Special Issue "Plant Polyamines"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Taku Takahashi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Interests: plant development; polyamines; mRNA translation; epidermal cell differentiation; gene regulation; genetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyamines are ubiquitous natural compounds and, as polycations with their primary and secondary amino groups protonated, interact with negatively charged macromolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to modulate their activities. In plants, polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes. They are also metabolized in certain flowering plants into nitrogen-containing specialized metabolites including nicotine, tropane and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. One unique feature of plant polyamines is the widespread occurrence of thermospermine from primitive algae to land plants. However, it’s only after the turn of the century that the specific function of thermospermine in plant vascular development was identified. On the other hand, its structural isomer spermine has been implicated in biotic and abiotic stress response. Spermine catabolism is also proposed to be a key source of hydrogen peroxide in the stress response although there are some uncertainty about which is more important, accumulation of polyamines or catabolism of them. Polyamines are also present as a conjugated form with cinnamic acids and proteins and the genes responsible for these conjugations have been increasingly identified. This Special Issue of Plants will highlight new discoveries about the metabolism and function of plant polyamines and help to stimulate further research. I also hope that it will make readers aware of the link between their own work and topics related to polyamines.

Prof. Taku Takahashi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • stress response
  • growth and development
  • polyamine oxidation
  • polyamine conjugation
  • polyamine transport
  • alkaloids
  • gene evolution

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fruit Architecture in Polyamine-Rich Tomato Germplasm Is Determined via a Medley of Cell Cycle, Cell Expansion, and Fruit Shape Genes
Plants 2019, 8(10), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100387 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
Shape and size are important features of fruits. Studies using tomatoes expressing yeast Spermidine Synthase under either a constitutive or a fruit-ripening promoter showed obovoid fruit phenotype compared to spherical fruit in controls, suggesting that polyamines (PAs) have a role in fruit shape. [...] Read more.
Shape and size are important features of fruits. Studies using tomatoes expressing yeast Spermidine Synthase under either a constitutive or a fruit-ripening promoter showed obovoid fruit phenotype compared to spherical fruit in controls, suggesting that polyamines (PAs) have a role in fruit shape. The obovoid fruit pericarp exhibited decreased cell layers and pericarp thickness compared to wild-type fruit. Transgenic floral buds and ovaries accumulated higher levels of free PAs, with the bound form of PAs being predominant. Transcripts of the fruit shape genes, SUN1 and OVATE, and those of CDKB2, CYCB2, KRP1 and WEE1 genes increased significantly in the transgenic ovaries 2 and 5 days after pollination (DAP). The levels of cell expansion genes CCS52A/B increased at 10 and 20 DAP in the transgenic fruits and exhibited negative correlation with free or bound forms of PAs. In addition, the cell layers and pericarp thickness of the transgenic fruits were inversely associated with free or bound PAs in 10 and 20 DAP transgenic ovaries. Collectively, these results provide evidence for a linkage between PA homeostasis and expression patterns of fruit shape, cell division, and cell expansion genes during early fruit development, and suggest role(s) of PAs in tomato fruit architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetically Modified Heat Shock Protein90s and Polyamine Oxidases in Arabidopsis Reveal Their Interaction under Heat Stress Affecting Polyamine Acetylation, Oxidation and Homeostasis of Reactive Oxygen Species
Plants 2019, 8(9), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090323 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
The chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs), stabilize proteins to minimize proteotoxic stress, especially during heat stress (HS) and polyamine (PA) oxidases (PAOs) participate in the modulation of the cellular homeostasis of PAs and reactive oxygen species (ROS). An interesting interaction of HSP90s and [...] Read more.
The chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs), stabilize proteins to minimize proteotoxic stress, especially during heat stress (HS) and polyamine (PA) oxidases (PAOs) participate in the modulation of the cellular homeostasis of PAs and reactive oxygen species (ROS). An interesting interaction of HSP90s and PAOs was revealed in Arabidopsis thaliana by using the pLFY:HSP90RNAi line against the four AtHSP90 genes encoding cytosolic proteins, the T-DNA Athsp90-1 and Athsp90-4 insertional mutants, the Atpao3 mutant and pharmacological inhibitors of HSP90s and PAOs. Silencing of all cytosolic HSP90 genes resulted in several-fold higher levels of soluble spermidine (S-Spd), acetylated Spd (N8-acetyl-Spd) and acetylated spermine (N1-acetyl-Spm) in the transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Heat shock induced increase of soluble-PAs (S-PAs) and soluble hydrolyzed-PAs (SH-PAs), especially of SH-Spm, and more importantly of acetylated Spd and Spm. The silencing of HSP90 genes or pharmacological inhibition of the HSP90 proteins by the specific inhibitor radicicol, under HS stimulatory conditions, resulted in a further increase of PA titers, N8-acetyl-Spd and N1-acetyl-Spm, and also stimulated the expression of PAO genes. The increased PA titers and PAO enzymatic activity resulted in a profound increase of PAO-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, which was terminated by the addition of the PAO-specific inhibitor guazatine. Interestingly, the loss-of-function Atpao3 mutant exhibited increased mRNA levels of selected AtHSP90 genes. Taken together, the results herein reveal a novel function of HSP90 and suggest that HSP90s and PAOs cross-talk to orchestrate PA acetylation, oxidation, and PA/H2O2 homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessCommunication
Effect of Thermospermine on the Growth and Expression of Polyamine-Related Genes in Rice Seedlings
Plants 2019, 8(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080269 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A mutant defective in the biosynthesis of thermospermine, acaulis5 (acl5), shows a dwarf phenotype with excess xylem vessels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous supply of thermospermine remarkably represses xylem differentiation in the root of seedlings, indicating the role of thermospermine in [...] Read more.
A mutant defective in the biosynthesis of thermospermine, acaulis5 (acl5), shows a dwarf phenotype with excess xylem vessels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous supply of thermospermine remarkably represses xylem differentiation in the root of seedlings, indicating the role of thermospermine in proper repression of xylem differentiation. However, the effect of thermospermine has rarely been investigated in other plant species. In this paper, we examined its effect on the growth and gene expression in rice seedlings. When grown with thermospermine, rice seedlings had no clearly enlarged metaxylem vessels in the root. Expression of OsACL5 was reduced in response to thermospermine, suggesting a negative feedback control of thermospermine biosynthesis like in Arabidopsis. Unlike Arabidopsis, however, rice showed up-regulation of phloem-expressed genes, OsHB5 and OsYSL16, by one-day treatment with thermospermine. Furthermore, expression of OsPAO2 and OsPAO6, encoding extracellular polyamine oxidase whose orthologs are not present in Arabidopsis, was induced by both thermospermine and spermine. These results suggest that thermospermine affects the expression of a subset of genes in rice different from those affected in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
Variations of Secondary Metabolites among Natural Populations of Sub-Antarctic Ranunculus Species Suggest Functional Redundancy and Versatility
Plants 2019, 8(7), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070234 - 19 Jul 2019
Abstract
Plants produce a high diversity of metabolites which help them sustain environmental stresses and are involved in local adaptation. However, shaped by both the genome and the environment, the patterns of variation of the metabolome in nature are difficult to decipher. Few studies [...] Read more.
Plants produce a high diversity of metabolites which help them sustain environmental stresses and are involved in local adaptation. However, shaped by both the genome and the environment, the patterns of variation of the metabolome in nature are difficult to decipher. Few studies have explored the relative parts of geographical region versus environment or phenotype in metabolomic variability within species and none have discussed a possible effect of the region on the correlations between metabolites and environments or phenotypes. In three sub-Antarctic Ranunculus species, we examined the role of region in metabolite differences and in the relationship between individual compounds and environmental conditions or phenotypic traits. Populations of three Ranunculus species were sampled across similar environmental gradients in two distinct geographical regions in îles Kerguelen. Two metabolite classes were studied, amines (quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence spectrophotometry) and flavonols (quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry). Depending on regions, the same environment or the same trait may be related to different metabolites, suggesting metabolite redundancy within species. In several cases, a given metabolite showed different or even opposite relations with the same environmental condition or the same trait across the two regions, suggesting metabolite versatility within species. Our results suggest that metabolites may be functionally redundant and versatile within species, both in their response to environments and in their relation with the phenotype. These findings open new perspectives for understanding evolutionary responses of plants to environmental changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
The Copper Amine Oxidase AtCuAOδ Participates in Abscisic Acid-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis
Plants 2019, 8(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8060183 - 20 Jun 2019
Abstract
Plant copper amine oxidases (CuAOs) are involved in wound healing, defense against pathogens, methyl-jasmonate-induced protoxylem differentiation, and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CuAOδ (AtCuAOδ; At4g12290) in the ABA-mediated stomatal closure by [...] Read more.
Plant copper amine oxidases (CuAOs) are involved in wound healing, defense against pathogens, methyl-jasmonate-induced protoxylem differentiation, and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CuAOδ (AtCuAOδ; At4g12290) in the ABA-mediated stomatal closure by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Obtained data show that AtCuAOδ is up-regulated by ABA and that two Atcuaoδ T-DNA insertional mutants are less responsive to this hormone, showing reduced ABA-mediated stomatal closure and H2O2 accumulation in guard cells as compared to the wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, CuAO inhibitors, as well as the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger N,N1-dimethylthiourea, reversed most of the ABA-induced stomatal closure in WT plants. Consistently, AtCuAOδ over-expressing transgenic plants display a constitutively increased stomatal closure and increased H2O2 production compared to WT plants. Our data suggest that AtCuAOδ is involved in the H2O2 production related to ABA-induced stomatal closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
A Polyamine Oxidase from Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5) can Replace AtPAO5 in Arabidopsis through Converting Thermospermine to Norspermidine instead to Spermidine
Plants 2019, 8(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040099 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Of the five polyamine oxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPAO5 has a substrate preference for the tetraamine thermospermine (T-Spm) which is converted to triamine spermidine (Spd) in a back-conversion reaction in vitro. A homologue of AtPAO5 from the lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5) back-converts [...] Read more.
Of the five polyamine oxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPAO5 has a substrate preference for the tetraamine thermospermine (T-Spm) which is converted to triamine spermidine (Spd) in a back-conversion reaction in vitro. A homologue of AtPAO5 from the lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5) back-converts T-Spm to the uncommon polyamine norspermidine (NorSpd) instead of Spd. An Atpao5 loss-of-function mutant shows a strong reduced growth phenotype when growing on a T-Spm containing medium. When SelPAO5 was expressed in the Atpao5 mutant, T-Spm level decreased to almost normal values of wild type plants, and NorSpd was produced. Furthermore the reduced growth phenotype was cured by the expression of SelPAO5. Thus, a NorSpd synthesis pathway by PAO reaction and T-Spm as substrate was demonstrated in planta and the assumption that a balanced T-Spm homeostasis is needed for normal growth was strengthened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Interplay among Polyamines and Nitrogen in Plant Stress Responses
Plants 2019, 8(9), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090315 - 30 Aug 2019
Abstract
The interplay between polyamines (PAs) and nitrogen (N) is emerging as a key factor in plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. The PA/N interplay in plants connects N metabolism, carbon (C) fixation, and secondary metabolism pathways. Glutamate, a pivotal N-containing molecule, is [...] Read more.
The interplay between polyamines (PAs) and nitrogen (N) is emerging as a key factor in plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. The PA/N interplay in plants connects N metabolism, carbon (C) fixation, and secondary metabolism pathways. Glutamate, a pivotal N-containing molecule, is responsible for the biosynthesis of proline (Pro), arginine (Arg) and ornithine (Orn) and constitutes a main common pathway for PAs and C/N assimilation/incorporation implicated in various stresses. PAs and their derivatives are important signaling molecules, as they act largely by protecting and preserving the function/structure of cells in response to stresses. Use of different research approaches, such as generation of transgenic plants with modified intracellular N and PA homeostasis, has helped to elucidate a plethora of PA roles, underpinning their function as a major player in plant stress responses. In this context, a range of transgenic plants over-or under-expressing N/PA metabolic genes has been developed in an effort to decipher their implication in stress signaling. The current review describes how N and PAs regulate plant growth and facilitate crop acclimatization to adverse environments in an attempt to further elucidate the N-PAs interplay against abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as the mechanisms controlling N-PA genes/enzymes and metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessReview
Polyamine Oxidases Play Various Roles in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Tolerance
Plants 2019, 8(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8060184 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
Polyamines not only play roles in plant growth and development, but also adapt to environmental stresses. Polyamines can be oxidized by copper-containing diamine oxidases (CuAOs) and flavin-containing polyamine oxidases (PAOs). Two types of PAOs exist in the plant kingdom; one type catalyzes the [...] Read more.
Polyamines not only play roles in plant growth and development, but also adapt to environmental stresses. Polyamines can be oxidized by copper-containing diamine oxidases (CuAOs) and flavin-containing polyamine oxidases (PAOs). Two types of PAOs exist in the plant kingdom; one type catalyzes the back conversion (BC-type) pathway and the other catalyzes the terminal catabolism (TC-type) pathway. The catabolic features and biological functions of plant PAOs have been investigated in various plants in the past years. In this review, we focus on the advance of PAO studies in rice, Arabidopsis, and tomato, and other plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessReview
Polyamines as Quality Control Metabolites Operating at the Post-Transcriptional Level
Plants 2019, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040109 - 24 Apr 2019
Abstract
Plant polyamines (PAs) have been assigned a large number of physiological functions with unknown molecular mechanisms in many cases. Among the most abundant and studied polyamines, two of them, namely spermidine (Spd) and thermospermine (Tspm), share some molecular functions related to quality control [...] Read more.
Plant polyamines (PAs) have been assigned a large number of physiological functions with unknown molecular mechanisms in many cases. Among the most abundant and studied polyamines, two of them, namely spermidine (Spd) and thermospermine (Tspm), share some molecular functions related to quality control pathways for tightly regulated mRNAs at the level of translation. In this review, we focus on the roles of Tspm and Spd to facilitate the translation of mRNAs containing upstream ORFs (uORFs), premature stop codons, and ribosome stalling sequences that may block translation, thus preventing their degradation by quality control mechanisms such as the nonsense-mediated decay pathway and possible interactions with other mRNA quality surveillance pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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