Special Issue "Photosynthetic Metabolism under Stressful Growth Conditions"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Iker Aranjuelo

Agrobiotechnology Institute (IdAB-CSIC), Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change lab, Av. Pamplona 123, 31192 Mutilva, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: climate change; cereals; N2 fixers; resource use efficiency; photosynthesis; stable isotopes; sustainable agriculture; yield and quality traits
Guest Editor
Dr. Fermin Morales

Estación Experimental Aula Dei – CSIC, Avenida Montañana 1.005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +976-716154
Interests: climate change; gas exchange; grapevine biology; photosynthesis; plant stress physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increased periods of water shortage and higher temperatures, together with a reduction in nutrient availability, have been proposed as major factors that negatively impact plant development. Indeed, photosynthesis has been selected as a target for crop phenotyping/breeding studies. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is the basis of crop production for animal and human food. Within this context, the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the response and acclimation of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation to multiple changing environmental conditions (including nutrients, water availability, and rising temperature) is a matter of great concern for the understanding of plant behavior under stress conditions, and for the development of new strategies and tools for enhancing plant growth in the future. The current Special Issue of Plants aims to analyze, from a multi-perspective approach (ranging from gas exchange, metabolomics, proteomics, genomics, etc.), the performance of photosynthetic apparatus (and consequently plant growth) within stressful growth conditions.

Dr. Iker Aranjuelo
Dr. Fermin Morales
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • photosynthesis
  • plant development
  • plant growth
  • plant metabolism

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Water Stress during Grain Filling on Yield, Quality and Physiological Traits of Illpa and Rainbow Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Cultivars
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The total area under quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation and the consumption of its grain have increased in recent years because of its nutritional properties and ability to grow under adverse conditions, such as drought. Climate change scenarios predict extended periods of [...] Read more.
The total area under quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation and the consumption of its grain have increased in recent years because of its nutritional properties and ability to grow under adverse conditions, such as drought. Climate change scenarios predict extended periods of drought and this has emphasized the need for new crops that are tolerant to these conditions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate crop yield and quality parameters and to characterize the physiology of two varieties of quinoa grown under water deficit in greenhouse conditions. Two varieties of quinoa from the Chilean coast (Rainbow) and altiplano (Illpa) were used, grown under full irrigation or two different levels of water deficit applied during the grain filling period. There were no marked differences in yield and quality parameters between treatments, but the root biomass was higher in plants grown under severe water deficit conditions compared to control. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance decreased with increased water stress in both cultivars, but the coastal variety showed higher water use efficiency and less discrimination of 13C under water deficit. This response was associated with greater root development and a better stomatal opening adjustment, especially in the case of Rainbow. The capacity of Rainbow to increase its osmoregulant content (compounds such as proline, glutamine, glutamate, K and Na) could enable a potential osmotic adjustment in this variety. Moreover, the lower stomatal opening and transpiration rates were also associated with higher leaf ABA concentration values detected in Rainbow. We found negative logarithmic relationships between stomatal conductance and leaf ABA concentration in both varieties, with significant R2 values of 0.50 and 0.22 in Rainbow and Illpa, respectively. These moderate-to-medium values suggest that, in addition to ABA signaling, other causes for stomatal closure in quinoa under drought such as hydraulic regulation may play a role. In conclusion, this work showed that two quinoa cultivars use different strategies in the face of water deficit stress, and these prevent decreases in grain yield and quality under drought conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photosynthetic Metabolism under Stressful Growth Conditions)
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Open AccessArticle
Responses of Aspen Leaves to Heatflecks: Both Damaging and Non-Damaging Rapid Temperature Excursions Reduce Photosynthesis
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
During exposure to direct sunlight, leaf temperature increases rapidly and can reach values well above air temperature in temperate forest understories, especially when transpiration is limited due to drought stress, but the physiological effects of such high-temperature events are imperfectly understood. To gain [...] Read more.
During exposure to direct sunlight, leaf temperature increases rapidly and can reach values well above air temperature in temperate forest understories, especially when transpiration is limited due to drought stress, but the physiological effects of such high-temperature events are imperfectly understood. To gain insight into leaf temperature changes in the field and the effects of temperature variation on plant photosynthetic processes, we studied leaf temperature dynamics under field conditions in European aspen (Populus tremula L.) and under nursery conditions in hybrid aspen (P. tremula × P. tremuloides Michaux), and further investigated the heat response of photosynthetic activity in hybrid aspen leaves under laboratory conditions. To simulate the complex fluctuating temperature environment in the field, intact, attached leaves were subjected to short temperature increases (“heat pulses”) of varying duration over the temperature range of 30 °C–53 °C either under constant light intensity or by simultaneously raising the light intensity from 600 μmol m−2 s−1 to 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 during the heat pulse. On a warm summer day, leaf temperatures of up to 44 °C were measured in aspen leaves growing in the hemiboreal climate of Estonia. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that a moderate heat pulse of 2 min and up to 44 °C resulted in a reversible decrease of photosynthesis. The decrease in photosynthesis resulted from a combination of suppression of photosynthesis directly caused by the heat pulse and a further decrease, for a time period of 10–40 min after the heat pulse, caused by subsequent transient stomatal closure and delayed recovery of photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield. Longer and hotter heat pulses resulted in sustained inhibition of photosynthesis, primarily due to reduced PSII activity. However, cellular damage as indicated by increased membrane conductivity was not found below 50 °C. These data demonstrate that aspen is remarkably resistant to short-term heat pulses that are frequent under strongly fluctuating light regimes. Although the heat pulses did not result in cellular damage, heatflecks can significantly reduce the whole plant carbon gain in the field due to the delayed photosynthetic recovery after the heat pulse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photosynthetic Metabolism under Stressful Growth Conditions)
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