Special Issue "Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Pilar García-Agustín

Biochemistry and Biotechnology Group, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Jaume I University, Avenida Vicente Sos Baynat S/N 12071 Castellón, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hormone; polyamines; Pseudomonas; nitrogen nutrition; tomato-Pseudomonas; priming
Guest Editor
Prof. Gemma Camañes

Biochemistry and Biotechnology Group, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Jaume I University, Avenida Vicente Sos Baynat S/N 12071 Castellón, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hormone; polyamines; Pseudomonas; nitrogen nutrition; tomato-Pseudomonas; priming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants defend themselves from stressors with a variety of chemical and physical defenses. In addition to constitutive defenses, plants possess inducible mechanisms that are activated in the presence of the threat. In this way, the sooner a plant recognizes a stress, the more efficient its defense response will be. This so-called basal resistance is regulated by a complex network of signal molecules and transcriptional regulators. The main players in the regulation of signaling pathways are the plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and abscisic acid (ABA). Interestingly, plants are capable of enhancing their defensive capacity against future pathogen attacks once they are appropriately stimulated. This phenomenon is called induced resistance (IR) and brings the plant into an alert state, which allows it to resist further attacks by virulent pathogens or abiotic stresses. A particularly interesting aspect of induced resistance is that it confers protection against a wide range of pathogens and abiotic stresses. It is known that this broad-spectrum protection is based on a faster and stronger activation of basal defense mechanisms after the induced plant has been exposed to a stress.

Therefore, in this Special Issue, we aim to publish articles that reflect the novel contributions in the field of natural or chemical plant inducers, and studies on the mode of action based on transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and microRNAs analysis or plant–pathogen interactions.

Prof. Pilar García-Agustín
Prof. Gemma Camañes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural compounds inducers
  • transcriptomic
  • metabolomic
  • microRNAs
  • plant pathogen
  • abiotic stress

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Resistance to Leaf Fall Disease Caused by Phytophthora palmivora in Rubber Tree Seedling by Sargassum polycystum Extract
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
The brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh-Sargassaceae) extract was examined for its bioelicitor properties in the rubber tree seedling (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. - Euphorbiaceae) and its application to reduce the leaf fall disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Edwin [...] Read more.
The brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh-Sargassaceae) extract was examined for its bioelicitor properties in the rubber tree seedling (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. - Euphorbiaceae) and its application to reduce the leaf fall disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Edwin John) Butler, 1917 (Peronosporaceae). The major purpose of this study was to apply this seaweed extract (SWE) to improve the disease resistance in rubber tree seedling compared to a chemical fungicide (1% metalaxyl). After foliar spraying of SWE solution, two antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-triggered enzyme, β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), were analyzed. Both secondary metabolites, a phytoalexin scopoletin (Scp) and a signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both SWE- and metalaxyl-treated plants had a close disease index (DI)-score which were 16.90 ± 1.93 and 15.54 ± 1.25, respectively, while the positive control sprayed with P. palmivora showed DI-score of 29.27 ± 1.89 which was much higher than those treated with SWE or fungicide. CAT, POD, and GLU were increased in rubber tree leaves treated with SWE solution. Furthermore, Scp and SA were significantly increased in SWE-treated leaves. Enhanced systemic acquired resistance induction, 2.09 folds of SA accumulation, was observed in the distal area comparing to the local area of SWE application. In conclusion, the positive effects of SWE elicitation from these studies revealed that SWE could be used as an alternative biocontrol agent for foliar spraying to enhance the defense responses in rubber tree seedling against P. palmivora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Sulphated Polysaccharide from Acanthophora spicifera Induced Hevea brasiliensis Defense Responses Against Phytophthora palmivora Infection
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Elicitors from seaweeds are considered an alternative stimulant of plant defenses against pathogenic infection. Finding new sources of elicitors and exploring their effects on plant defenses is a significant undertaking. In this study, we extracted crude polysaccharide (CPS) from Acanthophora spicifera (a red [...] Read more.
Elicitors from seaweeds are considered an alternative stimulant of plant defenses against pathogenic infection. Finding new sources of elicitors and exploring their effects on plant defenses is a significant undertaking. In this study, we extracted crude polysaccharide (CPS) from Acanthophora spicifera (a red alga) and tested the effects of the compound on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) defense responses. Accumulations of salicylic acid (SA) and scopoletin (Scp) were measured by HPLC. The expression of SA- and Jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes was analyzed by semi-qRT-PCR. Strong anion exchange chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used for purification and functional characterization of CPS, respectively. The extracted CPS enhanced rubber tree defenses against Phytophthora palmivora infection. It induced SA and Scp accumulations and SA-responsive gene expression, but suppressed JA-responsive gene expression. We successfully separated the non-sulphated polysaccharide (F1) from the sulphated polysaccharides (SPS). Both peaks of SPS (F2 and F3) were identified as lambda (λ)-carrageenan. The F3 fraction showed greater elicitor activity on tobacco leaves. It induced SA and Scp accumulations and peroxidase activity but suppressed catalase activity. Furthermore, the purified λ-carrageenan did not cause cell death in tobacco or rubber tree leaves. Therefore, the elicitor from A. spicifera could be an alternative plant stimulant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Expression Proteins Contribute to Race-Specific Resistant Ability in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
Rice blast, caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe grisea (M. grisea), lead to the decrease of rice yields widely and destructively, threatening global food security. Although many resistant genes had been isolated and identified in various rice varieties, it is still not [...] Read more.
Rice blast, caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe grisea (M. grisea), lead to the decrease of rice yields widely and destructively, threatening global food security. Although many resistant genes had been isolated and identified in various rice varieties, it is still not enough to clearly understand the mechanism of race-specific resistant ability in rice, especially on the protein level. In this research, proteomic methods were employed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in susceptible rice variety CO39 and its two near isogenic lines (NILs), CN-4a and CN-4b, in response to the infection of two isolates with different pathogenicity, GUY11 and 81278ZB15. A total of 50 DEPs with more than 1.5-fold reproducible change were identified. At 24 and 48 hpi of GUY11, 32 and 16 proteins in CN-4b were up-regulated, among which 16 and five were paralleled with the expression of their corresponding RNAs. Moreover, 13 of 50 DEPs were reported to be induced by M. grisea in previous publications. Considering the phenotypes of the three tested rice varieties, we found that 21 and 23 up-regulated proteins were responsible for the rice resistant ability to the two different blast isolates, 81278ZB15 and GUY11, respectively. Two distinct branches corresponding to GUY11 and 81278ZB15 were observed in the expression and function of the module cluster of DEPs, illuminating that the DEPs could be responsible for race-specific resistant ability in rice. In other words, DEPs in rice are involved in different patterns and functional modules’ response to different pathogenic race infection, inducing race-specific resistant ability in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Bacillus Spp.: Efficient Biotic Strategy to Control Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Postharvest diseases significantly reduce the shelf-life of harvested fruits/vegetables worldwide. Bacillus spp. are considered to be an eco-friendly and bio-safe alternative to traditional chemical fungicides/bactericides due to their intrinsic ability to induce native anti-stress pathways in plants. This review compiles information from multiple [...] Read more.
Postharvest diseases significantly reduce the shelf-life of harvested fruits/vegetables worldwide. Bacillus spp. are considered to be an eco-friendly and bio-safe alternative to traditional chemical fungicides/bactericides due to their intrinsic ability to induce native anti-stress pathways in plants. This review compiles information from multiple scientific databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, GoogleScholar, ResearchGate, etc.) using the keywords “postharvest diseases”, “Bacillus”, “Bacillus subtilis”, “biocontrol”, “storage”, “losses”, and “fruits/vegetables”. To date, numerous examples of successful Bacillus spp. application in controlling various postharvest-emerged pathogens of different fruits/vegetables during handling, transportation, and storage have been described in the literature. The mechanism/s of such action is/are still largely unknown; however, it is suggested that they include: i) competition for space/nutrients with pathogens; ii) production of various bio-active substances with antibiotic activity and cell wall-degrading compounds; and iii) induction of systemic resistance. With that, Bacillus efficiency may depend on various factors including strain characteristics (epiphytes or endophytes), application methods (before or after harvest/storage), type of pathogens/hosts, etc. Endophytic B. subtilis-based products can be more effective because they colonize internal plant tissues and are less dependent on external environmental factors while protecting cells inside. Nevertheless, the mechanism/s of Bacillus action on harvested fruits/vegetables is largely unknown and requires further detailed investigations to fully realize their potential in agricultural/food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants)
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