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Cosmetics, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 24 articles

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Article
A Promising Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treatment with a Nanoemulsion-Based Cream with a Generic Pentavalent Antimony (Ulamina) as the Active Ingredient
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040115 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Leishmania parasites are the etiological agents of Leishmaniasis, a tropical disease that affects around 15 million people in about 90 countries. The chosen therapy for this disease is based on antimony V compounds, such as meglumine antimoniate. It can be administered as a [...] Read more.
Leishmania parasites are the etiological agents of Leishmaniasis, a tropical disease that affects around 15 million people in about 90 countries. The chosen therapy for this disease is based on antimony V compounds, such as meglumine antimoniate. It can be administered as a parenteral, subcutaneous or perilesional form as successive infiltrations with pre-established doses localized in the border of the granuloma that characterizes the wound of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Herein, a topical pharmaceutical recipe, such as an emulsion, is proposed to eliminate the trauma caused by administering the medicine in parenteral form to the face or other difficult access zones. The evaluation of this vehicle was performed by analyzing parameters such as pH, viscosity, homogeneity and droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the emulsion was proved by in vitro experiments using Strat-M synthetic membranes, showing that the transdermal passage of the antimonial complex is guaranteed. Moreover, complete healing of the wound has been attained in patients with CL, as shown with two clinical cases in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Review
Essential Oils and Their Individual Components in Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040114 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 278
Abstract
The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential [...] Read more.
The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential oils (EOs) emerge as very common natural ingredients in cosmetics and toiletries as a result of both their odorous character for the design and manufacturing of fragrances and perfumes, and the many beneficial properties of their individual components (EOCs), e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, nowadays, the cosmetic industry includes EOs or different mixtures of their individual components (EOCs), either as active ingredients or as preservatives, in various product ranges (e.g., moisturizers, lotions and cleanser in skin care cosmetics; conditioners, masks or antidandruff products in hair care products; lipsticks, or fragrances in perfumery). However, the unique chemical profile of each individual essential oil is associated with different benefits, and hence it is difficult to generalize their potential applications in cosmetics and toiletries, which often require the effort of formulators in seeking suitable mixtures of EOs or EOCs for obtaining specific benefits in the final products. This work presents an updated review of the available literature related to the most recent advances in the application of EOs and EOCs in the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Furthermore, some specific aspects related to the safety of EOs and EOCs in cosmetics will be discussed. It is expected that the information contained in this comprehensive review can be exploited by formulators in the design and optimization of cosmetic formulations containing botanical extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Analysis of Fluoride Concentration in Toothpastes in the United Arab Emirates: Closing the Gap between Local Regulation and Practice
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040113 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Background: While there is much scientific evidence supporting the benefits of fluoride for oral health, the concentration of fluoride in over-the-counter fluoride toothpaste should meet United Arab Emirates (UAE) regulations of a fluoride concentration not exceeding 0.15%. Objectives: The current study examines the [...] Read more.
Background: While there is much scientific evidence supporting the benefits of fluoride for oral health, the concentration of fluoride in over-the-counter fluoride toothpaste should meet United Arab Emirates (UAE) regulations of a fluoride concentration not exceeding 0.15%. Objectives: The current study examines the fluoridated toothpaste products available on the UAE market and aims to quantify their total fluoride content. Methods: A total of 50 toothpaste products were collected and analyzed in this study. Ion Chromatography (IC) conductivity analysis was performed to determine the total fluoride content. Results: Among the 50 products tested, 10 exceeded the recommended concentration of total fluoride of less than 0.15%, while 12 had a total fluoride concentration that was less than was declared on their labels. Moreover, this study has revealed that 22 of the sampled products had a total fluoride concentration below 1000 ppm fluoride. An increased risk of higher total fluoride content was observed in the toothpaste products with monofluorophosphate active ingredients than in products with potassium nitrate/sodium fluoride and sodium fluoride (p = 0.011). Conclusions: There is a need to reassess the effectiveness of current regulations in the UAE to ensure that all fluoridated toothpastes available on the market are safe and effective for the consumer. Specifically, appropriate guidelines should be established on the basis of the risks and benefits inherent in fluoride exposure. Moreover, fluoridated toothpastes need to be subject to stricter monitoring and control regarding their safety and quality through good manufacturing practices (GMPs), education, research, and adverse event reporting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Regulatory and Technological Aspects of Cosmetics)
Article
Alaskan Bog Blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) Extract as an Innovative Topical Approach to Prevent UV-Induced Skin Damage
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040112 - 27 Nov 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Our body is continuously exposed to various exogenous aggressors, and, in particular, the skin represents the main target for outdoor stressors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV exposure is well-known to be associated with the development/worsening of extrinsic photoaging and a multitude of skin [...] Read more.
Our body is continuously exposed to various exogenous aggressors, and, in particular, the skin represents the main target for outdoor stressors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV exposure is well-known to be associated with the development/worsening of extrinsic photoaging and a multitude of skin conditions. Considering the role of photoprotection in skin health, the research of natural photoprotective molecules becomes of great importance. Therefore, in this work we wanted to evaluate the beneficial protective effects of ripe berries of Vaccinium uliginosum (Alaska bog blueberry (BB)) extract (100 μg/mL) for preventing the cutaneous oxidative, inflammatory, and structural damage induced by exposure to 200 mJ of UVA/UVB radiation. We observed that the topical application of BB extract on human ex vivo skin explants averted the UV-induced cutaneous OxInflammatory phenomenon by quenching the increase in the oxidative and inflammatory marker levels, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); as well as by counteracting the loss of structural proteins (filaggrin and involucrin) induced by UV radiation. Our data propose the use of a topical application of Alaska bog blueberry extract as a natural and valuable approach to ensure photoprotection against UV-induced skin damage and premature aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Apiaceae as an Important Source of Antioxidants and Their Applications
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040111 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The excess level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) disturbs the oxidative balance leading to oxidative stress, which, in turn, causes diabetes mellites, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. These effects of ROS and oxidative stress can be balanced by dietary antioxidants. In recent years, there [...] Read more.
The excess level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) disturbs the oxidative balance leading to oxidative stress, which, in turn, causes diabetes mellites, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. These effects of ROS and oxidative stress can be balanced by dietary antioxidants. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in the use of herbal products for personal and beauty care. The Apiaceae (previously Umbelliferae) family is a good source of antioxidants, predominantly phenolic compounds, therefore, widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, cosmeceutical, flavor, and perfumery industries. These natural antioxidants include polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols, and ascorbic acids, and exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis, and anticancer. This review discusses the Apiaceae family plants as an important source of antioxidants their therapeutic value and the use in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Natural Compounds)
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Article
N-Succinyl-S-Farnesyl-L-Cysteine (SFC): A Novel Isoprenylcysteine Analog with In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Clinical Skin Protecting Properties
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040110 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Over the past 15 years, small molecule isoprenylcysteine (IPC) analogs have been identified as a potential new class of topical anti-inflammatories. Clinical studies have demonstrated that IPCs are both safe and effective in promoting healthy skin when applied topically. This work aims to [...] Read more.
Over the past 15 years, small molecule isoprenylcysteine (IPC) analogs have been identified as a potential new class of topical anti-inflammatories. Clinical studies have demonstrated that IPCs are both safe and effective in promoting healthy skin when applied topically. This work aims to demonstrate N-Succinyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine (SFC) as a novel IPC molecule that provides a broad spectrum of benefits for skin. Human promyelocytic cell line HL-60, human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were exposed in culture to various inducers to trigger reactive oxygen species, cytokines, or collagenase production. A 49-subject randomized double-blind, vehicle-controlled, split face trial was performed with 1% SFC gel, or 5% niacinamide and vehicle applied for 12 weeks to evaluate anti-wrinkle and anti-aging endpoints. We demonstrated that SFC inhibited GPCR and TLR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release in NHEKs and HDMECs from several inflammatory inducers such as UVB, chemicals, cathelicidin, and bacteria. SFC successfully reduced GPCR-induced oxidation in differentiated neutrophils. Moreover, photoaging studies showed that SFC reduced UVA-induced collagenase (pro-MMP-1) production in HDFs. Clinical assessment of 1% SFC gel demonstrated improvement above the vehicle for wrinkle reduction, hydration, texture, and overall appearance of skin. N-Succinyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine (SFC) is a novel anti-inflammatory small molecule and is the first farnesyl-cysteine IPC shown to clinically improve appearance and signs of aging, while also having the potential to ameliorate inflammatory skin disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Biopolymers in Cosmetics)
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Review
Valorization of Wine-Making By-Products’ Extracts in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040109 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The increased demand for conscious, sustainable and beneficial products by the consumers has pushed researchers from both industries and universities worldwide to search for smart strategies capable of reducing the environmental footprint, especially the ones connected with industrial wastes. Among various by-products, generally [...] Read more.
The increased demand for conscious, sustainable and beneficial products by the consumers has pushed researchers from both industries and universities worldwide to search for smart strategies capable of reducing the environmental footprint, especially the ones connected with industrial wastes. Among various by-products, generally considered as waste, those obtained by winemaking industries have attracted the attention of a wide variety of companies, other than the vineries. In particular, grape pomaces are considered of interest due to their high content in bioactive molecules, especially phenolic compounds. The latter can be recovered from grape pomace and used as active ingredients in easily marketable cosmetic products. Indeed, phenolic compounds are well known for their remarkable beneficial properties at the skin level, such as antioxidant, antiaging, anti-hyperpigmentation and photoprotective effects. The exploitation of the bioactives contained in grape pomaces to obtain high value cosmetics may support the growing of innovative start-ups and expand the value chain of grapes. This review aims to describe the strategies for recovery of polyphenols from grape pomace, to highlight the beneficial potential of these extracts, both in vitro and in vivo, and their potential utilization as active ingredients in cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
HPLC Method for Separation of Cannabidiol Hemp Seed Oil with Skin Lipids and Tandem HRMS Technology for Characterization of a Chemical Marker
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040108 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) hemp seed oil is a commercial raw material with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits that has been formulated into body wash and skin care products. The biggest analytical challenge is how to simultaneously quantify CBD and hemp seed oil as they deposited [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) hemp seed oil is a commercial raw material with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits that has been formulated into body wash and skin care products. The biggest analytical challenge is how to simultaneously quantify CBD and hemp seed oil as they deposited on the skin surface. CBD is easily separated and quantified from skin surface extracts via a HPLC-mass spectrometry methodology. However, the structural skeleton of triacylglycerides (TAGs) in hemp seed oil is same as those from the skin surface sebum. The strong hydrophobicity with subtle structural difference challenges their separation. In this project, a new reverse phase HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry methodology was developed with a strong mobile phase normal propanol. The separated hemp seed oil TAGs in the chromatogram were identified and characterized using data-dependent acquisition (DDA) technology. Based on the daughter ion characterization, the separated peak with an ammonium adduct at 890.7226 [M + NH4]+ was confirmed as the parent ion of glycerol with three omega-3 fatty acid chains. This is the first time TAG structure with direct HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry technology has been elucidated without a hydrolysis reaction. The confirmed TAG structure with an ammonium adduct at 890.7226 ± 0.0020 can be used as a representative chemical marker for the hemp seed oil quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Applications of Cannabinoids)
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Article
Anti-Acne Vulgaris Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Mesua ferrea L. Flowers
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040107 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. In the present study, we reported the anti-acne vulgaris effect of the Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) flower extract. The extract was evaluated for three anti-acne-causing bacteria properties including Cutibacterium acnes (C. [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. In the present study, we reported the anti-acne vulgaris effect of the Mesua ferrea (M. ferrea) flower extract. The extract was evaluated for three anti-acne-causing bacteria properties including Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results indicated that the M. ferrea flower extract could be considered as the bactericidal agent against S. epidermidis and S. aureus with MIC values of 0.78 and 6.25 mg mL−1 and MBC values of 1.56 and 12.50 mg mL−1 and the bacteriostatic agent against C. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 3.12 and 25.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The extract at a concentration of 25 µg mL−1 also presented potent anti-inflammatory activity with a significant decrease of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α productions in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells stimulated by LPS. In addition, the extract showed moderate to weak anti-oxidative capacities against DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and NO assays and also showed weak anti-tyrosinase activity. M. ferrea flower extract may serve as the alternative natural anti-acne formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
Natural Antioxidants from Plant Extracts in Skincare Cosmetics: Recent Applications, Challenges and Perspectives
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040106 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 710
Abstract
In recent years, interest in the health effects of natural antioxidants has increased due to their safety and applicability in cosmetic formulation. Nevertheless, efficacy of natural antioxidants in vivo is less documented than their prooxidant properties in vivo. Plant extracts rich in vitamins, [...] Read more.
In recent years, interest in the health effects of natural antioxidants has increased due to their safety and applicability in cosmetic formulation. Nevertheless, efficacy of natural antioxidants in vivo is less documented than their prooxidant properties in vivo. Plant extracts rich in vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds can induce oxidative damage by reacting with various biomolecules while also providing antioxidant properties. Because the biological activities of natural antioxidants differ, their effectiveness for slowing the aging process remains unclear. This review article focuses on the use of natural antioxidants in skincare and the possible mechanisms underlying their desired effect, along with recent applications in skincare formulation and their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Project Report
Strategy for the Development of a New Lipstick Formula
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040105 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
The strategy to adopt for the development of a new lipstick formula requires, as a first step, the definition of the most important characteristics of a modern product. Successively, the identification of the key properties of any innovative ingredient is necessary. Then, a [...] Read more.
The strategy to adopt for the development of a new lipstick formula requires, as a first step, the definition of the most important characteristics of a modern product. Successively, the identification of the key properties of any innovative ingredient is necessary. Then, a comprehension of the key parameters in the establishment of a stable equilibrium among the different formula components in the solid state is important. Moreover, it is necessary to study the interactions among the new ingredients and the other structural components in the formula. Finally, an evaluation of the sensory properties of the different final formulae for fine-tuning of practical performances needs to be carefully carried out. In this study, a systematic formulation approach tried to obtain a new lipstick formula using a new vegetal-derived emollient *(INCLUDING COCO-CAPRYLATE/CAPRATE, HYDROGENATED OLIVE OIL UNSAPONIFIABLES) with sensorial properties similar to some types of silicones. Some application trials of the new raw material were carried out. The following aspects of this ingredient were investigated: (1) Compatibility and thickening with waxes, (2) dispersion power of pigments, and (3) influence on sensory characteristics of the formulated lipstick. This new emollient has been shown to improve some aspects of a lipstick formula, in particular shine, homogeneity, and covering effect. The optimization of the formula, in order to increase the sensation of softness on the lips, is described. *Plantasens Olive LD SP ECO, supplier Clariant Gmbh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Di (Isoquinolin-1-Yl) Sulfane (DIQS) Inhibits Melaninogenesis by Modulating PKA/CREB and MAPK Signaling Pathways
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040104 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The novel synthetic compound Di (isoquinolin-1-yl) sulfane (DIQS) was identified by zebrafish larva screening during the development of an agent to inhibit abnormal hyperpigmentation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of DIQS on melanogenesis and its underlying mechanism. DIQS inhibited melanin [...] Read more.
The novel synthetic compound Di (isoquinolin-1-yl) sulfane (DIQS) was identified by zebrafish larva screening during the development of an agent to inhibit abnormal hyperpigmentation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of DIQS on melanogenesis and its underlying mechanism. DIQS inhibited melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), as well as zebrafish embryos and reconstituted human skin tissue containing melanocytes. DIQS decreased the mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase at a concentration of 10 μM. DIQS also inhibited the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and p-p38 and p-JNK stimulated by α-MSH. These results suggest that DIQS attenuates hyperpigmentation via inhibition of the cAMP/PKA/CREB/MITF/tyrosinase axis and MAPK pathways. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that DIQS blocked the conversion of tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in zebrafish embryos. Finally, we confirmed that DIQS was non-toxic in reconstituted human tissues such as the epidermis, used to test skin sensitization, and the cornea, used to test eye irritation. In summary, the results of this study suggest the potential of DIQS as a small-molecule agent for skin-whitening cosmetics and the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders without biological toxicity. Full article
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Article
Analysis and Quantification of Alkyl (C12-22) Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride Content in Cosmetics: Regulatory Compliance Gap Analysis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040103 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Background: Exceeding the recommended Alkyl (C12-22) trimethyl ammonium bromide and chloride levels in cosmetics and personal care products is a serious health threat. Objectives: To quantify and investigate Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride in cosmetics and personal care products in the UAE market [...] Read more.
Background: Exceeding the recommended Alkyl (C12-22) trimethyl ammonium bromide and chloride levels in cosmetics and personal care products is a serious health threat. Objectives: To quantify and investigate Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride in cosmetics and personal care products in the UAE market to gauge whether or not they adhered to requirements for safety and health. Methods: A total of 164 cosmetics products were collected and analyzed in this study. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride surfactants in cosmetics products. With each product, Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride (%) were calculated. To test cross-group differences in Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride (%), Kruskal–Wallis test was applied. Results: Of the 125 tested cosmetics and personal care products, five (4%) exceeded the recommended Cetrimonium chloride level in rinse-off hair products (2.5%), 10 (8%) exceeded the recommended Cetrimonium chloride level in leave-on hair products (1%), and 24 (61.5%) exceeded the recommended Cetrimonium chloride level used as a preservative in cosmetics products. Moreover, of the 125 tested cosmetics and personal care products, 21 (53.8%) exceeded the recommended Behentrimonium chloride level used as preservatives in cosmetics products. Conclusions: Although several structures for cosmetics quality and control across the globe are fairly comprehensive and intricate, there is a need to make them more rigorous to apply compliance with GMP and ensure regulatory control. Doing so would help enhance the inspection and regulation of cosmetics containing Behentrimonium chloride/Cetrimonium chloride preservatives. Furthermore, there is a dire need to establish a unified cosmetovigilance worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Article
Miniaturized Sample Preparation Methods to Simultaneously Determine the Levels of Glycols, Glycol Ethers and Their Acetates in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040102 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Two environmentally friendly methodologies based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (µMSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis are proposed for the first time for the simultaneous analysis of 17 glycols, glycol ethers, and their acetates in cosmetics. These sample [...] Read more.
Two environmentally friendly methodologies based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (µMSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis are proposed for the first time for the simultaneous analysis of 17 glycols, glycol ethers, and their acetates in cosmetics. These sample preparation approaches result in efficient and low-cost extraction while employing small amounts of sample, with a low consumption of reagents and organic solvents. The use of a highly polar column allows for the direct analysis of the obtained extracts by GC-MS without a previous derivatization step, drastically reducing the sample preparation time and residues and thus complying with green analytical chemistry (GAC) principles. Both the UAE and µMSPD methodologies were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, and precision, providing satisfactory results. LODs were found to be lower than 0.75 µg g−1, allowing the determination of trace levels of the forbidden target compounds. Finally, the validated methodologies were applied to real cosmetics and personal care products, showing suitability, and providing a reliable and useful tool for cosmetics control laboratories. Full article
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Article
Ceriporia lacerata Mycelium Culture Medium as a Novel Anti-Aging Microbial Material for Cosmeceutical Application
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040101 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Skincare is very critical in preventing aging and skin trouble, which is difficult to recover if progressed. However, the development of effective anti-aging solutions is still on the horizon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional efficacy of Ceriporia lacerata [...] Read more.
Skincare is very critical in preventing aging and skin trouble, which is difficult to recover if progressed. However, the development of effective anti-aging solutions is still on the horizon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional efficacy of Ceriporia lacerata exo-pharmaceutical substance (CLEPS) in view of its use in innovative skin care cosmetics. CLEPS was found to have no cytotoxicity against normal human dermal fibroblasts and B16 melanoma cells in a wide concentration range of 0.05–7 mg/mL. It exhibited a whitening effect by inhibiting melanin synthesis comparable to that of the respective reference compound (arbutin). Notably, CLEPS not only substantially increased collagen (65.4%) and filaggrin synthesis (36%), but also significantly inhibited the activity of collagenase (93.4%), suggesting that CLEPS could prevent skin barrier damage or skin wrinkles. In addition, it showed an excellent anti-inflammatory effect and wound-healing effect. Overall, CLEPS exhibited exceptional anti-aging effects in human skin cells, designating as a potential natural cosmeceutical ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics in the Age of Green Technologies)
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Editorial
Special Issue “Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics”
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040100 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Quality Control (QC) testing of Cosmetic personal care and fragrance products is a key part of the products’ launch to the market [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
Article
Exploring the Utility of Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) as a Novel Tool for Early Detection of Stability Issues in Cosmetic Emulsions
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040099 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 876
Abstract
In the current cosmetic and personal care industry, it is of great importance to have a technique that detects instabilities quickly and effectively, as consumers are demanding more innovative and sustainable ingredients. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) is a potential solution as it is [...] Read more.
In the current cosmetic and personal care industry, it is of great importance to have a technique that detects instabilities quickly and effectively, as consumers are demanding more innovative and sustainable ingredients. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) is a potential solution as it is a modern optical technique that can measure the spatial movement of particles or droplets in an emulsion—i.e., the mean square displacement (MSD), as a function of time. In the current investigation, systematic visual and diffusion behavior emulsion stability studies over a 3-h period on jojoba and avocado oil emulsions containing varying equal percentages of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) were conducted. The turbid emulsions studied had differing stabilities with unknown instability mechanisms to further explore if diffusing wave spectroscopy can offer a fast and early identification of problem cosmetic formulations. It was observed that, for emulsions displaying instability from 4 to 123 h, the greater the change in the MSD values over a 3-h period, the greater the instability of the emulsion. For all systems, the MSD values lowered and shifted to the right from hour 0 to hour 3. We conjecture that the emulsion droplets began to aggregate, potentially growing and giving rise to larger particles. The increasing particle size was the cause for the slowing down of the dynamics and thus diffusion, giving rise to the lowering of the MSD values. Our findings indicate that by testing an emulsion over a 3-h period, it is possible to determine whether it will be a problem formulation using DWS. Studies into this technology should be continued on a wider range of emulsions with known instability mechanisms to further our understanding of using DWS as a vital emulsion instability detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Addressing Human Skin Ethnicity: Contribution of Tissue Engineering to the Development of Cosmetic Ingredients
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040098 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Recent publications describe various skin disorders in relation to phototypes and aging. The highest phototypes (III to VI) are more sensitive to acne, with the appearance of dark spots due to the inflammation induced by Cutibacterium acnes (previously Propionibacterium acnes). Dryness with [...] Read more.
Recent publications describe various skin disorders in relation to phototypes and aging. The highest phototypes (III to VI) are more sensitive to acne, with the appearance of dark spots due to the inflammation induced by Cutibacterium acnes (previously Propionibacterium acnes). Dryness with aging is due to a lower activity of specific enzymes involved in the maturation of lipids in the stratum corneum. To observe and understand these cutaneous issues, tissue engineering is a perfect tool. Since several years, pigmented epidermis with melanocytes derived from specific phototypes allow to develop in vitro models for biological investigations. In the present study, several models were developed to study various skin disorders associated with phototypes and aging. These models were also used to evaluate selected ingredients’ ability to decrease the negative effects of acne, inflammation, and cutaneous dryness. Hyperpigmentation was observed on our reconstructed pigmented epidermis after the application of C. acnes, and pollutant (PM10) application induced increased inflammatory cytokine release. Tissue engineering and molecular biology offer the capability to modify genetically cells to decrease the expression of targeted proteins. In our case, GCase was silenced to decrease the maturation of lipids and in turn modify the epidermal barrier function. These in vitro models assisted in the development of ethnic skin-focused cosmetic ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Detection of Raspberry Ketone after Percutaneous Absorption of Rhododendrol-Containing Cosmetics and Its Mechanism of Formation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040097 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism of rhododendrol (RD)-induced leukoderma. We investigated the skin permeability of RD in an aqueous solution and in different cosmetic formulations (lotion and emulsion) in an in vitro skin permeation study. The samples were analyzed using high-performance [...] Read more.
Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism of rhododendrol (RD)-induced leukoderma. We investigated the skin permeability of RD in an aqueous solution and in different cosmetic formulations (lotion and emulsion) in an in vitro skin permeation study. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and an unknown substance appeared on the spectrum. For identification, we analyzed various possible substances, such as raspberry ketone (RK) and rhododendrol quinone, using HPLC and then compared the detected absorption spectra and further verified the matched components using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The unknown substance was found to be RK. To clarify the mechanism of formation of RK, we conducted a 24-h skin permeation test on heat-treated skin. By quantifying the RK in the samples using HPLC, we observed that an enzyme in the skin seemed to be the cause of RK generation and that the components of the emulsion formulation could also be a cause. To investigate the enzyme, we reacted alcohol dehydrogenase with RD and observed that it was one of the converting enzymes. As RK has been reported to be a substance that causes leukoderma, the intraepidermal metabolism of RD to RK may be one of the mechanisms of susceptibility to leukoderma. Full article
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Article
New Antioxidant Ingredients from Brewery By-Products for Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040096 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of different types of handcrafted beers (Ego, Alter, Fiat Lux, Triplo Malto, Ubi, and Maior), as well as the starting materials (malts, hops, and yeast), the intermediate products, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of different types of handcrafted beers (Ego, Alter, Fiat Lux, Triplo Malto, Ubi, and Maior), as well as the starting materials (malts, hops, and yeast), the intermediate products, and the waste products (spent malts, hops, and yeast), in view of their use in innovative cosmetic formulations. Extractions from starting and spent samples were taken from water or 70° alcohol. The total phenol content (Folin Ciocalteau Essay) of all the brewing products depended on the specific product under investigation. The highest values were found in starting hops (ranging from approximately 93 to 155 mg GAE/g, according to the extraction solvent), intermediate ones in starting malt and starting yeast, and the lowest values in wort. The total phenol content in the final beers originates from the phenols that were extracted from the different ingredients, namely the starting malts, hops and yeast, but non-negligible values were still observed in spent products. The method used for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (DPPH), ferric-ion reducing antioxidant parameter (FRAP), and radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power (ABTS) strongly influenced the results. In general, the results reflected the trend observed for the total phenol content: that beers are progressively enriched by phenols originating from all the starting ingredients, and that spent products still possess non-negligible antioxidant activity. It is interesting to note that waste yeast frequently showed higher values than those of the starting material; it can be inferred that yeast is able to absorb phenols from the beer during brewing. By considering the interest in exploiting waste derived from processing foods, the biological activity of waste Alter brewery products has been evaluated on a cell culture of keratinocytes (spent products of malt, hop, and yeast). Preliminary in vitro assays in keratinocyte HaCaT cells were carried out to assess the potential bioactivity of spent extracts. Among the spent extracts, the spent hop and yeast extracts showed the ability to improve the mitochondrial activity and prevent oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, two features in skin ageing. In conclusion, this study offers evidence that waste from handcrafted beers can be an interesting source of phenols for the preparation of skin anti-aging cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Physicochemical Performance of Collagen Modified by Melissa officinalis Extract
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040095 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Collagen-based materials are widely used as adhesives in medicine and cosmetology. However, for several applications, their properties require modification. In this work, the influence of Melissa officinalis on the properties of collagen films was studied. Collagen was extracted from Silver Carp skin. Thin [...] Read more.
Collagen-based materials are widely used as adhesives in medicine and cosmetology. However, for several applications, their properties require modification. In this work, the influence of Melissa officinalis on the properties of collagen films was studied. Collagen was extracted from Silver Carp skin. Thin collagen films were prepared by solvent evaporation. The structure of films was researched using infrared spectroscopy. The surface properties of films were investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Mechanical properties were measured as well. Antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometric methods using DPPH free radicals, FRAP, and CUPRAC methods. Total phenolic compounds were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. It was found that the addition of Melissa officinalis modified the roughness of collagen films and their mechanical properties. Moreover, the obtained material has antioxidant properties. The parameters mentioned above are very important in potential applications of collagen films containing Melissa officinalis in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Biopolymers in Cosmetics)
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Article
Antiaging and Skin Irritation Potential of Four Main Indonesian Essential Oils
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040094 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Essential oils possess antiaging properties due to their antioxidant activity. This study aims to determine the antiaging activities of four main Indonesian essential oils and their irritation potential on the skin. The spot yeast and in vivo rat skin with UVB exposure methods [...] Read more.
Essential oils possess antiaging properties due to their antioxidant activity. This study aims to determine the antiaging activities of four main Indonesian essential oils and their irritation potential on the skin. The spot yeast and in vivo rat skin with UVB exposure methods were used to analyze the antiaging activity of essential oils on aging triggered by endogenous and exogenous factors, respectively. Meanwhile, patch tests and clinical evaluations were used for the skin irritation potential analysis. The antiaging activity results from the endogenous factor showed that the use of clove, patchouli, nutmeg, and citronella oils increased yeast viability at concentrations of 20, 40, 60, and 100 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, nutmeg, cloves, citronella, and patchouli oils decreased the wrinkle score on rat skin after UVB exposure (exogenous factor). The skin irritation potential results of patchouli, nutmeg, citronella, and clove oils were none (0), slightly (0.02), moderately (0.09), and very irritating (0.39), respectively. Full article
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Article
Three New Dexpanthenol-Containing Face Creams: Performance and Acceptability after Single and Repeated Applications in Subjects of Different Ethnicity with Dry and Sensitive Skin
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040093 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Three novel face creams containing dexpanthenol with different lipid contents were developed for dry skin sufferers: a day face cream (DFC), a day face cream with sun protection (DFC-SPF), and a night face cream (NFC). Three identically designed studies (N = 42–44 each) [...] Read more.
Three novel face creams containing dexpanthenol with different lipid contents were developed for dry skin sufferers: a day face cream (DFC), a day face cream with sun protection (DFC-SPF), and a night face cream (NFC). Three identically designed studies (N = 42–44 each) were conducted with healthy adults of three ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian) with dry/sensitive skin. Effects on stratum corneum (SC) hydration, SC lipid content, and skin elasticity were quantified by established noninvasive methods during the 4-week studies. After single and repeated once-daily applications of the face creams, facial hydration significantly increased from baseline. On day 28, the mean increments in skin hydration amounted to 27%, 26%, and 27% (p < 0.0001 each) for DFC, DFC-SPF, and NFC, respectively. Favorable effects of DFC, DFC-SPF, and NFC on facial moisturization were observed in all three ethnic groups. The enhancements in SC hydration were not paralleled by improvements in skin elasticity parameters but lipid analyses showed significant increases in SC cholesterol, SC free fatty acid, and/or SC ceramide levels. All three face creams were well tolerated and achieved a high product satisfaction and acceptability by study participants. Our findings support the once-daily use of the face creams in adults of different ethnicities with dry and sensitive skin. Full article
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Review
Genetic and Epigenetic Aspects of Skin Collagen Fiber Turnover and Functioning
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040092 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
One of the most important functions of the skin, i.e., protection from mechanical damage, is ensured by collagen fibers and their interaction with other elements in the extracellular matrix. Collagen fiber turnover is a complex multi-stage process. At each stage, a disruption may [...] Read more.
One of the most important functions of the skin, i.e., protection from mechanical damage, is ensured by collagen fibers and their interaction with other elements in the extracellular matrix. Collagen fiber turnover is a complex multi-stage process. At each stage, a disruption may occur, leading to a decrease in the mechanical properties of the connective tissue. Clinically, collagen formation disorders manifest themselves as increased flabbiness and looseness of the skin and as early signs of facial aging. In addition to the clinical picture, it is important for cosmetologists and dermatologists to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of collagenopathies. In our review, we summarized and systematized the available information concerning the role of genetic and epigenetic factors in skin collagen fiber turnover. Furthermore, we focused on the functions of different types of collagens present in the skin. Understanding the etiology of impaired collagen formation can allow doctors to prescribe pathogenetically based treatments, achieve the most effective results, and minimize adverse reactions. Full article
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