Next Issue
Volume 8, December
Previous Issue
Volume 8, June

Cosmetics, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 36 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Preparation of Readily-to-Use Stilbenoids Extract from Morus alba Callus Using a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030091 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
The consumer and cosmetic industries have recently placed a greater emphasis on ecofriendly solvents for botanical extraction, including natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES). In this study, NADES were prepared for Morus alba callus extraction. The efficiency of extraction from the NADES and methanol [...] Read more.
The consumer and cosmetic industries have recently placed a greater emphasis on ecofriendly solvents for botanical extraction, including natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES). In this study, NADES were prepared for Morus alba callus extraction. The efficiency of extraction from the NADES and methanol was investigated by comparison of the stilbenoids yield and anti-melanogenesis activity. Prior to testing the irritability of a suitable NADES on the reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), the effect of the selected NADES on stilbenoids stability was determined. The results showed that the highest yields of stilbenoids were obtained from choline chloride-glycerol mixtures (Ch1G2) and methanol extracts, with no significant difference in yields (5.06 ± 0.05 and 6.32 ± 0.40 mg/g callus dry weight, respectively). The NADES extracts of M. alba callus showed comparable anti-melanogenesis activity compared to methanol. In term of stability, stilbenoids in Ch1G2 remained stable after six months of storage at 4 °C except resveratrol. Furthermore, Ch1G2 had no irritation effect on RhE. Thus, based on the findings of this study, Ch1G2 is an intriguing green solvent alternative for the extraction of M. alba callus and may be advantageous for the preparation of skin-lightening cosmetics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Topical Probiotics Do Not Satisfy New Criteria for Effective Use Due to Insufficient Skin Microbiome Knowledge
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030090 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
We propose a set of criteria for topical probiotics to adhere to for safe and effective use for the skin microbiome. To form the basis of the criteria, we redefine the term “probiotics” and discuss successful and unsuccessful high-profile examples of the artificial [...] Read more.
We propose a set of criteria for topical probiotics to adhere to for safe and effective use for the skin microbiome. To form the basis of the criteria, we redefine the term “probiotics” and discuss successful and unsuccessful high-profile examples of the artificial addition of organisms to ecosystems in nature to understand what worked and what did not. Probiotics are often immediately assumed to have health benefits. However, as ecologists are aware, interfering with ecosystems is potentially catastrophic. The addition or removal of just one organism can significantly upset the delicate ecosystem balance. If our criteria are not met, we argue that topical probiotics could also cause damage and will not be beneficial. Due to the large intra- and inter-personal variation of the skin microbiome, our current knowledge of a healthy skin microbiome composition is not complete enough to fully satisfy the criteria. In follow-up work, we will investigate whether current topical probiotics research and commercial products meet our new criteria. We will also discuss problems with how to measure their effectiveness and suggest alternative solutions to replacing the lost biodiversity of the skin microbiome that was stripped away by environmental factors in the Western world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Review
Skin Care Formulations and Lipid Carriers as Skin Moisturizing Agents
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030089 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Skin care formulations have evolved as the interaction of health and beauty products for the skin. Their benefits are based on the combination of cosmetic active ingredients and targeted application. Cosmetic actives have been used in novel formulations for decades (sunscreens, anti-aging treatments, [...] Read more.
Skin care formulations have evolved as the interaction of health and beauty products for the skin. Their benefits are based on the combination of cosmetic active ingredients and targeted application. Cosmetic actives have been used in novel formulations for decades (sunscreens, anti-aging treatments, etc.), but the problems with their low solubility, low penetration, and physicochemical instability when applied to the skin have yet to be solved. One way to circumvent these shortcomings is to use lipid carriers, which are known to play an important role in the solubility of poorly soluble compounds by facilitating skin permeation and improving stability. This review addresses recent advances in skin care products that use novel nanotechnology-based lipid systems (liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, etc.) to deliver moisturizing cosmetic actives and improve product efficacy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Revealing the Correlation between Altered Skin Lipids Composition and Skin Disorders
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030088 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Human skin layers serve as a barrier between the body and the environment, by preventing water loss and blocking the entry of chemicals, allergens, and microbes. Recent data showed that skin lipids are vital ‘key players’ of several functions and mechanisms performing in [...] Read more.
Human skin layers serve as a barrier between the body and the environment, by preventing water loss and blocking the entry of chemicals, allergens, and microbes. Recent data showed that skin lipids are vital ‘key players’ of several functions and mechanisms performing in the skin, such as, barrier function and microbiome composition. Abnormalities in lipid composition have been observed in inflammatory cutaneous diseases with a disrupted skin barrier. This review aims to demonstrate the fundamental role of keratinocytes, sebocytes, and microbiome-derived lipids in the maintenance of the skin barrier. Furthermore, it would reveal the correlation between altered skin lipids’ composition, microbiome, and the occurrence of certain dermatological disorders such as acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and rosacea. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Efficacy and Safety of Topical Dexpanthenol-Containing Spray and Cream in the Recovery of the Skin Integrity Compared with Petroleum Jelly after Dermatologic Aesthetic Procedures
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030087 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Moisturizers are commonly prescribed after laser and chemical peel aesthetic procedures, but the evidence regarding their efficacy and safety of such use is scarce. We conducted four single-blind, three-week, controlled studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical Dexpanthenol-containing products (Bepantol® [...] Read more.
Moisturizers are commonly prescribed after laser and chemical peel aesthetic procedures, but the evidence regarding their efficacy and safety of such use is scarce. We conducted four single-blind, three-week, controlled studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical Dexpanthenol-containing products (Bepantol® spray and Bepantol® cream) using petroleum jelly as a positive control. Skin recovery was assessed after four aesthetic procedures: (1) non-ablative facial laser resurfacing, (2) laser depilation on the external genital and inguinal regions, (3) chemical peel on the external genital and inguinal regions, and (4) ablative facial laser resurfacing. Efficacy was assessed through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) combined with clinical assessment of the skin by the investigators and the participants. In studies (1) and (4), the erythema intensity was evaluated by measuring dermal temperature with a thermal imaging camera. Safety was assessed through adverse event reporting and acceptability through a questionnaire. Dexpanthenol-containing products significantly decreased TEWL and dermal temperature, therefore maintaining skin integrity, promoting its recovery, and reducing erythema. No statistical differences with the positive control were observed. In addition, Dexpanthenol-containing products were well appreciated by the participants from a sensory perspective. These findings suggest that these Dexpanthenol-containing products are adequate for post-procedural care in aesthetic dermatology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Antimicrobial Mode of Action of Maltol and Its Synergistic Efficacy with Selected Cationic Surfactants
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030086 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Maltol, mostly used as a flavoring molecule, also has various potential applications as a biomedical compound. Despite its extensive use in the food industry, maltol’s antimicrobial activity was evaluated only briefly, and was suggested to be insufficient on its own. Recently, we have [...] Read more.
Maltol, mostly used as a flavoring molecule, also has various potential applications as a biomedical compound. Despite its extensive use in the food industry, maltol’s antimicrobial activity was evaluated only briefly, and was suggested to be insufficient on its own. Recently, we have shown that maltol can be used in conjunction with cationic surfactant species to receive higher activity against contaminant microorganisms. In this paper, we have broadened the antimicrobial efficacy studies and evidenced maltol’s mode of action against Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. In addition, to increase its efficacy, blends of maltol and two selected cationic surfactants, dodecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (DDAC) and polyquaternium 80 (P-80), were appraised for their activity. Broad efficacy studies revealed synergistic interactions between maltol and both cationic surfactants against most of the tested microorganisms. Electron microscopy images were used to evaluate the microorganisms’ morphology following treatment, pinpointing the specific cell wall damage caused by each of the compounds. Our findings indicate that maltol’s effect on the microbial cell wall can be complemented by catalytic amounts of selected cationic surfactants to enhance and extend its activity. Such a solution can be used as a broad-spectrum preservative for personal care products in cosmetic applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Topical Use of Cannabis sativa L. Biochemicals
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030085 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
Cannabis sativa L. plant is currently attracting increasing interest in cosmetics and dermatology. In this review, the biologically active compounds of hemp are discussed. Particularly the complex interactions of cannabinoids with the endocannabinoid system of the skin to treat various conditions (such as [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa L. plant is currently attracting increasing interest in cosmetics and dermatology. In this review, the biologically active compounds of hemp are discussed. Particularly the complex interactions of cannabinoids with the endocannabinoid system of the skin to treat various conditions (such as acne, allergic contact dermatitis, melanoma, and psoriasis) with clinical data. Moreover, the properties of some cannabinoids make them candidates as cosmetic actives for certain skin types. Hemp seed oil and its minor bioactive compounds such as terpenes, flavonoids, carotenoids, and phytosterols are also discussed for their added value in cosmetic formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Applications of Cannabinoids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Lipid Nanoparticles Based Cosmetics with Potential Application in Alleviating Skin Disorders
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030084 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
The lipids mainly oils, fats, waxes and phospholipids are of substantial importance in the development and functioning of cosmetic products. The lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetic product is highly capable of protecting the skin against harmful radiations and is utilized for anti-aging therapy. Naturally derived [...] Read more.
The lipids mainly oils, fats, waxes and phospholipids are of substantial importance in the development and functioning of cosmetic products. The lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetic product is highly capable of protecting the skin against harmful radiations and is utilized for anti-aging therapy. Naturally derived antioxidants such as carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherols could be employed for their antioxidant properties as therapeutics and skincare active moieties in cosmetic products. Such a lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetic formulation consisting of antioxidants are very effective against irritated and inflamed skin and very promising for treating skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Therefore, the present review provides an insight into lipid nanoparticles based cosmetics and the mechanistic of their percutaneous absorption. The manuscript discussion highlights the role of lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetics/cosmeceuticals employing active ingredients of synthetic and natural origin in alleviating dermatological disorders and enhancing skin health and appeal. Furthermore, the manuscript also updates about contemporary research studies carried on the concept of lipid nanoparticles based formulation design of cosmetic preparation and significant outcome to alleviate skin disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Clinical Evaluation of Topical Lotion Containing 2-Aza-8-Oxohypoxanthine on Skin Barrier Function against Water Loss
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030083 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1430
Abstract
A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH) on human skin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and split-face comparative trial. To this end, a topical lotion containing 0.1% of AOH and its placebo formulation were applied in 20 Japanese subjects [...] Read more.
A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH) on human skin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and split-face comparative trial. To this end, a topical lotion containing 0.1% of AOH and its placebo formulation were applied in 20 Japanese subjects (age: 41–58 years, average: 48.4 ± 4.7 years) to their faces daily for eight weeks. The moisture content in the stratum corneum and the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured at the beginning of the study and after eight weeks. The results obtained upon comparing the data of the two measuring points showed that the 0.1% AOH lotion caused a statistically significant larger decrease in TEWL after eight weeks. Moreover, the 0.1% AOH lotion produced a larger increase in the moisture content in the stratum corneum after eight weeks, although there was no statistical difference between the two formulations. These results clearly indicate that AOH is effective as a cosmetic agent with a skin barrier function against water loss. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Melanogenesis and Melasma Treatment
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030082 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Melanocytes are highly specialised dendritic cells that transfer melanin to keratinocytes in subcellular lysosome-like organelles called melanosomes, where melanin is synthesised and stored. Melanin is a complex pigment that provides colour and photoprotection to the skin, hair, and eyes of mammals. The regulation [...] Read more.
Melanocytes are highly specialised dendritic cells that transfer melanin to keratinocytes in subcellular lysosome-like organelles called melanosomes, where melanin is synthesised and stored. Melanin is a complex pigment that provides colour and photoprotection to the skin, hair, and eyes of mammals. The regulation of melanogenesis includes various mechanisms and factors including genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors. Knowledge of the pigmentation process is important not only to understand hyperpigmentation but also to design treatments and therapies to treat them. Whitening cosmetics with anti-melanogenesis activity are very popular. In the present manuscript, we review the mechanisms and the signalling pathways involved in skin pigmentation and we specifically focus on the alteration of melanogenesis that leads to melasma and results in hyperpigmentation. Finally, current therapies and treatments including topical, oral, and phototherapies are discussed and described, with a special emphasis on the cosmetics’ action. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Understanding the Sensitive Skin Subject to Achieve a More Holistic Diagnosis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030081 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Sensitive skin Syndrome (SSS) is a complex global clinical phenomenon that is defined by the self-reported presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus and often without objective signs. Due to the subjective nature of this clinical condition, [...] Read more.
Sensitive skin Syndrome (SSS) is a complex global clinical phenomenon that is defined by the self-reported presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus and often without objective signs. Due to the subjective nature of this clinical condition, the diagnosis is complex and there is often a disconnect between what subjects feel and what medical professionals can observe. This chapter reviews the known underlying physiology, some of the triggering factors associated with SSS, co-morbidities as well as the psychological impact on individuals suffering from this condition. The goal is to bridge the gap between the physicians’ understanding and the subjects’ perceptions of this real-life condition that affects so many. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Empirical Analysis Revealing Privileged Chemical Space of Cosmetic Preservatives
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030080 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Most cosmetic products require preservation to prevent microbial contamination and to ensure consumer safety. Due to regulatory restrictions and rejection by consumers, preservative options have become limited and the development of novel solutions is needed. This search can be guided by knowledge about [...] Read more.
Most cosmetic products require preservation to prevent microbial contamination and to ensure consumer safety. Due to regulatory restrictions and rejection by consumers, preservative options have become limited and the development of novel solutions is needed. This search can be guided by knowledge about favorable chemical space for cosmetic preservatives. Therefore, we used preservatives allowed in the EU as training set and calculated various molecular properties. Empirical analysis revealed two separated areas of privileged chemical space with the net charge as distinctive property. The first area comprises the group of neutral and anionic preservatives and is characterized by low molecular size as well as limited hydrogen-bonding capacity, polarity, and flexibility. The second area includes cationic preservatives, which are rather diffusely distributed regarding molecular weight and hydrogen-bonding, however, all members share high flexibility. Both groups significantly differ from antibiotics, reflecting the specific requirement of cosmetic preservation. The molecular properties defining the privileged chemical space are easy to calculate, and thus, can provide guidance for the development of novel preservatives. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Potential of Sky Fruit as an Anti-Aging and Wound Healing Cosmeceutical Agent
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030079 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
There are many extrinsic factors that can contribute to the premature aging of the skin. In recent years, the demand for natural cosmetic from the general population has noticeable grow. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the bioproperties of sky fruit (Swietenia [...] Read more.
There are many extrinsic factors that can contribute to the premature aging of the skin. In recent years, the demand for natural cosmetic from the general population has noticeable grow. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the bioproperties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrophylla) seed extract that could help to inhibit premature skin aging. Firstly, the extract and its fractions were tested on HaCaT cells for their wound healing properties. The presence of sky fruit’s extract and its fractions on scratch wound significantly improved cellular proliferation, migration, and closure of the wound. These effects were distinctly observed following the treatment with S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla water fraction (SMWF). Our continuous research study revealed that SMWF had antioxidant properties, which might be one of the factors contributing to its emerging wound healing properties because antioxidants are known to act as suppressors of the inflammatory pathway and aid the transition towards cell proliferation. In addition, all samples had critical wavelengths that indicated that they were able to absorb the whole UVB range and some parts of the UVA wavelength. This suggested that S. macrophylla might contain potential photoprotective bioactive compounds, which could be developed into anti-UVB photoprotective sunscreens. Thus, this warrants further studies focusing on isolation and identifications of the bioactive compounds responsible for both its photoprotective and wound healing properties. A deeper study on mechanisms of the pathways that were affected by these compounds should be conducted as well to better understand this natural product and develop it into a potential cosmeceutical ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
An Exploratory Study of Consumers’ Knowledge and Attitudes about Lignin-Based Sunscreens and Bio-Based Skincare Products
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030078 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Daily consumption of synthetic sunscreens is harmful to the environment and consumers’ health, so greener alternatives need to be produced. Lignin is a multifunctional and widely available biopolymer that can replace several ingredients, but its dark color and low sun protection limit its [...] Read more.
Daily consumption of synthetic sunscreens is harmful to the environment and consumers’ health, so greener alternatives need to be produced. Lignin is a multifunctional and widely available biopolymer that can replace several ingredients, but its dark color and low sun protection limit its perceived usefulness. With a survey made for this study, we explored the knowledge and attitudes of 230 consumers towards lignin-based sunscreen, their motives and barriers to purchase it, and how it relates to their environmental and health consciousness. Participants were also asked about their sunscreen habits, their familiarity with the environmental and health impacts of skincare, their perceptions of bio-based ingredients in general, and their skincare product purchasing decisions. Those who are more familiar with environmental issues have a positive attitude towards bio-based ingredients, are accustomed to purchasing more environmentally friendly skincare, and are likelier to be interested in a lignin product. Consumers are welcoming towards a natural, healthy, and environmentally friendly sunscreen alternative but are worried about the lower SPF. Because organic is perceived as luxurious, they are concerned about its price, and some are apprehensive about its pigmentation. While a lignin-based sunscreen at this stage of development is unlikely to take on the role of primary sunscreen on warm, sunny days, it may be more useful as a general-purpose, everyday product that can offer some protection, moisture, and coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignins as Natural Active Ingredients for Cosmetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Processing Conditions on Rheology, Tribology and Wet Lubrication Performance of a Novel Amino Lipid Hair Conditioner
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030077 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1448
Abstract
The objective of this work was to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of a novel cationic amino lipid surfactant, Brassicyl Valinate Esylate (BVE), in contrast to conventional alkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants (quats), through a study of the effects of process [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of a novel cationic amino lipid surfactant, Brassicyl Valinate Esylate (BVE), in contrast to conventional alkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants (quats), through a study of the effects of process mixing speed on its overall rheological, tribological and wet lubrication performance in comparison to BTAC and CTAC, two cationic surfactants widely used in cosmetics. The major cosmetic application of cationic surfactants is in the preparation of hair conditioners. Hence, this analysis was done firstly by conducting tensile combing tests to evaluate reduction in wet lubrication which translates to conditioning performance. The combing results serve as a testing metric that adequately corresponds to consumer perception of conditioned hair. To correlate this technically, yield stress measurements were conducted to establish rheologic profiles of the conditioner formulations, and in vitro tribological testing of the emulsion systems between two steel surfaces were done to technically simulate the spreading and rubbing of conditioner on the hair. The effect of processing conditions on the formulations was then evaluated. BVE was found to be an effective conditioning surfactant suitable as an eco-friendly replacement for BTAC and CTAC in hair conditioner formulations. The results showed that higher shear mixing rates during formulation lead to poorer performance effects evident through decreased yield stress values, lower percentage reduction in combing force and a higher coefficient of friction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Exploring the Protective Effects of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Extract on LPS-Treated Fibroblasts
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030076 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Background: Microalgal extracts are an important source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used in cosmetics. The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) is known for its high content of omega-3 fatty acids, which are known to attenuate inflammation. Here, [...] Read more.
Background: Microalgal extracts are an important source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used in cosmetics. The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) is known for its high content of omega-3 fatty acids, which are known to attenuate inflammation. Here, we explore the effects of aqueous microencapsulated extract of PT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) to underline its application as an active ingredient in cosmetics. Methods: We assessed cell viability using MTT assay, so as to target any potential cytotoxicity of the extract. Moreover, with the aid of RT-qPCR, we studied the transcript accumulation of genes involved in cell antioxidant response, cell proliferation, and inflammation. Results: Our results revealed that the hydrolyzed rice flour-encapsulated (HRF) PT extract promotes anti-inflammatory and antioxidant response, increasing cell proliferation in NHDF cells. Conclusions: Our data indicate a promising use of HRF-encapsulated PT extract in cosmetics by reducing skin inflammation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Global Trends in Cosmetics Use-Related Adverse Effects: A Bibliometric Analysis of Literature Published during 1957–2021
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030075 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Cosmetic and beauty products, though not essential for physical health, go a long way in providing mental well-being and confidence, and hence are used substantially. Increasing utilization of varying cosmetic products leads to a multitude of adverse effects. There is more awareness about [...] Read more.
Cosmetic and beauty products, though not essential for physical health, go a long way in providing mental well-being and confidence, and hence are used substantially. Increasing utilization of varying cosmetic products leads to a multitude of adverse effects. There is more awareness about cosmeceutics, cosmetic products and their adverse effects, and studies on the same are currently trending. Bibliometrics has become a prominent and growing field of research in recent years. The aim of this research was to assess bibliometric features and conduct systematic trend analysis on the literature available on cosmetics’ adverse effects. We analyzed all the published documents that included the keywords “cosmetics” and “adverse effects” between 1957 and 2021. We performed a detailed scientometric and bibliometric assessment in this field. A total of 4127 articles were retrieved from the databases provided by Scopus, which most were original articles. The United States ranked first and dominated the literature with 1292 (31.44%) documents followed by South Korea 7.47%. Harvard medical school was the most productive institution (1.16%). The study of the adverse effects of cosmetics should be supported and taken up by the researchers/authors from developing and underdeveloped countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Novel Quality Control Method for the Determination of the Refractive Index of Oil-in-Water Creams and Its Correlation with Skin Hydration
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030074 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
The sensory properties of cosmetic products can influence consumers’ choice. The accurate correlation of sensory properties, such as skin hydration, with the material properties of the formulation could be desirable. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate a new method for the in [...] Read more.
The sensory properties of cosmetic products can influence consumers’ choice. The accurate correlation of sensory properties, such as skin hydration, with the material properties of the formulation could be desirable. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate a new method for the in vitro measurement of the refractive indices (RIs) of turbid creams. The critical wavelength of each cream was obtained through direct measurement using a sun protection factor (SPF) meter; the wavelength value was then applied in the Sellmeier equation to determine the RI. The results obtained from the in vitro skin hydration measurement for each cream correlated with their RI values. This suggests that RI measurements could be a useful predictive tool for the ranking of creams in terms of their skin hydration effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Why Are Wet Wipes So Difficult to Preserve? Understanding the Intrinsic Causes
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030073 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Over the last two decades, significant advances have been made in developing disposable baby wet wipes. Wet wipes consist of two main components: nonwoven fabric and liquid. Being more than 90% water, wet wipes are more susceptible to microbial growth than typical personal [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, significant advances have been made in developing disposable baby wet wipes. Wet wipes consist of two main components: nonwoven fabric and liquid. Being more than 90% water, wet wipes are more susceptible to microbial growth than typical personal care products; hence, high concentrations of preservative compounds are often used to ensure extended protection against contamination. However, there is an obvious tendency to minimize the concentration of irritating actives. Baby wet wipes should contain particularly mild surfactants, well-tolerated preservatives, and a buffer system maintaining the formulation pH at a suitable level for the infant’s skin. Efforts have been centered on removing ingredients with irritation potential, such as phenoxyethanol. In addition, a move towards more natural fabrics is occurring. However, these modifications provoke new challenges in preserving the final products. The nature and composition of the fiber can influence the interactions between the preservative and the wipe, subsequently affecting the performance of the preservative system. In this study, we analyzed the causes of the challenge in preserving wet wipes. We found that fabrics containing natural fibers are the main source of contamination, promoting the generation of biofilms on their surfaces. Moreover, the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) was utilized to rationalize the physicochemical interactions between the fabric and the preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pharmacists’ Insights and Behaviors in Preventing the Misuse of Topical Corticosteroids in Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030072 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Topical corticosteroids (TCs) misuse has become a common issue for healthcare professionals and patients, particularly in Pakistan, as no stringent laws or rules are prohibiting the selling of over-the-counter medicines. The present study was designed to examine pharmacists’ insights and behaviors regarding TCs [...] Read more.
Topical corticosteroids (TCs) misuse has become a common issue for healthcare professionals and patients, particularly in Pakistan, as no stringent laws or rules are prohibiting the selling of over-the-counter medicines. The present study was designed to examine pharmacists’ insights and behaviors regarding TCs and their potential role in preventing the misuse of TCs in Pakistan. The study was a cross-sectional mixed-methods research design (phase 1, quantitative; and phase 2, qualitative) conducted from January to June 2021. The pharmacists working in various settings in Karachi were approached through different social media platforms. Data were collected through a web link of an online questionnaire with 30 closed-ended questions. Different statistical methods were employed for tabulating the quantitative data, while inductive thematic analysis was directed to classify themes from the qualitative data and to conclude findings. The mean cumulative knowledge score was 10.59 ± 1.63. The community pharmacists knew more about the available over-the-counter TCs (p = 0.041). The experienced pharmacists were more conversant than fresh pharmacists, regarding the mode of action (p = 0.008), choice of TC potency (p = 0.001), and most common local and systemic adverse effects of TCs (p = 0.001). Overall, respondents had a favorable attitude, with more than 80% agreeing that pharmacists could ensure that important safety issues are communicated with patients, and assist considerably in avoiding TC misuse. Analysis of data has produced 7 themes, 10 sub-themes, and 30 categories. Major themes included: use and misuse of TCs, adverse drug events due to TCs, cosmeto-vigilance, patient education, referral to a physician, and future perspectives for preventing TC misuse. The respondents were well versed with the dilemma of TCs misuse, and they considered patient characteristics, free availability of TCs, and lack of physician-pharmacist coordination as the major reasons. The major barriers for patient education stated by nearly all the respondents were a lack of time and lack of material/information for counseling. They emphasized the need for stringent legal strategies and the enforcement of current drug-control regulations, so that TCs are not supplied without appropriate prescriptions. The present findings indicate that pharmacists had appropriate knowledge and a positive attitude towards their potential role in preventing the misuse of TCs. Further education and sensitization in areas of deprived knowledge will undoubtedly aid in the prevention of TCs misuse by the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
High Performance Conditioning Shampoo with Hyaluronic Acid and Sustainable Surfactants
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030071 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Recently, consumers have become invested in more natural and sustainable ingredients contained in personal care products. Unfortunately, cationic surfactants are still heavily relied on as primary conditioning agents in products such as conditioning shampoos because of their ability to cling well to the [...] Read more.
Recently, consumers have become invested in more natural and sustainable ingredients contained in personal care products. Unfortunately, cationic surfactants are still heavily relied on as primary conditioning agents in products such as conditioning shampoos because of their ability to cling well to the negatively charged surface of hair follicles. Additionally, sulfates are utilized as cleansing agents because they are highly effective and low cost. The objective of this study is to find a more sustainable formulation for a conditioning shampoo without compromising the desired wet combing, rheological, and surface activity properties. The systems which were investigated contained hyaluronic acid (HA) at a variety of molecular weights and concentrations, in combination with a surfactant, either acidic sophorolipid (ASL) or alkyl polyglucoside (APG), and varying the presence of sodium chloride. A Dia-stron was utilized to test the wet combing force, a rheometer recorded the viscosity at various shear rates, and a tensiometer measured the surface tension of the samples before a visual foaming study was conducted. Molecular weight and concentration seemed to have a large impact on wet combing force, as well as rheology, with the largest molecular weight and concentration producing the lowest friction coefficient and desired rheological profile. The addition of a surfactant significantly aids in the reduction in surface tension and increased foamability. Therefore, the optimal system to achieve the largest reduction in wet combing force, large viscosity with shear-thinning behavior, and relatively low surface tension with decent foaming is composed of 1% HA at 800 kDa, 10% ASL and 1% NaCl. This system shows a viable sulfate-free and silicone-free option that can achieve both conditioning and cleansing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Ethanol Extract of Musa sapientum Linn. Peel Inhibits Melanogenesis through AKT Signaling Pathway
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030070 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Hyperpigmentation caused by melanin overproduction can be induced by UV radiation. The quest for effective depigmenting agents continues because many anti-melanin agents have restricted use and/or produce side-effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of Musa sapientum Linn. (AA [...] Read more.
Hyperpigmentation caused by melanin overproduction can be induced by UV radiation. The quest for effective depigmenting agents continues because many anti-melanin agents have restricted use and/or produce side-effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of Musa sapientum Linn. (AA group) peel ethanol extracts (MPE) on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanin production. In addition, the molecular mechanism related to this process was examined in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The results indicated that MPE remarkably inhibited melanogenesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expressions were suppressed by MPE in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, MPE significantly decreased the expression of melanosome transfer protein markers (Rab27a and Pmel17) in a dose-dependent manner. This study found that the elevated phosphorylation of AKT in the B16F10 cells was diminished by MPE treatment. Furthermore, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p62 (autophagy markers) were affected after the B16F10 cells were treated with MPE. This study demonstrated that MPE might be an effective agent for anti-melanogenesis through the AKT pathway, subsequently diminishing MITF expression and tyrosinase enzyme family production. The findings indicated that MPE could potentially serve as a depigmenting agent in cosmeceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics in the Age of Green Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Towards Optimal pH of the Skin and Topical Formulations: From the Current State of the Art to Tailored Products
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030069 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Acidic pH of the skin surface has been recognized as a regulating factor for the maintenance of the stratum corneum homeostasis and barrier permeability. The most important functions of acidic pH seem to be related to the keratinocyte differentiation process, the formation and [...] Read more.
Acidic pH of the skin surface has been recognized as a regulating factor for the maintenance of the stratum corneum homeostasis and barrier permeability. The most important functions of acidic pH seem to be related to the keratinocyte differentiation process, the formation and function of epidermal lipids and the corneocyte lipid envelope, the maintenance of the skin microbiome and, consequently, skin disturbances and diseases. As acknowledged extrinsic factors that affect skin pH, topically applied products could contribute to skin health maintenance via skin pH value control. The obtained knowledge on skins’ pH could be used in the formulation of more effective topical products, which would add to the development of the so-called products ‘for skin health maintenance’. There is a high level of agreement that topical products should be acidified and possess pH in the range of 4 to 6. However, formulators, dermatologists and consumers would benefit from some more precise guidance concerning favorable products pH values and the selection of cosmetic ingredients which could be responsible for acidification, together with a more extensive understanding of the mechanisms underlaying the process of skin acidification by topical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
Thanaka (H. crenulata, N. crenulata, L. acidissima L.): A Systematic Review of Its Chemical, Biological Properties and Cosmeceutical Applications
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030068 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Thanaka (H. crenulata, N. crenulata, L. acidissima L.) is a common tree in Southeast Asia used by the people of Myanmar to create their distinctive face makeup meant for daily sun protection and skincare. Moreover, it is used as a [...] Read more.
Thanaka (H. crenulata, N. crenulata, L. acidissima L.) is a common tree in Southeast Asia used by the people of Myanmar to create their distinctive face makeup meant for daily sun protection and skincare. Moreover, it is used as a traditional remedy to treat various diseases since it can also be applied as an insect repellent. In this systematic review, the chemical and biological properties of Thanaka have been summarised from 18 articles obtained from the Scopus database. Various extracts of Thanaka comprise a significant number of bioactive compounds that include antioxidant, anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory, anti-melanogenic and anti-microbial properties. More importantly, Thanaka exhibits low cytotoxicity towards human cell lines. The use of natural plant materials with various beneficial biological activities have been commonly replacing artificial and synthetic chemicals for health and environmental reasons as natural plant materials offer advantages such as antioxidant, antibacterial qualities while providing essential nourishment to the skin. This review serves as a reference for the research, development and commercialisation of Thanaka skincare products, in particular, sunscreen. Natural sunscreens have attracted enormous interests as a potential replacement for sun protection products made using synthetic chemicals such as oxybenzone that would cause health issues and damage to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics in the Age of Green Technologies)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Codonopsis pilosula Extract Protects Melanocytes against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress by Activating Autophagy
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030067 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Recently, as the anti-aging role of melanin in the skin and the inhibition of melanin production has been identified, the development of materials capable of maintaining skin homeostasis has been attracting attention. In this study, we further investigated the anti-melanogenic effect of Codonopsis [...] Read more.
Recently, as the anti-aging role of melanin in the skin and the inhibition of melanin production has been identified, the development of materials capable of maintaining skin homeostasis has been attracting attention. In this study, we further investigated the anti-melanogenic effect of Codonopsis pilosula extract (CPE) and, under oxidative stress, the cytoprotective effect in Melan-a melanocytes exposed to H2O2. First, CPE treatment significantly reduced melanin production by inhibiting melanogenesis-associated proteins, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP 2), as a result of the phosphorylation of MAPK/JNK in Melan-a cells. Next, to investigate the protective effects of the CPE on oxidative-stress-induced skin injury and its molecular mechanism, we determined the effect of CPE after inducing oxidative stress by exposing melanocytes to H2O2. CPE protected cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity by reducing the expression of the gene encoding the Bax pro-apoptotic protein, whereas it induced the genes encoding the B-cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl2) family and MITF, which is a transcriptional regulator that promotes melanocyte differentiation. Furthermore, our results show that CPE enhanced the production of autophagy-related proteins such as Beclin-1 and light chain 3 (LC3) II; this was substantially reversed by 3-methyladenin (MA, an autophagy inhibitor) pretreatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CPE treatment exhibits not only an anti-melanogenic effect in normal melanocytes, but also a cytoprotective effect in melanocytes subjected to oxidative stress by inducing autophagy and MITF expression. Therefore, we believe that CPE is a potent candidate for cell maintenance in melanocytes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Neurocosmetics in Skincare—The Fascinating World of Skin–Brain Connection: A Review to Explore Ingredients, Commercial Products for Skin Aging, and Cosmetic Regulation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030066 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4873
Abstract
The “modern” cosmetology industry is focusing on research devoted to discovering novel neurocosmetic functional ingredients that could improve the interactions between the skin and the nervous system. Many cosmetic companies have started to formulate neurocosmetic products that exhibit their activity on the cutaneous [...] Read more.
The “modern” cosmetology industry is focusing on research devoted to discovering novel neurocosmetic functional ingredients that could improve the interactions between the skin and the nervous system. Many cosmetic companies have started to formulate neurocosmetic products that exhibit their activity on the cutaneous nervous system by affecting the skin’s neuromediators through different mechanisms of action. This review aims to clarify the definition of neurocosmetics, and to describe the features of some functional ingredients and products available on the market, with a look at the regulatory aspect. The attention is devoted to neurocosmetic ingredients for combating skin stress, explaining the stress pathways, which are also correlated with skin aging. “Neuro-relaxing” anti-aging ingredients derived from plant extracts and neurocosmetic strategies to combat inflammatory responses related to skin stress are presented. Afterwards, the molecular basis of sensitive skin and the suitable neurocosmetic ingredients to improve this problem are discussed. With the aim of presenting the major application of Botox-like ingredients as the first neurocosmetics on the market, skin aging is also introduced, and its theory is presented. To confirm the efficacy of the cosmetic products on the market, the concept of cosmetic claims is discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
From Cosmetics to Innovative Cosmeceuticals—Non-Woven Tissues as New Biodegradable Carriers
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030065 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Due to pollution and climate-change fear, further increased by the COVID19 pandemic, consumers are looking for body and mind health by the request of more effective and safe products, including the anti-aging skincare cosmeceuticals.. The term “cosmeceuticals” was coined in 1962 as a [...] Read more.
Due to pollution and climate-change fear, further increased by the COVID19 pandemic, consumers are looking for body and mind health by the request of more effective and safe products, including the anti-aging skincare cosmeceuticals.. The term “cosmeceuticals” was coined in 1962 as a fusion of cosmetic and pharmaceutical to cover a new class of products able to achieve aesthetic and drug-like benefits. They not only improve the skin’s appearance, but also treat different dermatological conditions, through a physiological activity, shown by in vitro and in vivo studies. This new category of cosmetics should contain no recognized drugs, but nonetheless have medicinal value. Consumers, in fact, are looking for products able to regenerate the skin and maintain not only a youthful appearance together with well-ness and well-being, but preserving the environment also. Consequently, they are searching for cosmetics and food made with high-quality natural ingredients, packaged with biodegradable materials and realized by sustainable technologies, possibly at zero waste. Consumers, in fact, are afraid of the pollution and plastics invading lands and oceans, causing many frequent disasters on our planet. New and smart tissues and films, made by polysaccharides and natural active ingredients, are proposed as innovative cosmeceuticals. These non-woven tissues, embedded by micro/nano complexes of chitin and lignin encapsulating different active ingredients, could represent a new category of vehicles that are characterized for their high effectiveness and safeness. Moreover, they do not induce allergic nor sensitizing phenomena, being biodegradable; skin- and environmentally friendly; and free of preservatives, emulsifiers, colors, fragrances and any kind of chemicals. Last but not least, polysaccharides, chitin and lignin may be obtained from industrial and agro-forestry waste, safeguarding the natural raw materials for the future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Technical Note
Designing a Suitable Stability Protocol in the Face of a Changing Retail Landscape
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030064 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Many recommended stability practices have been unchanged for decades and yet the retail landscape has considerably evolved during that time. First, as a result of the rise of social media and second in the wake of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This article reviews [...] Read more.
Many recommended stability practices have been unchanged for decades and yet the retail landscape has considerably evolved during that time. First, as a result of the rise of social media and second in the wake of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This article reviews the published guidelines available to the cosmetic scientist when developing a suitable stability protocol and considers them in the context of a changing retail landscape. It sets the context with a background to stability testing and a summary of the relevant regulations across different territories. It outlines the current recommended guidelines for stability testing as stated in publications, including the International Federation of the Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) monograph and Cosmetics Europe. Modern advances in stability testing are also considered including early stability prediction techniques. The article concludes that accelerated stability testing is not a precise science, rather a prediction of shelf life. Scientists must consider the various modes of transport, sizes of shipments and regulation in the country of destination as well as the new and emerging ways of consumer production interaction when developing a suitable stability protocol for their formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
Article
Sulforaphane, L-Menthol, and Dexpanthenol as a Novel Active Cosmetic Ingredient Composition for Relieving Hair Loss Symptoms
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030063 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Sulforaphane increases the expression of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-degrading enzyme, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) in the liver, which accelerates DHT degradation, thereby inhibiting hair loss in the animal model. In this study, we elucidated its underlying mechanism and demonstrated that sulforaphane has hair loss inhibitory [...] Read more.
Sulforaphane increases the expression of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-degrading enzyme, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) in the liver, which accelerates DHT degradation, thereby inhibiting hair loss in the animal model. In this study, we elucidated its underlying mechanism and demonstrated that sulforaphane has hair loss inhibitory functions in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and Hepa1c1c7 cells at the cellular and gene levels. The gene expression level of an isoform of 3α-HSD, Akr1c2, increased in a dose-dependent manner when these cells were treated with sulforaphane, but there were no significant differences at the gene levels of Akr1c2 and Dhrs9 for the negative control mixture of biotin, dexpanthenol, and L-menthol. These studies indicated that sulforaphane is involved in regulating the gene expression of Akr1c2. To further determine whether this hair product has effects on alleviating hair loss symptoms, clinical trials were also conducted for 18 weeks. We performed a visual evaluation of the parietal and frontal lines of 23 patients before and after using the product, and then calculated the total number of hairs. This clinical study showed that the parietal lines and bangs visually improved and the number of hairs increased by 6.71% from before using the test product to 18 weeks after using the test product. Taken together, these cellular and clinical studies strongly suggest that sulforaphane may be an active ingredient that significantly alleviates hair loss symptoms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Polysaccharidic Associations for Cosmetic Use: Rheology and Texture Analysis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030062 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
As public attention on sustainability is increasing, the use of polysaccharides as rheological modifiers in skin-care products is becoming the first choice. Polysaccharide associations can be used to increase the spreading properties of products and to optimize their sensorial profile. Since the choice [...] Read more.
As public attention on sustainability is increasing, the use of polysaccharides as rheological modifiers in skin-care products is becoming the first choice. Polysaccharide associations can be used to increase the spreading properties of products and to optimize their sensorial profile. Since the choice of natural raw materials for cosmetics is wide, instrumental methodologies are useful for formulators to easily characterize the materials and to create mixtures with specific applicative properties. In this work, we performed rheological and texture analyses on samples formulated with binary and ternary associations of polysaccharides to investigate their structural and mechanical features as a function of the concentration ratios. The rheological measurements were conducted under continuous and oscillatory flow conditions using a rotational rheometer. An immersion/de-immersion test conducted with a texture analyzer allowed us to measure some textural parameters. Sclerotium gum and iota-carrageenan imparted high viscosity, elasticity, and firmness in the system; carob gum and pectin influenced the viscoelastic properties and determined high adhesiveness and cohesiveness. The results indicated that these natural polymers combined in appropriate ratios can provide a wide range of different textures and that the use of these two complementary techniques represents a valid pre-screening tool for the formulation of green products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop