Special Issue "Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 May 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kalliopi Dodou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland SR1 3SD, UK
Interests: cosmetic formulation; quality control; skin patches; creams; hydrogels; quality control; stability; sensorial properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cosmetic products undergo nowadays rigorous Quality Control testing to ensure that they are safe and stable and that their claims are substantiated by scientifically robust data. Quality Control tests used in the pharmaceutical industry can be applicable also for cosmetic formulations. However, claim substantiation testing is unique to cosmetic products. To enable time- and cost-effective quality control testing, assessment methodologies constantly keep evolving.

This Special Issue calls for manuscripts that explore all stages of Quality Control testing for cosmetic products, i.e., (1) physicochemical stability testing; (2) microbial stability testing; (3) efficacy testing including objective/subjective claim substantiation testing and the evaluation of sensorial properties; (4) toxicological/safety testing with emphasis on current and evolving methodologies that replace animal testing.

Dr. Kalliopi Dodou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cosmetic product safety
  • stability
  • claim substantiation testing
  • non animal-testing methodologies

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue “Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics”
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040100 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Quality Control (QC) testing of Cosmetic personal care and fragrance products is a key part of the products’ launch to the market [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)

Research

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Article
A Novel Quality Control Method for the Determination of the Refractive Index of Oil-in-Water Creams and Its Correlation with Skin Hydration
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030074 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The sensory properties of cosmetic products can influence consumers’ choice. The accurate correlation of sensory properties, such as skin hydration, with the material properties of the formulation could be desirable. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate a new method for the in [...] Read more.
The sensory properties of cosmetic products can influence consumers’ choice. The accurate correlation of sensory properties, such as skin hydration, with the material properties of the formulation could be desirable. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate a new method for the in vitro measurement of the refractive indices (RIs) of turbid creams. The critical wavelength of each cream was obtained through direct measurement using a sun protection factor (SPF) meter; the wavelength value was then applied in the Sellmeier equation to determine the RI. The results obtained from the in vitro skin hydration measurement for each cream correlated with their RI values. This suggests that RI measurements could be a useful predictive tool for the ranking of creams in terms of their skin hydration effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Article
Quality Control of Vitamins A and E and Coenzyme Q10 in Commercial Anti-Ageing Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030061 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Vitamins A and E and coenzyme Q10 are common ingredients in anti-ageing cosmetic products. Within this study, we evaluated the quality of commercial cosmetics with vitamin A (35 products), vitamin E (49 products), and coenzyme Q10 (27 products) by using validated HPLC–UV methods. [...] Read more.
Vitamins A and E and coenzyme Q10 are common ingredients in anti-ageing cosmetic products. Within this study, we evaluated the quality of commercial cosmetics with vitamin A (35 products), vitamin E (49 products), and coenzyme Q10 (27 products) by using validated HPLC–UV methods. Vitamin A was determined as retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl propionate, β carotene, and hydroxypinacolone retinoate in concentrations ranging from 950 ng/g to 19 mg/g. Total vitamin A contents, expressed with retinol equivalents, ranged from 160 ng/g to 19 mg/g, and were above the maximum concentration recommended by the SCCS in six of the 35 tested cosmetics. The content-related quality control of 10 cosmetics with specified vitamin A content revealed significant deviations (between 0% and 400%) of the label claim. Vitamin E was determined as both tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate in concentrations between 8.5 µg/g and 16 mg/g. Coenzyme Q10 was determined as ubiquinone in 24 tested cosmetics, which labelled it, in concentrations between 4.2 µg/g and 100 µg/g. Labelling irregularities were observed in all three active compound groups, resulting in a significant share (42%) of improperly labelled cosmetic products. The results of this study reveal the need for stricter cosmetics regulation and highlight the importance of their quality control, especially by evaluating the contents of the active compounds, in their efficacy and safety assurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Article
Impact of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in the Expression of Type I Collagen in the Dermis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020046 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the dominant environmental determinant of all major forms of skin cancer, and the main cause of prematurely aged skin that is referred to as photoaging. Collagen type I (COL I) is expressed differently along with the dermis between healthy [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the dominant environmental determinant of all major forms of skin cancer, and the main cause of prematurely aged skin that is referred to as photoaging. Collagen type I (COL I) is expressed differently along with the dermis between healthy and pathological skin tissues. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of solar radiation in the dermis and assess the impact of solar radiation to COL I. The hematoxylin and eosin staining protocol was performed in tissue paraffin blocks and then they were stained immunohistochemically with the rabbit monoclonal anti-COL I antibody. A total of 270 slides were studied with an Olympus BX 41 microscope; we scored positively the expression of COL I in dermis and statistically analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics. Based on our results, we observed that solar elastosis changes the structure of the skin’s collagen. In healthy tissues, COL I had a uniform expression along with the dermis. In tissues with aging, COL I expression was weaker and lost homogeneity. In pathological tissues (non-melanoma skin cancers, NMSCs), precancerous lesions, and benign skin lesions), the expression of COL I was observed to be almost weaker than tissues with aging in all body parts and much weaker below the lesions. The most severe solar elastosis was observed in the extremities. The degree of severity of the solar elastosis in relation to age did not appear to be completely affected. Solar radiation divides the collagen more rapidly than normal biological aging and solar elastosis was observed into the skin tissues with photoaging, which replaces the collagen fibers of the skin. These results confirm previous studies, which have shown that skin COL I decreases during aging, more in photoaging and even more in skin cancers. We conclude that skin COL I expression is reduced as a result of ultraviolet radiation and leading to negative impacts on the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Review

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Review
Safety Testing of Cosmetic Products: Overview of Established Methods and New Approach Methodologies (NAMs)
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020050 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Cosmetic products need to have a proven efficacy combined with a comprehensive toxicological assessment. Before the current Cosmetic regulation N°1223/2009, the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive has banned animal testing for cosmetic products and for cosmetic ingredients in 2004 and 2009, [...] Read more.
Cosmetic products need to have a proven efficacy combined with a comprehensive toxicological assessment. Before the current Cosmetic regulation N°1223/2009, the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive has banned animal testing for cosmetic products and for cosmetic ingredients in 2004 and 2009, respectively. An increasing number of alternatives to animal testing has been developed and validated for safety and efficacy testing of cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. For example, 2D cell culture models derived from human skin can be used to evaluate anti-inflammatory properties, or to predict skin sensitization potential; 3D human skin equivalent models are used to evaluate skin irritation potential; and excised human skin is used as the gold standard for the evaluation of dermal absorption. The aim of this manuscript is to give an overview of the main in vitro and ex vivo alternative models used in the safety testing of cosmetic products with a focus on regulatory requirements, genotoxicity potential, skin sensitization potential, skin and eye irritation, endocrine properties, and dermal absorption. Advantages and limitations of each model in safety testing of cosmetic products are discussed and novel technologies capable of addressing these limitations are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Review
Safety of Tattoos and Permanent Make up (PMU) Colorants
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020047 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
The art of tattooing is a popular decorative approach for body decoration and has a corrective value for the face. The tattooing procedure is characterized by placing exogenous pigments into the dermis with a number of needles. The process of creating traditional and [...] Read more.
The art of tattooing is a popular decorative approach for body decoration and has a corrective value for the face. The tattooing procedure is characterized by placing exogenous pigments into the dermis with a number of needles. The process of creating traditional and cosmetic tattoos is the same. Colorants are deposited in the dermis by piercing the skin with needles of specific shape and thickness, which are moistened with the colorant. Colorants (pigments or dyes) most of the time include impurities which may cause adverse reactions. It is commonly known that tattoo inks remain in the skin for lifetime. It is also a fact that the chemicals that are used in permanent makeup (PMU) colorants may stay in the body for a long time so there is a significant long-term risk for harmful ingredients being placed in the body. Tattoo and PMU colorants contain various substances and their main ingredients and decomposition components may cause health risks and unwanted side effects to skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Other

Technical Note
Designing a Suitable Stability Protocol in the Face of a Changing Retail Landscape
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030064 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Many recommended stability practices have been unchanged for decades and yet the retail landscape has considerably evolved during that time. First, as a result of the rise of social media and second in the wake of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This article reviews [...] Read more.
Many recommended stability practices have been unchanged for decades and yet the retail landscape has considerably evolved during that time. First, as a result of the rise of social media and second in the wake of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This article reviews the published guidelines available to the cosmetic scientist when developing a suitable stability protocol and considers them in the context of a changing retail landscape. It sets the context with a background to stability testing and a summary of the relevant regulations across different territories. It outlines the current recommended guidelines for stability testing as stated in publications, including the International Federation of the Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) monograph and Cosmetics Europe. Modern advances in stability testing are also considered including early stability prediction techniques. The article concludes that accelerated stability testing is not a precise science, rather a prediction of shelf life. Scientists must consider the various modes of transport, sizes of shipments and regulation in the country of destination as well as the new and emerging ways of consumer production interaction when developing a suitable stability protocol for their formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
Perspective
Fractions of Concern: Challenges and Strategies for the Safety Assessment of Biological Matter in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020034 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Cosmetic ingredients based on more or less refined biological matter (plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) are gaining popularity. Advances in green chemistry and biotechnology are supporting this general trend further. Following numerous bans on the use of newly generated animal testing data in cosmetic [...] Read more.
Cosmetic ingredients based on more or less refined biological matter (plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) are gaining popularity. Advances in green chemistry and biotechnology are supporting this general trend further. Following numerous bans on the use of newly generated animal testing data in cosmetic safety assessments, and the worldwide demand for “cruelty-free” products, many alternative methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of ingredients. Whilst great strides have been, and continue to be, made, the area of systemic toxicity is one where international harmonisation and regulatory acceptance is still evolving. A strategy for the fractional assessment of biological matter is suggested to make approaches, such as threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) methodology, fit for purpose. Within this strategy, analytical data are used to generate compound classes which are quantified and assessed separately. Whilst this strategy opens new windows for assessing the safety of complex mixtures with a lack of toxicological data, it also raises awareness of the increasing complexity of cosmetic formulations and the general problem of additivity/synergy being rarely addressed. Extremely complex mixtures are and will be a growing challenge for safety assessors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Evolving Practices in the Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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