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Cosmetics, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 30 articles

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Article
High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Comprehensive Characterization of Plant-Pigment-Based Tattoos and Dyes Formulations
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020055 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
There has been little research on emerging natural-pigment-based temporary tattoos and their constituents so far. This study focused on the characterization of natural henna and jagua tattoos and dyes in commercial samples. Sample manipulation and treatment were minimal to analyze natural pigments as [...] Read more.
There has been little research on emerging natural-pigment-based temporary tattoos and their constituents so far. This study focused on the characterization of natural henna and jagua tattoos and dyes in commercial samples. Sample manipulation and treatment were minimal to analyze natural pigments as they are marketed. The characterization of active compounds was performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). A novel untargeted characterization was also applied for these types of samples, searching for compounds ranging from the original ingredients to other additives of interest they may contain. The fact that these products may also be a source of unlabelled allergens was considered. This work showed that not all of the 34 samples analyzed contained their characteristic active ingredients, and in addition, 70 substances of a different nature were found. Therefore, a rapid and high-throughput methodology has been developed for the identification of the components of these dyes, providing a necessary approach for quality control or identification of suspicious substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
The Use of Catalytic Amounts of Selected Cationic Surfactants in the Design of New Synergistic Preservative Solutions
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020054 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Preservation using combinations of antibacterial molecules has several advantages, such as reducing the level of usage and broadening their antimicrobial spectrum. More specifically, the use of quaternary ammonium surfactants (QAS)—which are profusely used in hair care products and some are known as efficient [...] Read more.
Preservation using combinations of antibacterial molecules has several advantages, such as reducing the level of usage and broadening their antimicrobial spectrum. More specifically, the use of quaternary ammonium surfactants (QAS)—which are profusely used in hair care products and some are known as efficient antimicrobial agents—is limited due to some potential cytotoxicity concerns. This study shows that the concentration of some widely used cosmetic preservatives can be decreased when combined with very small quantities of QAS, i.e., Polyquaternium-80 (P-80) and/or Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). The antimicrobial activity of their mixtures was first evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) before and after the addition of QAS. Following up on this finding and targeting an ultimate consumer friendly antimicrobial blend, yet with optimal safety, we chose to utilize the food-grade preservative Maltol as the main natural origin antimicrobial agent mixed with minimum concentrations of QAS to improve its moderate antimicrobial properties. The preservatives were tested for MIC values, challenge tests and synergy using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). The antimicrobial efficacy of Maltol was found to be synergistically improved by introducing catalytic amounts of P-80 and/or DDAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Antioxidant and Anti-Aging Potential of Indian Sandalwood Oil against Environmental Stressors In Vitro and Ex Vivo
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020053 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4034
Abstract
Distilled from the heartwood of Santalum album, Indian sandalwood oil is an essential oil that historically has been used as a natural active ingredient in cosmetics to condition and brighten the skin. It has been documented to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative [...] Read more.
Distilled from the heartwood of Santalum album, Indian sandalwood oil is an essential oil that historically has been used as a natural active ingredient in cosmetics to condition and brighten the skin. It has been documented to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. Here, we investigated the protective and anti-aging effects of Indian sandalwood oil in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells and in human skin explants after exposure to oxidative stress. Using a probe DCFH-DA, the antioxidant capacity of Indian sandalwood oil was monitored following exposure to blue light at 412 nm and 450 nm or cigarette smoke. The anti-aging effect of sandalwood oil was also explored in human skin explants via the assessment of collagenase level (MMP-1). We reported that Indian sandalwood oil possessed antioxidant potential that can scavenge the ROS generated by a free radical generating compound (AAPH). Subsequent exposure to environmental stressors revealed that Indian sandalwood oil possessed superior antioxidant activity in comparison to vitamin E (alpha tocopherol). Using human skin explants, this study demonstrated that Indian sandalwood oil can also inhibit the pollutant-induced level of MMP-1. The findings indicated that Indian sandalwood oil can potentially serve as a protective and anti-aging active ingredient in cosmetics and dermatology against environmental stressors. Full article
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Review
Lipids from Microalgae for Cosmetic Applications
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020052 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using microalgal lipids in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Several microalgal species can accumulate appreciable lipid quantities and therefore are characterized as oleaginous. In cosmetic formulations, lipids and their derivatives are one [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using microalgal lipids in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Several microalgal species can accumulate appreciable lipid quantities and therefore are characterized as oleaginous. In cosmetic formulations, lipids and their derivatives are one of the main ingredients. Different lipid classes are great moisturizing, emollient, and softening agents, work as surfactants and emulsifiers, give consistence to products, are color and fragrance carriers, act as preservatives to maintain products integrity, and can be part of the molecules delivery system. In the past, chemicals have been widely used but today’s market and customers’ demands are oriented towards natural products. Microalgae are an extraordinary source of lipids and other many bioactive molecules. Scientists’ attention to microalgae cultivation for their industrial application is increasing. For the high costs associated, commercialization of microalgae and their products is still not very widespread. The possibility to use biomass for various industrial purposes could make microalgae more economically competitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Development of New Extracts of Crocus sativus L. By-Product from Two Different Italian Regions as New Potential Active Ingredient in Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020051 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
This project aimed to apply eco-friendly extraction methods to Crocus sativus L. by-product (flowers without stigmas i.e., tepals composed of petals and sepals) to recover extracts with high antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content, to be used in cosmetic products. Flowers grown in two [...] Read more.
This project aimed to apply eco-friendly extraction methods to Crocus sativus L. by-product (flowers without stigmas i.e., tepals composed of petals and sepals) to recover extracts with high antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content, to be used in cosmetic products. Flowers grown in two different Italian regions (Sample 1—Alba in Piemonte, north of Italy and Sample 2—Sibillini in Marche, centre of Italy) were subjected for the first time to different eco-friendly microwave-mediated green solvents extractions (MGSE) andquali-quantitative determination in antioxidant molecules. Firstly, the extracts from Sample 1 were selected according to their total phenol content (TPC) by Folin–Ciocalteu’s assay and antioxidant capacity (AC) by spectrophotometric assays. Then, according to preliminary results, MGSE carried out in ethanol 70°, water, and glycerin were selected as the most performing methods and applied to both Samples 1 and 2. The best results were obtained using green solvents, such as water or ethanol 70°, for the samples coming from Marche. The identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, belonging to anthocyanins and flavonols classes, was performed by using UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Concerning flavonols content, the most abundant analyte is kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and the extract in water from Sample 1 showed the higher amount of flavonols, reaching the concentration of 25.35 mg of kaempferol 3-O-glucoside equivalent per gram of tepals DW of raw material. Among anthocyanins, the most abundant was delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside and the high concentration of anthocyanin was detected in water and ethanol extract. Two new compounds, myricetin-di-glucoside and primflasine, were identified for the first time in Crocus sativus L. by-product by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The green batches obtained by extraction were thus characterized and evaluated for their biological potential and safety in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The extracts were not cytotoxic up to 0.03 mg/mL. The water and ethanol 70° extracts were the most effective in counteracting oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and UVA exposure and reduced cytotoxicity induced by UVB exposure. The water extract was also able to significantly reduce cytotoxicity induced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-induced damage. Taken together, these results suggest a potential use of these waste materials as cosmeceutical preparations such as antiaging, and as anti-skin irritation formulation by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
Safety Testing of Cosmetic Products: Overview of Established Methods and New Approach Methodologies (NAMs)
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020050 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4133
Abstract
Cosmetic products need to have a proven efficacy combined with a comprehensive toxicological assessment. Before the current Cosmetic regulation N°1223/2009, the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive has banned animal testing for cosmetic products and for cosmetic ingredients in 2004 and 2009, [...] Read more.
Cosmetic products need to have a proven efficacy combined with a comprehensive toxicological assessment. Before the current Cosmetic regulation N°1223/2009, the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive has banned animal testing for cosmetic products and for cosmetic ingredients in 2004 and 2009, respectively. An increasing number of alternatives to animal testing has been developed and validated for safety and efficacy testing of cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. For example, 2D cell culture models derived from human skin can be used to evaluate anti-inflammatory properties, or to predict skin sensitization potential; 3D human skin equivalent models are used to evaluate skin irritation potential; and excised human skin is used as the gold standard for the evaluation of dermal absorption. The aim of this manuscript is to give an overview of the main in vitro and ex vivo alternative models used in the safety testing of cosmetic products with a focus on regulatory requirements, genotoxicity potential, skin sensitization potential, skin and eye irritation, endocrine properties, and dermal absorption. Advantages and limitations of each model in safety testing of cosmetic products are discussed and novel technologies capable of addressing these limitations are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Article
Characterization and Stability of a Formulation Containing Antioxidants-Enriched Castanea sativa Shells Extract
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020049 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
The cosmetic industry is a field on rise where the search for novel antioxidant ingredients, preferably from natural matrixes, became a new challenge. The reuse of Castanea sativa shells as a source of phytochemicals with pro-healthy effects in skin care products may be [...] Read more.
The cosmetic industry is a field on rise where the search for novel antioxidant ingredients, preferably from natural matrixes, became a new challenge. The reuse of Castanea sativa shells as a source of phytochemicals with pro-healthy effects in skin care products may be a valuable alternative to valorize this underexploited agro-industrial by-product. A previous study of our research group demonstrated the antioxidant properties of chestnut shells extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), as well as its safeness on skin cell lines, namely keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Based on the extract richness in antioxidants, a formulation containing C. sativa shells extract obtained by this environmentally friendly technology was successfully developed in the present study. The oil-in-water (O/W) cream incorporating the chestnut shells extract was further characterized regarding organoleptic and technological properties, namely color, pH, droplets size, and viscosity. A stability study over time was also accomplished. The results demonstrate that the formulation not only displayed pleasant organoleptic characteristics attractive to consumers but also a pH compatible with skin and a suitable viscosity for topical application. The stability study revealed minor changes to droplet size and color, without affecting the general stability of the formulation. In conclusion, this study emphasized the prominent benefits of chestnut shells extract as a novel ingredient for skin care formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Sustainable Sources from Aquatic Organisms for Cosmeceuticals Ingredients
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020048 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
Long life expectancy of populations in the developing world together with some cultural and social issues has driven the need to pay special attention to health and physical appearance. Cosmeceuticals are gaining interest in the cosmetic industry as their uses fulfills a double [...] Read more.
Long life expectancy of populations in the developing world together with some cultural and social issues has driven the need to pay special attention to health and physical appearance. Cosmeceuticals are gaining interest in the cosmetic industry as their uses fulfills a double purpose: the requirements of a cosmetic (clean, perfume, protect, change the appearance of the external parts of the body or keeping them in good condition) with a particular bioactivity function. The cosmetics industry, producing both cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, is currently facing numerous challenges to satisfy different attitudes of consumers (vegetarianism, veganism, cultural or religious concerns, health or safety reasons, eco-friendly process, etc.). A currently growing trend in the market is the interest in products of low environmental impact. Marine origin ingredients are increasingly being incorporated into cosmeceutical preparations because they are able to address several consumer requirements and also due to the wide range of bioactivities they present (antioxidant, whitening, anti-aging, etc.). Many companies claim “Marine” as a distinctive marketing signal; however, only a few indicate whether they use sustainable ingredient sources. Sustainable marine ingredients might be obtained using wild marine biomass through a sustainable extractive fishing activity; by adopting valorization strategies including the use of fish discards and fish by-products; and by sustainably farming and culturing marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
Safety of Tattoos and Permanent Make up (PMU) Colorants
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020047 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
The art of tattooing is a popular decorative approach for body decoration and has a corrective value for the face. The tattooing procedure is characterized by placing exogenous pigments into the dermis with a number of needles. The process of creating traditional and [...] Read more.
The art of tattooing is a popular decorative approach for body decoration and has a corrective value for the face. The tattooing procedure is characterized by placing exogenous pigments into the dermis with a number of needles. The process of creating traditional and cosmetic tattoos is the same. Colorants are deposited in the dermis by piercing the skin with needles of specific shape and thickness, which are moistened with the colorant. Colorants (pigments or dyes) most of the time include impurities which may cause adverse reactions. It is commonly known that tattoo inks remain in the skin for lifetime. It is also a fact that the chemicals that are used in permanent makeup (PMU) colorants may stay in the body for a long time so there is a significant long-term risk for harmful ingredients being placed in the body. Tattoo and PMU colorants contain various substances and their main ingredients and decomposition components may cause health risks and unwanted side effects to skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Article
Impact of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in the Expression of Type I Collagen in the Dermis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020046 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the dominant environmental determinant of all major forms of skin cancer, and the main cause of prematurely aged skin that is referred to as photoaging. Collagen type I (COL I) is expressed differently along with the dermis between healthy [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the dominant environmental determinant of all major forms of skin cancer, and the main cause of prematurely aged skin that is referred to as photoaging. Collagen type I (COL I) is expressed differently along with the dermis between healthy and pathological skin tissues. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of solar radiation in the dermis and assess the impact of solar radiation to COL I. The hematoxylin and eosin staining protocol was performed in tissue paraffin blocks and then they were stained immunohistochemically with the rabbit monoclonal anti-COL I antibody. A total of 270 slides were studied with an Olympus BX 41 microscope; we scored positively the expression of COL I in dermis and statistically analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics. Based on our results, we observed that solar elastosis changes the structure of the skin’s collagen. In healthy tissues, COL I had a uniform expression along with the dermis. In tissues with aging, COL I expression was weaker and lost homogeneity. In pathological tissues (non-melanoma skin cancers, NMSCs), precancerous lesions, and benign skin lesions), the expression of COL I was observed to be almost weaker than tissues with aging in all body parts and much weaker below the lesions. The most severe solar elastosis was observed in the extremities. The degree of severity of the solar elastosis in relation to age did not appear to be completely affected. Solar radiation divides the collagen more rapidly than normal biological aging and solar elastosis was observed into the skin tissues with photoaging, which replaces the collagen fibers of the skin. These results confirm previous studies, which have shown that skin COL I decreases during aging, more in photoaging and even more in skin cancers. We conclude that skin COL I expression is reduced as a result of ultraviolet radiation and leading to negative impacts on the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Article
Nanoemulsions for the Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Actives
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020045 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
This work analyzes the dispersion of two highly hydrophobic actives, (9Z)-N-(1,3-dihydroxyoctadecan-2-yl)octadec-9-enamide (ceramidelike molecule) and 2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine 1-oxide (minoxidil), using oil-in-water nanoemulsions with the aim of preparing stable and safe aqueous-based formulations that can be exploited for enhancing the penetration of active compounds through cosmetic [...] Read more.
This work analyzes the dispersion of two highly hydrophobic actives, (9Z)-N-(1,3-dihydroxyoctadecan-2-yl)octadec-9-enamide (ceramidelike molecule) and 2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine 1-oxide (minoxidil), using oil-in-water nanoemulsions with the aim of preparing stable and safe aqueous-based formulations that can be exploited for enhancing the penetration of active compounds through cosmetic substrates. Stable nanoemulsions with a droplet size in the nanometric range (around 200 nm) and a negative surface charge were prepared. It was possible to prepare formulations containing up to 2 w/w% of ceramide-like molecules and more than 10 w/w% of minoxidil incorporated within the oil droplets. This emulsions evidenced a good long-term stability, without any apparent modification for several weeks. Despite the fact that this work is limited to optimize the incorporation of the actives within the nanoemulsion-like formulations, it demonstrated that nanoemulsions should be considered as a very promising tool for enhancing the distribution and availability of hydrophobic molecules with technological interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Two New Dexpanthenol-Containing Wash Gels: Skin Hydration, Barrier Function, and Cosmetic Performance Upon Single and Repeated Usage in Subjects with Dry Skin
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020044 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Two novel body/face wash gels enriched with emollient ingredients (including dexpanthenol) were developed for the daily care of dry skin. Two similarly designed 2-week studies (N = 42 each) were conducted to assess the biophysical and cosmetic performance of each of the new [...] Read more.
Two novel body/face wash gels enriched with emollient ingredients (including dexpanthenol) were developed for the daily care of dry skin. Two similarly designed 2-week studies (N = 42 each) were conducted to assess the biophysical and cosmetic performance of each of the new wash gels in healthy adults with dry skin. Instrumental measurements quantified the effects of the wash gels on stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (with and without a previous sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) challenge) after single and repeated usage. Following single and repeated applications of the face wash gel to facial skin, as well as to dry SLS-undamaged and SLS-damaged skin of the forearm, skin hydration significantly increased. Similarly, after single and repeated usage of the body wash gel to dry SLS-undamaged and SLS-damaged skin of the forearm, skin moisturization increased significantly from baseline; comparisons with control areas provided inconsistent results for SLS-undamaged skin. No effects on TEWL were observed for either product. Both wash gels were well tolerated and the cosmetic performances were appreciated by the subjects. The study results suggest that daily use of the new wash gels was associated with significant skin-moisturizing effects without adversely affecting skin barrier function and repair. Full article
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Article
Clinical and Instrumental Exploration of Sensitive Skin in a Pediatric Population
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020043 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Studies on sensitive skin pathophysiology in infants are challenging because most assessment methods require self-reporting of signs. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize sensitive skin in children for the first time. A newly developed parent-reported questionnaire was used to recruit [...] Read more.
Studies on sensitive skin pathophysiology in infants are challenging because most assessment methods require self-reporting of signs. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize sensitive skin in children for the first time. A newly developed parent-reported questionnaire was used to recruit children with sensitive skin. This questionnaire was also tested on an adult group. Hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and inflammatory markers (cytokines, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) were quantified. A total of 77 children and 20 adults (33 and 10 with sensitive skin, respectively) were recruited. The groups with sensitive skin had more clinical signs of skin dryness. Skin hydration was lower in children in the sensitive compared with the nonsensitive skin group. TEWL levels were similar between sensitive and nonsensitive subjects in both infant and adult groups. Sensitive skin exhibited higher levels of cytokines and proinflammatory PUFAs as well as lower levels of anti-inflammatory PUFAs. Sensitive skin syndrome was associated with normal skin barrier function but lower hydration in infants and children. The higher levels of proinflammatory markers suggest that sensitive skin is associated with low-level inflammation. It is hypothesized, for the first time, that PUFAs are involved in sensitive skin syndrome in infants. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Macrophages and TNF-α in Cleft Affected Lip Tissue
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020042 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Orofacial clefts are one of the most common congenital anomalies worldwide; however, morphopathogenesis of the clefts is not yet completely understood. Taking the importance of innate immunity into account, the aim of this work was to examine the appearance and distribution of macrophages [...] Read more.
Orofacial clefts are one of the most common congenital anomalies worldwide; however, morphopathogenesis of the clefts is not yet completely understood. Taking the importance of innate immunity into account, the aim of this work was to examine the appearance and distribution of macrophages (M) 1, M2, and TNF-α, as well as to deduce any possible intercorrelations between the three factors in cleft affected lip tissue samples. Twenty samples of soft tissue were collected from children during plastic surgery. Fourteen control tissue samples were obtained during labial frenectomy. Tissues were immunohistochemically stained, analysed by light microscopy using a semi-quantitative method, and the Mann–Whitney U and Spearman’s tests were used to evaluate statistical differences and correlations. A statistically significant difference in the distribution was observed only in regard to M1. A weak correlation was observed between M2 and TNF-α but a moderate one between M1 and M2 as well as M1 and TNF-α. However, only the correlation between M1 and M2 was statistically important. The rise in M1, alongside the positive correlation between M1 and TNF-α, suggested a more pro-inflammatory/inflammatory environment in the cleft affected lip tissue. The moderate positive correlation between M1 and M2 indicated an intensification of the protective mechanisms. Full article
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Article
Outcome Using Either Intradermal Botox Injection or Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy for Patients with Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis: A Comparative Study
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020041 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, negatively impacts patients both physically and psychologically. It may be primary or secondary: the primary form is a benign condition, with its growing prevalence reaching 5% recently. Its medical treatments are transitory. Objectives: Comparison of the outcomes of patients [...] Read more.
Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, negatively impacts patients both physically and psychologically. It may be primary or secondary: the primary form is a benign condition, with its growing prevalence reaching 5% recently. Its medical treatments are transitory. Objectives: Comparison of the outcomes of patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH) after intradermal Botox injection (IBI) versus endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS). Methods: Forty patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. Patients in the IBI group received an intradermal injection of a botulinum toxin A. Patients in the EST group received endoscopic electrocautery of the sympathetic chain. The patients were evaluated biweekly for 12 weeks, and patient satisfaction by outcome was evaluated using a 4-point satisfaction score. Results: At 12 weeks, 60% of the IBI group patients had maintained an improvement. Meanwhile, 40% of the patients were improved compared to pre-intervention scores, despite deterioration after remarkable improvement. On the other hand, 80% of ETS group patients maintained their Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) up until the end of follow-up. Patient satisfaction scores were significantly higher for the IBI group compared to the ETS group. Conclusions: Intradermal Botox injection is a simple, safe, non-invasive, and effective therapeutic modality for PPH and achieved higher patient satisfaction compared to ETS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Review
Insect Chitin-Based Nanomaterials for Innovative Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020040 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
Chitin and its derivatives are attracting great interest in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields, thanks to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, as well as their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The classical source of chitin, crustacean waste, is no longer sustainable and fungi, a possible alternative, [...] Read more.
Chitin and its derivatives are attracting great interest in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields, thanks to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, as well as their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The classical source of chitin, crustacean waste, is no longer sustainable and fungi, a possible alternative, have not been exploited at an industrial scale yet. On the contrary, the breeding of bioconverting insects, especially of the Diptera Hermetia illucens, is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Therefore, their exoskeletons, consisting of chitin as a major component, represent a waste stream of facilities that could be exploited for many applications. Insect chitin, indeed, suggests its application in the same fields as the crustacean biopolymer, because of its comparable commercial characteristics. This review reports several cosmetic and cosmeceutical applications based on chitin and its derivatives. In this context, chitin nanofibers and nanofibrils, produced from crustacean waste, have proved to be excellent cosmeceutical active compounds and carriers of active ingredients in personal care. Consequently, the insect-based chitin, its derivatives and their complexes with hyaluronic acid and lignin, as well as with other chitin-derived compounds, may be considered a new appropriate potential polymer to be used in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Review
Design, Preparation, and Characterization of Effective Dermal and Transdermal Lipid Nanoparticles: A Review
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020039 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
Limited permeability through the stratum corneum (SC) is a major obstacle for numerous skin care products. One promising approach is to use lipid nanoparticles as they not only facilitate penetration across skin but also avoid the drawbacks of conventional skin formulations. This review [...] Read more.
Limited permeability through the stratum corneum (SC) is a major obstacle for numerous skin care products. One promising approach is to use lipid nanoparticles as they not only facilitate penetration across skin but also avoid the drawbacks of conventional skin formulations. This review focuses on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLCs), and nanoemulsions (NEs) developed for topical and transdermal delivery of active compounds. A special emphasis in this review is placed on composition, preparation, modifications, structure and characterization, mechanism of penetration, and recent application of these nanoparticles. The presented data demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles for dermal and transdermal delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Nanoparticles in Cosmetic Dermal Products)
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Article
Facial Treatment with 3-O-Cetyl Ascorbic Acid for Improvement of Skin Texture: Uptake, Effectiveness, and In Vitro Carcinogenicity Assessment
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020038 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is found at high concentrations in normal skin. The important and well-known benefits of using AA in skin health include the stimulation of collagen synthesis and the assistance of protection against photo-oxidative damages. To maintain [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is found at high concentrations in normal skin. The important and well-known benefits of using AA in skin health include the stimulation of collagen synthesis and the assistance of protection against photo-oxidative damages. To maintain stability and improve drug delivery to the active site, a variety of AA derivatives have been chemically synthesized. Among these compounds, we focus here on a lipophilic derivative, 3-O-cetyl ascorbic acid (3-CetylAA), which remains poorly characterized for cosmetic applications. Uptake analysis in three healthy human volunteers’ skin was conducted using a serial tape-stripping technique detecting 3-CetylAA (on average, 128 ± 27 pmol per µg) in the stratum corneum after a 5-h topical treatment when treated with 25 mM 3-CetylAA-containing cream for 13 days twice daily and continuously. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging of vertical cryosections of pig skin revealed the presence of 3-CetylAA in the epidermal layer after topical treatment with 3-CetylAA-containing cream. In sun-exposed human skin, 3-CetylAA improved the texture after treatment with 25 mM 3-CetylAA-containing cream for 4 weeks or more when used twice daily or continuously. An in vitro transformation assay using BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells demonstrated that 10 µM 3-CetylAA, which is the same concentration exhibited in vitro biological activities in another lipophilic AA derivative, 2-O-octadecyl ascorbic acid, was non-carcinogenic and did not potentiate the UVC-induced transformation frequency when applied for 3 days after UVC irradiation. These results demonstrate that 3-CetylAA is a promising candidate as a lipophilic derivative of AA for cosmetic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Comparative Efficacy of Fractional CO2 Laser and Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser in Combination Therapy with Tranexamic Acid in Refractory Melasma: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020037 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
Melasma manifests as hyperpigmented macules and patches, usually affecting the face, neck, and rarely upper limbs. This study evaluated comparative efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser with a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser in combination therapy with tranexamic acid in refractory melasma. A total [...] Read more.
Melasma manifests as hyperpigmented macules and patches, usually affecting the face, neck, and rarely upper limbs. This study evaluated comparative efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser with a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser in combination therapy with tranexamic acid in refractory melasma. A total of 30 patients with refractory melasma were included in this study. The fractional CO2 laser (power: 30 w, pulse energy: 30 mJ, tip type: 300, pulse rate: 100/cm2) was used on one side of the patients’ face and three passes of the Q-Switched Nd:YAG (QSNY) laser (Wavelength: 1064 nm, pulse energy: 750 mJ, fluence: 1.50  J/cm2, spot size: 4 mm × 4 mm, hand piece: fractional) were used on the opposite side of the same patient’s face for six sessions. During the course of laser therapy, all patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily. Melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and physician’s satisfaction and patient’s satisfaction were analyzed. Thirty patients (mean age 39.97) were included. Patient global assessment (PtGA) in the fractional CO2 laser group was significantly better than the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser group at 4th, 8th and 12th weeks (p-value < 0.001). According to PtGA, the improvement was significant in both groups over time. Physician global assessment (PGA) at the 8th and 12th weeks, and physician satisfaction (PS) at the 8th week, in the fractional CO2 laser group was significantly better than the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser group (p-value < 0.05). The PGA in both groups significantly reduced over time. The MASI score significantly decreased in both groups over time. The MASI score in the fractional CO2 laser group decreased more than the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser group over time (p < 0.001). The most common side effects reported were erythema and discomfort, which subsided in less than 24 h. A fractional CO2 laser with oral tranexamic acid is an effective and well tolerated therapeutic method for the treatment of patients with refractory melasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Article
Characterizing the Mechanism of Action of Essential Oils on Skin Homeostasis—Data from Sonographic Imaging, Epidermal Water Dynamics, and Skin Biomechanics
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020036 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) have been recognized as materials of interest for dermatological applications, although some doubts remain regarding their safety and efficacy. We studied the action mechanisms of EOs from lavender and sage in human skin. Extracted EOs were incorporated (at 5% and [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) have been recognized as materials of interest for dermatological applications, although some doubts remain regarding their safety and efficacy. We studied the action mechanisms of EOs from lavender and sage in human skin. Extracted EOs were incorporated (at 5% and 10%) in almond oil as a vehicle. Eleven healthy volunteers were selected and the prepared oils were tested on both forearms. All procedures respected the principles of good clinical practice. Effects were followed through high resolution sonography (HRS), epidermal water dynamics, and biomechanics. All variables were measured before and 30 min after application. Nonparametric statistical comparisons were applied (p < 0.05). HRS revealed a more echogenic epidermis, with a significant echogenicity decrease in the dermis (higher water retention) for all formulations. Significant TEWL decrease and an increase in superficial and deep epidermal hydration were also observed. These results indicate that EOs penetrate only into the most superficial layers of the skin, which is important for their safety profile. Furthermore, this “filmogenic” mechanism improving the epidermal water balance seems to connect directly with the observed biomechanical enhancement. These results confirm the clinical relevance of these compounds, in particular to restore the epidermal water content and prevent xerosis and other related disorders in sensitive (atopic, elderly) patients. Full article
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Article
Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Curcuminoid Analogues and Inhibition Kinetics Studies
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020035 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Natural tyrosinase inhibitors from herbal plants are promising therapeutic agents for skincare and cosmetic products. Natural curcuminoids exhibit weak antityrosinase properties. The structural modification of curcumin, the major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa, gave 14 analogues. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the natural [...] Read more.
Natural tyrosinase inhibitors from herbal plants are promising therapeutic agents for skincare and cosmetic products. Natural curcuminoids exhibit weak antityrosinase properties. The structural modification of curcumin, the major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa, gave 14 analogues. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the natural curcuminoids and the modified analogues on both L-tyrosine and DOPA substrates were evaluated. The inhibition kinetics were also undertaken. For analogues with potent activity on the L-tyrosine substrate, the isoxazole analogue 12 and two reduced analogues, hexahydrocurcumin (16) and the α,β-unsaturated analogue 17, showed IC50 values of 8.3, 14.6 and 9.4 µM, and were 20.9-, 11.9- and 18.4-fold more active, respectively, than kojic acid, the reference compound. For the analogues with potent antityrosinase on DOPA substrate, the dimethylated analogue 5 exhibited the strongest antityrosinase activity against the DOPA substrate, with the IC50 value of 8.0 µM, which was 16.6-fold more active than kojic acid. The inhibition kinetics revealed that curcuminoid 5 could bind with both free enzyme and with the enzyme–substrate complex. It acted as a competitive–uncompetitive mixed-II type inhibitor. Curcuminoid 17 could bind with both free enzyme and the enzyme–substrate complex. The results indicated that 17 acted as a competitive–uncompetitive mixed-I type inhibitor, while curcuminoid 12 was a noncompetitive inhibitor which bound with both free enzymes and the enzyme–substrate complex. These potent analogues might serve as new potential tyrosinase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Perspective
Fractions of Concern: Challenges and Strategies for the Safety Assessment of Biological Matter in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020034 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Cosmetic ingredients based on more or less refined biological matter (plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) are gaining popularity. Advances in green chemistry and biotechnology are supporting this general trend further. Following numerous bans on the use of newly generated animal testing data in cosmetic [...] Read more.
Cosmetic ingredients based on more or less refined biological matter (plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) are gaining popularity. Advances in green chemistry and biotechnology are supporting this general trend further. Following numerous bans on the use of newly generated animal testing data in cosmetic safety assessments, and the worldwide demand for “cruelty-free” products, many alternative methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of ingredients. Whilst great strides have been, and continue to be, made, the area of systemic toxicity is one where international harmonisation and regulatory acceptance is still evolving. A strategy for the fractional assessment of biological matter is suggested to make approaches, such as threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) methodology, fit for purpose. Within this strategy, analytical data are used to generate compound classes which are quantified and assessed separately. Whilst this strategy opens new windows for assessing the safety of complex mixtures with a lack of toxicological data, it also raises awareness of the increasing complexity of cosmetic formulations and the general problem of additivity/synergy being rarely addressed. Extremely complex mixtures are and will be a growing challenge for safety assessors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Article
Potential of Fermented Fruit Peel Liquid in Cosmetics as a Skin Care Agent
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020033 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-UVB of three kinds of fermented fruit peel extracts by pectinase enzyme, including pomegranate, pomelo, and banana peel. The antioxidant was evaluated by the DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method. Antibacterial [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-UVB of three kinds of fermented fruit peel extracts by pectinase enzyme, including pomegranate, pomelo, and banana peel. The antioxidant was evaluated by the DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging method. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by disk diffusion assay, and the photoprotective activity was measured using a photospectrometric method. The results revealed that pomegranate peel extract at 3000 IU/g peel exhibited potent free radical scavenging property against DPPH, with the smallest IC50 value at 0.18%, which was better than that of pomelo peel extract at 55.79%. Furthermore, the results suggested that the pomegranate peel extract also exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli better than pomelo peel extract, but none of the three samples shows the antibacterial capacity against S. aureus. Moreover, 10% pomegranate peel extract also expressed the strongest anti-UVB activity, with an SPF value of 36.582. The research demonstrates pomegranate peel’s bioactivity potential for further experiments. Full article
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Article
Lightening Effect of Skin Lightening Cream Containing Piper betle L. Extract in Human Volunteers
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020032 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Hyperpigmentation affects people globally with negative psychological impacts. Piper betle L. leaf (PBL) extract has many benefits including skin lightening which may reduce hyperpigmentation. The objective of this study was to develop an effective skin-lightening cream containing PBL with ideal characteristics. A formulation [...] Read more.
Hyperpigmentation affects people globally with negative psychological impacts. Piper betle L. leaf (PBL) extract has many benefits including skin lightening which may reduce hyperpigmentation. The objective of this study was to develop an effective skin-lightening cream containing PBL with ideal characteristics. A formulation of base cream and PBL cream was prepared and characterized by centrifugation, particle size and zeta potential analysis, rheological profile studies and physical properties’ observation. In vivo studies on 30 human subjects tested the effects of base and PBL cream on skin-lightening, hydration, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and elasticity through weekly tests 4 weeks in duration. Base and PBL creams had a non-Newtonian property with acceptable color, odor, texture, zeta potential, particle size and showed no phase separation. The in vivo study indicated a significant reduction in melanin content and an improvement in skin tone for PBL cream but not in base cream. TEWL and elasticity also showed significant reduction for both formulations, indicating a healthier skin barrier and supple skin with consistent use, although hydration fluctuated with no significant changes. The developed PBL cream showed significant results in the reduction in melanin content and improving skin tone, which shows the formulation can confer skin-lightening effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Extract
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020031 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4353
Abstract
The use of calendula for its lenitive properties’ dates to the XII century. This plant contains several bioactive compounds, including terpenoids, terpenes, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Calendula flower extract is used in soothing cosmetics, such as after-sun, sensitive skin and eye [...] Read more.
The use of calendula for its lenitive properties’ dates to the XII century. This plant contains several bioactive compounds, including terpenoids, terpenes, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Calendula flower extract is used in soothing cosmetics, such as after-sun, sensitive skin and eye contour products. The anti-inflammatory properties of this ingredient were demonstrated in an animal model, but the mechanism of action is poorly understood. Therefore, our work explored the effect of a calendula flower extract on NO production, a pro-inflammatory radical produced by nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and highly released by innate immune cells in inflammatory-related pathologies. NO production was evoked by the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages, using concentrations that did not compromise cells viability. This ingredient exhibited a dose-dependent NO inhibition, reaching 50% at 147 μL/mL without cytotoxicity. Together with previous literature, these results provide experimental evidence on the anti-inflammatory properties of calendula flower extract, as well as its usefulness in cosmetics with soothing properties and adjunctive skin care in the treatment of the diseases associated with dysregulation of the NO signaling cascade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Determination of Cannabidiol in Cosmetic Products by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020030 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid with proven pharmacological properties that is also used in the cosmetic industry for its sebostatic and antioxidant activities, being considered a new anti-aging ally. An analytical method is proposed for the determination of CBD in cosmetic products by liquid [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid with proven pharmacological properties that is also used in the cosmetic industry for its sebostatic and antioxidant activities, being considered a new anti-aging ally. An analytical method is proposed for the determination of CBD in cosmetic products by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, after leaching the CBD from the cosmetic matrix with ethanol. Low instrumental limits of detection (0.22 ng mL−1) and quantification (0.74 ng mL−1) allow the determination of CBD at trace levels without needing preconcentration, whereas the wide linearity of the method allows the determination of CBD in more concentrated samples without high dilution. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of six cosmetic products and a raw material. The proposed method is suitable for the quality control of cosmetic products containing CBD, being able to quickly and easily determine this compound, ensuring that its concentration in the finished product is the desired one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Applications of Cannabinoids)
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Review
Orbicularis Oculi Muscle Size and Function: Exploring the Influence of Aging and Exercise Training
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020029 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The orbicularis oculi muscle is the sphincter muscle of the eyelids that blinks and closes the eyes. In this review, our aim was threefold: (1) to introduce the performance characteristics of blinking activity in young and older adults, (2) to discuss the influence [...] Read more.
The orbicularis oculi muscle is the sphincter muscle of the eyelids that blinks and closes the eyes. In this review, our aim was threefold: (1) to introduce the performance characteristics of blinking activity in young and older adults, (2) to discuss the influence of aging on the orbicularis oculi muscle in healthy adults, and (3) to provide information about the effect of facial exercise training on the orbicularis oculi muscle. To achieve the purpose of this review, a search using two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) and a search engine (Google Scholar) was conducted. The amplitude and peak velocity of spontaneously blinking behavior, which is an index of muscle function of the orbicularis oculi, appear to be affected by aging. The muscle thickness of the orbicularis oculi tends to be low in older adults, but there are issues that need to be examined further, such as differences in sex and measurement positions. There was no study on the effect of exercise training; however, the results of a highly trained man indicate that the orbicularis oculi muscles might elicit muscle hypertrophy through non-traditional resistance exercise. Full article
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Article
Antifungal Effect of Liposomal α-Bisabolol and When Associated with Fluconazole
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020028 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
Fungal pathologies caused by the genus Candida have increased in recent years due to the involvement of immunosuppressed people and the advance of resistance mechanisms acquired by these microorganisms. Liposomes are nanovesicles with lipid bilayers in which they store compounds. α-Bisabolol is a [...] Read more.
Fungal pathologies caused by the genus Candida have increased in recent years due to the involvement of immunosuppressed people and the advance of resistance mechanisms acquired by these microorganisms. Liposomes are nanovesicles with lipid bilayers in which they store compounds. α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene with proven biological activities, and in this work it was tested alone in liposomes and in association with Fluconazole in vitro to evaluate the antifungal potential, Fluconazole optimization, and virulence inhibitory effect in vitro. Antifungal assays were performed against standard strains of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei by microdilution to identify the IC50 values and to obtain the cell viability. The Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was performed by subculturing on the solid medium, and at their subinhibitory concentration (Matrix Concentration (MC): 16,384 µg/mL) (MC/16), the compounds, both isolated and liposomal, were associated with fluconazole in order to verify the inhibitory effect of this junction. Tests to ascertain changes in morphology were performed in microculture chambers according to MC concentrations. Liposomes were characterized from the vesicle size, polydispersity index, average Zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopy. The IC50 value of the liposomal bisabolol associated with fluconazole (FCZ) was 2.5 µg/mL against all strains tested, revealing a potentiating effect. Liposomal bisabolol was able to potentiate the effect of fluconazole against the CA and CT strains by reducing its concentration and completely inhibiting fungal growth. α-Bisabolol in liposomal form inhibited the morphological transition in all strains tested at a concentration of MC/8. The liposomes were homogeneous, with vesicles with diameters of 203.8 nm for the liposomal bisabolol and a surface charge potential of −34.2 mV, conferring stability to the nanosystem. Through scanning microscopy, the spherical shapes of the vesicles were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Nanoparticles in Cosmetic Dermal Products)
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Article
Biobased and Eco-Compatible Beauty Films Coated with Chitin Nanofibrils, Nanolignin and Vitamin E
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020027 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
A stable water-based suspension containing chitin nanofibrils (CN), chitin nanofibrils complexed with nanolignin and the latter containing Vitamin E was prepared starting from CN nanosuspension and nanostructured powders. The water-based coating was deposited by a spray technique on three different renewable and biodegradable [...] Read more.
A stable water-based suspension containing chitin nanofibrils (CN), chitin nanofibrils complexed with nanolignin and the latter containing Vitamin E was prepared starting from CN nanosuspension and nanostructured powders. The water-based coating was deposited by a spray technique on three different renewable and biodegradable films consisting of biodegradable polyesters and starch to prepare possible beauty mask prototypes. After drying, the films were extracted with water to control their potential release on the wet skin and different amounts of released materials were obtained. The results were discussed considering the composition and morphology of the adopted substrates and their interactions with the coating. The eco-compatibility of these films is related to the absence of preservatives and their easy biodegradability in several environmental conditions, decreasing their burden on solid waste management with respect to fossil-based versions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Article
Periorbital Hyperpigmentation—Dark Circles under the Eyes; Treatment Suggestions and Combining Procedures
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020026 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a frequent concern among both young and adult patients. The etiology is multifactorial with a genetic background. Prevalence is higher in darker skin types. It has been estimated as high as 30% in a recent Indian study. Females are [...] Read more.
Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a frequent concern among both young and adult patients. The etiology is multifactorial with a genetic background. Prevalence is higher in darker skin types. It has been estimated as high as 30% in a recent Indian study. Females are often more disappointed by POH than males. Treatment has to consider underlying pathologies and patients’ needs. We present our treatment algorithm for POH. In this study, 74 patients with POH, 64 females (86.5%) and 10 males (13.3%), were treated. Of these, 39 patients (53%) had a family history of POH. The age range of patients was 18−57 years (average: 36.1 years). In case of tear trough deformity, soft tissue augmentation was used by injection of hyaluronic acid gel, calcium hydroxylapatite, or autologous fat. Blepharoplasty with partial fat pad resection or repositioning via arcus marginalis release was used to correct severe orbital fat herniation and excess of the lower lid skin. Melanin hyperpigmentation of the skin was improved by sessions of Q-switched 1064 and 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Small vessels (capillaries and veins) were targeted by a 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Sessions of intense pulsed light (IPL) or CO2 fractional laser were employed to improve skin texture and fine lines. Topical hyaluronic acid-based formulations may be used as adjuvant self-treatment by patients. For pigmented and mixed-type POH, ultraviolet light protection is recommended as a maintenance treatment. By the use of various technologies, treatment can be individually tailored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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