone B (MB) were isolated by column chromatography (CC) to yield 2.7, 0.3, 11.7, and 8.3 mg/kg rice husk, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified and confirmed by spectroscopic techniques consisting of 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization mass (ESI), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and infrared spectroscopy (IS). An advanced quantitative method for MA and MB was achieved to increase the detectable yields of MA and MB in rice husk to 51.96 and 42.33 µg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activities of MA, MB, ME, and 7KS were examined on lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima) in bioassays. The allelopathic activities of ME and 7KS were compared with those of potent phytoalexin momilactones A (MA) and B (MB), and the standard p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHA). Results showed that both MA and MB exhibited stronger inhibitory activity than ME and 7KS. MB exerted greater inhibitions than MA but the mixture of MA and MB (1:1, v/v) possessed a similar level of inhibition to MB. On the other hand, although ME and 7KS presented non-significant inhibition, their mixture of ME-7KS (1:1, v/v) displayed a remarkable inhibition on the growth of S. altissima. Findings of this study revealed that MA, MB, and the mixture ME-7KS had the potential to control the invasive plant S. altissima and the noxious paddy weed E. crus-galli in vitro, but their mode of actions should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Phytochemicals on Crop Protection and Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Annotation and Expression of IDN2-like and FDM-like Genes in Sexual and Aposporous Hypericum perforatum L. accessions
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
The protein IDN2, together with the highly similar interactors FDM1 and FDM2, is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and siRNA production. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is required to restrict cell fate determination in A. thaliana ovules. Recently, three transcripts sharing high [...] Read more.
The protein IDN2, together with the highly similar interactors FDM1 and FDM2, is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and siRNA production. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is required to restrict cell fate determination in A. thaliana ovules. Recently, three transcripts sharing high similarity with the A. thaliana IDN2 and FDM1-2 were found to be differentially expressed in ovules of apomictic Hypericum perforatum L. accessions. To gain further insight into the expression and regulation of these genes in the context of apomixis, we investigated genomic, transcriptional and functional aspects of the gene family in this species. The H. perforatum genome encodes for two IDN2-like and 7 FDM-like genes. Differential and heterochronic expression of FDM4-like genes was found in H. perforatum pistils. The involvement of these genes in reproduction and seed development is consistent with the observed reduction of the seed set and high variability in seed size in A. thaliana IDN2 and FDM-like knockout lines. Differential expression of IDN2-like and FDM-like genes in H. perforatum was predicted to affect the network of potential interactions between these proteins. Furthermore, pistil transcript levels are modulated by cytokinin and auxin but the effect operated by the two hormones depends on the reproductive phenotype. Full article
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